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Full text of "The Detroit Light Guard : a complete record of this organization from its foundation to the present day : with full account of riot and complimentary duty, and the campaigns in the Civil and Spanish-American wars : a complete roster of members at the time of muster-out of the United States service, as well as a roster of all classes of members"

Gc ^' 

M58c^ 
1851856 



GENEALQ^Y v^OLLECTION 



ALLENCqUNTY 



PUBLIC UBRARY 



3 1833 01082 4677 



THE 



Detroit Light Guard 



A COMPLETE RECORD 

OF THIS ORGANIZATION FROM ITS FOUNDATION 

TO THE PRESENT DAY 



Walter F. Clowes 



WITH FULL ACCOUNT OF RIOT AND COMPLIMENTARY DUTY, 

AND THE CAMPAIGNS IN THE CIVIL AND 

SPANISH-AMERICAN WARS 



A COMPLETE ROSTER OF MEMBERS AT THE TIME OF MUSTER- 
OUT OF THE UNITED STATES SERVICE, AS WELL AS 
A ROSTER OF ALL CLASSES OF MEMBERS 



detroit, mich. 

John F. Eby & Company 

65-69 congress w. 

1900 




Copyright, 1900, 

by 

The Detroit Light Guard 



18518S6 



CONTENTS 



General History, ...... 17 

The Veteran Corps, ------ 363 

The Ladies' Aid Corps— The Ladies' Association, - - 435 

The Armory, ..--.-- 46t 

General Alpheus S. Williams, . . . . 490 

Colonel Charles M. Lum, - - - - - 495 

General Henry M. Duffield, - - - - 500 

Colonel Charles W. Harrah, - - - - - 5i4 

Colonel William G. Latimer, - - - - 521 

Copy of Muster-Out Rolls and Miscellaneous Records, - 529 



PBEFAOE. 

The motives for laying open the pages of the Detroit 
Light Guard's history are many, and if the reader comes to 
understand them as their expression unfolds here and there, 
then is the work worth while. 

Much has been expected of an organization of such 
august years and personnel, and it is the confidence of the 
historian that the record here set forth will find the non- 
acquainted astonished at the virility and persistence in the 
performance of duty which has characterized the Detroit 
Light Guard. 

In order that this account might be thoroughly compre- 
hensive, recourse has been had to every scrap of data to be 
laid hold of, and months were spent in preparation before 
the first word was set down, but despite the care bestowed 
upon the task, it cannot be claimed that every event has 
been caught in the drag-net of indefatigable research, but 
it is urged that the missing features may find duplication 
in the account of some other event of a similar character, 
but should the reader find errors of omission and commis- 
sion, the writer will be compelled to seek refuge behind the 
very competent gentlemen before whom the manuscript 
passed in review before reaching the type-setters. There is 
a long array of these gentlemen, and it was only upon their 
endorsement of the first portion of the manuscript that the 
writer completed the work with courage and confidence. 

General H. M. Dufiield, Col. Chas. W. Harrah, Hon. 
John B. Whelan, and Dr. Wm. M. Harvey constituted the 



History Committee as appointed by the Board of Directors 
in July, 1899, and the manuscript bears their acquaintance. 

The Veteran Corps constitutes a most important part in 
the make uj) of the organization, and being, as the name 
indicates, an association of those who filled the active ranks 
during the earlier period, and being now very active in 
their godfathership to their younger successors in the 
Active Corps, it was but natural to invoke its attention. A 
committee was at once appointed by Maj. R. W. Jackliu, 
President of the Corps. Messrs. Cash P. Taylor, H. Fred 
Eberts and Major Jacklin being well versed in the earlier 
lore, with Messers. Chas. C. Kellogg and R. E. Mason 
bridging, like the first named committee, the middle period, 
have, by their persistent attention, enabled the author to 
rewi'ite and elaborate where it was necessary in order to 
keep up to the standard set at the start. 

And lastly, the account of the late tour of duty of the 
Active Corps in the United States volunteer service has 
been submitted to officers and "men" of that Corps for 
censorship. 

The writer has made use of Robertson's "Michigan in 
the (Civil) War" and the last history of the Detroit Light 
Guard, published in 1896, and the serial article upon the 
militia of Michigan, written by Capt. Chas. B. Hall, 19th 
U. S. I. and published in "Outing" magazine durrag 
1894, for information during the early and middle periods, 
and for the later date, "Messages and Papers of the Presi- 
dents," "Ellis' History of the United States," and several 
volumes upon the Spanish- American War, together with 
copies of regimental orders, and some fragments of corre- 
spondence carried on between camp and home, have well 
served the author, and those two able, and self-sacrificing 
newspaper correspondents, Mr. Harry C. Lear and Mr. Den- 
nis Donahue, who followed, respectively, the Thirty-first 



and the Thirty-third to Cuba, did their work so well as to 
make some of these pages very much indebted to them in 
the author's search for information. 

Mr. Alma Lake, a sergeant in L Company, 31st M. V. I., 
kept a faithfully written diary, and although the chirog- 
raphy at times was almost indecipherable on account of the 
conditions under which the entries were made, yet much 
of the facts and details in the account of the service of 
the three companies in the 31st M. V. I., is indebted to Mr. 
Lake's journal. In preparing the manuscript of Company 
M, a portion of a diary kept by Mr. Frederick Goldstone in 
that company, and verbal information received from Capt. 
"Waldo, who was then first lieutenant, have been of positive 
assistance to the author in the matter of details. 

At the outset, Mr. Taylor, then Vice-President, was 
requested by the President and committee to assist the 
writer and follow him in his work, and the first move of 
Mr. Taylor was to place before the author issues of the local 
newspapers which he had saved from April, 1898, to 
August, 1899, and these — about fifteen hundred in all — 
the autlior spent much time in reading through and clip- 
ping and arranging for reference, and the work is further 
indebted to Mr. Taylor for the unearthing of scraps of data 
from time to time covering all periods. 

It was decided at the outset to have only four portraits 
appear, namely, Gen. A. S. Williams and Col. Lum, repre- 
senting the earlier period of active service, and Gen. Duf- 
field and Maj. Harrah (now colonel) being in later days, 
representatives of the organization equivalent to the former. 
This was thought best, as it would entail a great deal of 
expense and too much space to reproduce the portraits of 
all those who, by right of their virtues and prominent mem- 
bership, were entitled to such representation. 

The illustrations are the best that could be produced, as 



a great deal of the copy was more or less poor, owing to the 
inadequate facilities for the taking care of camera plates 
while in the service, and it is remarkable to find the good 
results that were obtained by some of the members who took 
their cameras with them, because of the irregularities of 
camp life, and of these pictures, the best have been selected 
and reproduced. 

The arrangement of the reading matter provides a general 
history beginning with the year of 1836 and continued up 
to the date of going to press, and while a narrative style has 
been used, yet it has not interf erred with the strong regard 
for facts, which have cost much time in their collection and 
arrangement. After the last page of this general history 
appears the history of the Veteran Corps, and as there are 
numerous events of the past of equal interest to both the 
Active and Veteran Corps, but for which the latter was 
largely responsible, the members of the former are invited 
at different places to refer to the history of the Veteran 
Corps, and as, of course, the veterans have been interested 
in all the achievements of the actives, the interest of both 
branches of membership are thus interwoven, and it cannot 
be doubted that the effect of the volume will be a benefit to 
the organization in advertising to each other, the mutual 
fellowship of all members, regardless of age. Then there 
is a separate account of the armory, setting forth the story 
of its conception and growth into maturity. Following this 
is a complete account of the Ladies' Association, the manu- 
script of which has been approved by its members before 
entering into the volume. Sketches of the military careers 
of Gen. A. S. Williams, Col. Chas. M. Lum, Gen. H. M. 
Duffield, Col. Chas. W. Harrah and Col. Wm. G. Latimer 
will complete the text, and the last pages will contain a copy 
of the muster rolls of the four companies in the late war 



aud various other tabulated information of direct interest 
to all members alike. 

The vast and heterogeneous collection of references men- 
tioned, has often caused the author much confusion in try- 
ing to preserve a universal touch among them, and frequent 
inconsistencies have caused much perplexity at times, but 
the reader is begged to remember the author's spirit, should 
the deed merit criticism. 

Detroit, Mich., June, 1900. 

WALTER F. CLOWES. 



INTRODUCTORY. 

"It is a pleasant and gracious thing for a family to recite 
among themselves the good deeds done by one or more of 
their number. 

"It is a pleasant and profitable thing for a to^vn or city 
to preserve in some enduring form the patriotic achieve- 
ments of its sons. 

"It becomes doubly so when those achievements transcend 
anything contemplated by obligations assumed, or contract 
implied, and had their impulse in the highest emotions of 
the human heart. 

"Such is the animus of the present volume in relating 
the history of a simple American Volunteer Military Com- 
pany, which began its career when the political sky was 
clear, and there was no promise of clouds, which rose in 
time of trouble with the public demand for aid — accepted 
the baptism of fire and gave its blood that the country might 
live. 

""What it did — what it suffered — how it contributed to 
the efficiency of other troops, by its example, its influence, 
and the education in its ranks of men who served elsewhere, 
can be told only in part. 

"How it responded to the President's call after the firing 
on Sumter — how it served through the war for the Union 
— how it came back with tattered banners and shattered 
staves and few of the names on its roster first enrolled, is 
history, but, as yet unwritten history. 

"That default it is the purpose of these pages to repair. 

^'The Detroit Light Guard was organized at a time when 



militaiy spirit was latent among the people. The Brady 
Guards, named after the real hero of Lundy's Lane, had 
died from indifference. The Grayson Guai-ds, attracted 
and held together by the genial spirit of the man whose 
name it bore, had disbanded. 



"It was the good character of the men and officers of the 
Light Guard that obtained for them any consideration on 
their first appearance. From that time to the crisis in its 
history it gained in public favor, and when that crisis came 
it mounted to a plane of action which entitled it with others 
of like self-devotion to the soubriquet of 'Saviors of the 
State.' 

"The following chapters Avill tell of its dramatic enroll- 
ment as United States troops in 1861, of its departure to the 
front, of its reception by the President of the United States, 
of its leading the first advance into hostile territory, of its 
conduct in battle, of its home-coming, of important events 
■with which it has since been connected, of its composite life 
of the present, where the veterans sit in council, and the 
active corps, renewed from year to year, is as loyal, as 
enthusiastic, as ready for action, as its predecessor of forty 
years ago." 

Signed, 
THOMAS WITHEEELL PALMEE, 

3rd Corporal Veteran Corps. 

So wrote the honored citizen of Detroit, known to his 
old comrades-in-arms as "Tom." The words were written 
to grace the volume of the Detroit Light Guard's History 
in 1896, and the author, finding that the paragraphs are the 
property of the organization by right of gift and the law, 
rejoices in the license so created to duplicate their use in 
this volume, and proceeds with a lighter heart to the task 

10 



of splicing to the former, the remarks made necessary by 
the subsequent period. 

Two years ago, and for tlie first time in our history as a 
nation, we entered upon an international war which drew 
our troops more than half around the world. Our flag has 
trailed over the taff-rail of our troop ships across the Med- 
iterranean and through the Suez Canal, and the French and 
Germans have forgotten to call us a nation of shopkeepers, 
because they saw us go to war, they saw us fight, and they 
saw us return in a whirlwind of victory, and this is the 
witchcraft we have used — Patriotism. Somehow I feel this 
very powerful force in human nature is of peculiar strength 
with Americans when an exhibition of its fullest potency 
is called for, for it contains an ingredient or special vital- 
izing element which has never been exhibited in an equal 
degree by any nation, not even excepting Great Britain, 
and that element, I label Intelligent Self-reliance, and 
that my claim and analysis are correct can be proven, per- 
haps best, by history. Old Greece dead for centuries, and 
new Greece barely saved from the Turk by a concert of 
powers, exhibit the fruit of a patriots' war. No country 
ever nourished a more noble patriotism than that which 
coursed through the arteries of Poland's heroic warriors, 
but the partition followed the opening of those arteries. 
Spain's rescue from the grasp of oSTapoleon, and France's 
armies chased behind the gates of her metropolis only to 
hand the Prussians much that hurt her pride and wealth, 
are but further examples of an impotent patriotism. Con- 
trast these pictures with that of our continentals at Valley 
Forge and of Washington's struggle to maintain the hand- 
ful of long unpaid patriot soldiers until he could wring 
through his strategy a crushing victory at Yorktown from 
the most successful aggressive nation of the time: true, 
assistance came from France, but American diplomacy 
arranged it, and Yankee shrewdness drove the bargain. 



St. Clair, Wayne and all the other veterans pushed the 
patriots' war irresistibly ever westward against hostiles, 
and established bases at the posts thej compelled the Brit- 
ish to surrender. England drew her sword against us once 
afterwards, but it soon went back into the scabbard. Wit- 
ness the expedition across the virgin southwest and in- 
vasion of the old settled country of fierce Mexico, and 
wonder at the successful virility of American patriotism. 
The sad tale of those years when Americans fought Amer- 
icans, the record of which, for active campaigning and 
bloody battles, has never been matched by any civil war 
in the world's history, is to be judged from the same point 
of view, for the manners and customs of old England 
existed, to some extent, below the Mason and Dixon line, 
while above it was the more energy and shrewdness of a 
new race of Anglo-Saxons developed to a high degree of 
self-reliance by the manner in which it had been forced 
to establish itself in an unexplored territory, peopled by 
imfriendly natives. And lastly, witness the results of the 
patriots' war in South Africa. 

Yet this brilliant list of achievements had not served 
to show the Continental Powers that our military system 
was good for anything but sneers, and they jeered at the 
mention of a volunteer army. In most European coun- 
tries, budding manhood is stunted by arbitrary impress- 
ment into military service — ^patriotism cannot grow with 
such culture. There the great military machines depend 
on each unit, while in America, each unit is a machine run 
by intelligent self-reliance. The foreign machines cost 
great sums of money, while in America, the minimum 
expense of military maintenance is secured. Military 
critics hold that annual mobilization and manouvres by 
the entire army is a necessity, yet America has proved the 
fallacy of the contention. 

Our fighting population is conservatively estimated to 
12 



be ten million, and the old statement still stands, despite 
efforts of critics even at home to tear it down, that the 
nominal standing army is a nucleus for the I^ational 
Guard, which in turn can be made to quickly assimilate 
large numbers of raw recruits. This volume \yi\l under- 
take to record the recent successful demonstration of this 
plan. 

Just as the single company of the Light Guard flung it- 
self forward at the first call of the President in April, 1861, 
so will the reader learn how in the same month, thirty- 
seven years later, the same honorable name was lifted 
and borne forward at the President's call, for the affairs 
of the nation are never so broad, but what the units must 
be depended upon to weave the crown of palm leaves. 

In following the account herein contained, the reader 
must be transfigured into the earnest, warm-hearted 
patriot who, in that memorable period following the loss 
of a proud ship and gallant crew, lived with the latest 
edition of a newspaper in one hand regardless of the occu- 
pation of the other. Then will the reader live over the 
days of the volunteer camp at Island Lake; there will come 
to mind the generosity of the citizens who organized to 
shoulder the home responsibilities of the volunteers; again 
Avill be felt the great engulfing wave of patriotism that 
washed out Mason and Dixon's line; it will be recalled 
how, after grumbling over a lack of war news for several 
days, a responsive sentiment greeted the announcement 
in the newspapers that, because of the wise wishes of the 
government, certain intelligence had been withheld from 
publication for the "past few days." 

The reader will make a closer acquaintance of the early 
camp life when the soldiers of the new army struggled 
with the difficulties of their transformation; the strict 
discipline, the unusual diet, and the toilsome work of drill- 

13 



ing that ruthlessly destroyed all illusions previously held 
by them. 

There is herein rehearsed the career of the volunteers 
as typified by the members of the four Light Guard com- 
paniesj one at Santiago in the Fifth Army Corps, and three 
that brought fame to Michigan manhood at southern posts; 
the former welcomed back from the christening of "vet- 
erans" by the fire of the enemy and the deadly fever germs; 
the latter steadfastly holding their positions in the great 
reserve army, and depended upon to preserve the nation's 
dignity in Cuban garrisons, until they returned with a 
year's bronze and, by the President's proclamation, made 
to share in the glory of the early returning heroes. 

The convulsive aftermath of complaints by many civil- 
ians and some of the army, unreasonably charging the 
President and all in authority with gross misconduct, need 
not be written of, for the falsity of it all was long ago estab- 
lished, yet there will be found, perhaps, a new knowledge 
of the capable work of our great war President, from his 
early marvelous diplomatic activity, through the masterly 
handling of the climax, to the day upon which he went 
to the great detention camp on Long Island and paused 
not, until he had stood before every sick soldier, even to 
the last cot in the "danger ward" where his party had not 
dared to follow. General Alger, selected as a mark by 
irresponsible critics, yet quietly, and with marked sagacity, 
steadfastly pursuing his course of duty, only to leave his 
trying post when he felt his responsibilities were fully dis- 
charged, is shown to the reader in a truer light, as the 
author has endeavored to present several situations indicat- 
ing the character of the man and official. Maj. Geo. H. 
Hopkins, special friend of the Light Guard, personal aide 
to the Secretary of War, busy day and night, far and near, 
gathering intelligence by personal contact with conditions 

U 



that his chief might know just what problems needed solv- 
ing, is introduced in that sphere of activity. The reader will 
also learn how utterly false were the criticisms made re- 
garding the performance of Michigan's brigadier-general, 
Henry M. Duffield, in the Santiago campaign, and why he 
is so staunchly honored. And swelling to the broad lines 
of the text, it is the desire of the Light Guard to soimd a 
note of praise in honor of the man from Michigan whom 
the President relied upon for the work of transportation by 
sea, Col. F. J. Hecker, who with conscientious regard for 
his duties, daily becoming manifold, labored also in Cuba 
as well as in the nation's capitol. Suffice it that the whirl- 
wind of victory w^as guided ere the fever weakened the 
fighting forces; that the soldiers did what the inspector- 
general said the book claimed could not be done; that the 
brief campaign accomplished a magnitude of success never 
before recorded in the martial history of the world. A 
London newspaper eulogized the volunteers from Michi- 
gan; the British military attache startled his war office by 
the contents of his report; the German military repre- 
sentative declared in the hearing of Maj. Latimer of the 
Thirty-fourth Michigan, that he felt his report would be 
disbelieved by his superiors in Berlin, and then compare 
the mortality record of the first year of this, and the Civil 
War, and you will find that with a mean strength of 211,- 
350 in the former, and 229,452 in the latter, the death 
ratio per one thousand from disease was 1.86 per month 
in the former, and 3.06 in the latter. Also remember that, 
after the hell of wai-, and the hullabaloo in its wake, vol- 
unteer regiments were easily recruited for service in the 
Philippines, and with them went officers and men from 
the Light Guard companies. 

The reader will be introduced to facts indicating the 
Detroit Light Guard to be in the enjoyment of the honor 

15 



of having maintained a longevity equaled by but few mili- 
tary organizations in the country. It came into existence 
with the statehood of Michigan as the Brady Guard, dis- 
banding to assume the name of Grayson Guard, and later 
changing to Detroit Light Guard. The chain is unbroken, 
for of those whose names appear upon the now faded parch- 
ment of charter members of the first organization, and 
upon the rolls of the succeeding organizations, there are 
six breathing the breath of this world and borne on rolls 
of the Veteran Corps: George Doty, Wm. H. Goodnow, 
Henry R. Mizner, John Patton, Henry C. Penney and 
James E. Pittman. 

The reader will not be confronted with the name of the 
Light Guard in the text of each page, for such advertise- 
ment is unnecessary, and would be out of place in the 
plain story told of the achievements of the organization, 
and the deeds of those members who, in memory and pres- 
ence, the "Tigers" delight to honor. 



16 



CHAPTEK I. 

Brady Guard— Grayson Light Guard — Organization of the Detroit 
Light Guard, and its career previous to 1861. 

In writing the history of the Detroit Light Guard, it is 
necessary to begin with the date of April 13th, 1836, when 
the Brady Guard was organized, for the Light Guard is the 
direct successor of both the Brady Guard and the Grayson 
Light Guard, which latter was organized in June, 1850. 
These successions amounted to practically no more than 
simply a change in title and re-organization, for many of 
the names of members of the first organization were borne 
upon the first rolls of the Detroit Light Guard, and to this 
day there even yet remains on the rolls of the Veteran Corps, 
the names of some of those men who helped to organize the 
Brady Guard and bring it into fame. 

Most people who have read the history of their country, 
and particularly of their state, are acquainted with the man- 
ner in which military aft'airs were conducted during the 
earlier times, and the fact that Michigan, being a frontier 
state, was frequently the scene of various conflicts. 

The first colonies were established by France, and there 
was a continual warfare kept up by the Indians; then fin- 
ally, in 1760, the English successfully contended with the 
French and the British flag was raised over the fort at 
Detroit, where it remained for thirty-six years, even though 
the American colonists in the eastern states had successfully 
prosecuted their war for independence, but finally, in 1796, 
the continental forces, always on the move, succeeded in 
making Michigan an American possession. 

Of course, every state, whether small or large, and 

17 



whether federal or sovereign, must have a strong military 
arm to maintain its integrity, either as regards its boundary 
lines, or the execution of its laws within them. 

Michigan made what provision in that direction it was 
possible with the meager facilities and materials at hand; 
however, it is chronicled that on May 11th, 1803, the First 
Eegiment of Wayne County paraded in the streets of 
Detroit, and although the occasion for parade, or strength 
of the regiment, is not recorded, yet it is the first indication 
of an effort at organization. 

The various subsequent laws enacted for the government 
of the militia, and the numerous other features which 
would make interesting reading to a military man are passed 
over because of the volume of what is to follow, and the limi- 
tation of space. 

On April 2nd, 1836, a number of young men of the City 
of Detroit held a meeting for the purpose of forming a 
volunteer independent military company. With the assist- 
ance of Col. John Winder, the organization was success- 
fully perfected, and with a desire to have a prominent title, 
the organization received permission from Ma j. -Gen. Hugh 
Brady, U. S. A., to use his name. 

Col. Isaac S. Eowland was elected captain ; Col. Marshal 
I. Bacon, first lieutenant; Mr. James H. Mullett, second 
lieutenant ; and Col. Geo. B. Martin, third lieutenant, and 
iipon the roll of non-commissioned officers, the word 
"esquire" appears after three of the names, and the third 
sergeant bore the title of major. It was resolved that "the 
company shall drill regularly at 5 a. m. and 5 p. m. on 
Mondays and Fridays in each and every week until other- 
wise ordered." In selecting a uniform and in various mat- 
ters from time to time, the United States army officers at 
the fort were consulted, and the first uniform — ^which was 
very elaborate — bore some similarity to the regular army 

18 



dress. At a meeting in November, A. S. Williams — after- 
wards general — was elected to membership. 

The requirements in the matter of discipline were backed 
up by a list of rather heavy fines. For instance, the fine 
for being absent from parade was three dollars, and the 
same amount was the penalty for "leaving ranks on public 
parade without permission." 

At that time the population of Detroit was not quite 
7,000, so that the organization has practically grown up 
with the City of Detroit. 

Michigan became a state in 1837, immediately after the 
bloodless "Toledo War," and January, 1838, found the 
militia under the state organization in active operations 
connected with the "Patriot War." 

The company was constantly on duty during all the 
troubles of the period. It was twice mustered into service 
for the purpose of assisting in enforcing President Van 
Buren's neutrality proclamation during the so-called 
"Patriot AVar" in Canada; the first under date of N"ovem- 
ber 22nd, 1838, for three months, and re-enlistment under 
date of March 1st, 1839, for an additional three months. 
During the period of service the company performed duty 
of a very arduous nature, and although the duty consisted 
mostly of patroling along the frontier between Lakes Huron 
and Erie, it was often on foot and in most vigorous winter 
weather. When the company was mustered out of the 
United States service, it was assembled on the Campus 
Martius where the Russell House now stands, and formed 
in a hollow square around Maj.-Gen. Scott, commander of 
the United States troops, who, in the name of the president, 
publicly thanked the members for the efiicient and soldierly 
manner in which they had performed very delicate ser- 
vices in preserving the neutrality between the United States 
and Great Britain, and further stated that the members of 

19 



the company deserved "the thanks of the United States gov- 
ernment and the entire people of the country." Their dis- 
cipline and efficiency was highly commented upon by Brig.- 
Gen. Brady in general orders, in which he also extended 
thanks for their service. 

It is a matter of history that on the 22nd of February, 
1837, Stevens T. Mason, first governor of the state, pre- 
sented to the Brady Guard a flag bearing on one side a repre- 
sentation of the seal of the state, with the figures of a Brady 
Guardsman and lady, and on the reverse side his own por- 
trait. The flag is now in the possession of the state, and it is 
declared to be the first flag bearing the state coat of arms, 
and carried by the first uniformed company of militia in the 
state. 

When war mth Mexico finally began in 1846, none of the 
state troops enlisted as a body, but instead, members volun- 
teered as individuals according to their inclinations, and it is 
very likely that this fact was responsible for the disband- 
ment of the organization in 1849, for many of the members 
accepted commissions in the Michigan regiments formed for 
the service in this war, among whom were most of the lead- 
ing spirits. Their own commander, Alpheus S. Williams' 
was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the First MicK. 
Vols., together with James E. Pittman, commissioned sec- 
ond lieutenant Company D, and also regimental adjutant; 
Horace S. Roberts second lieutenant of the same company, 
and.Wm. L. Whipple first lieutenant Company H, all of 
whom were later signers of the original roll of the Detroit 
Light Guard. This regiment was mustered into service in 
October, 1847, and accompanied the United States Volun- 
teer army into Mexico at Vera Cruz, and from there nine 
companies advanced as far as Cordova, which they gar- 
risoned for several months, finally being returned and mus- 
tered out in Detroit on July 23rd, 1848. 



Meanwhile, in June, 1847, the Brady Guard, under that 
name, enlisted and was mustered into the service of the 
United States for the purpose of occupying fortified posts 
at several points in the state left vacant by the regulars 
which had been sent forward into the Mexican campaign. 
The officers were: Morgan L. Gage, captain; Alexander K. 
Howard, first lieutenant; Wm. F. Chittenden, second lieu- 
tenant, and Ara W. Sprague, second lieutenant. 

After the Mexican War was over, and the special services 
of the Brady Guard were dispensed with, there was a gen- 
eral dying out of militarism, such as always comes as the 
aftermath of a period of active service, which holds the 
interest of the men only as long as it is a conspicuous and 
exciting service, and it was to this situation that the demise 
of the Brady Guard is chargeable. Its last muster took place 
at the time of the burial of the remains of Gen. Hugh 
Brady. The good old soldier and patriot had met with an 
accident on April 10th, 1851, and eight days later the city 
was still in mourning, with every place of business closed 
as it was the day of the funeral. He had a long record in 
the regular service, and accordingly the funeral was thor- 
oughly military in its character. The military escort was 
commanded by Col. Whistler, of the Fourth TJ. S. Infantry, 
then stationed at Fort Wayne, and it might be noted in pass- 
ing that Col. Whistler's adjutant on duty at this time was 
the young Lieut. Ulysses S. Grant, who, some twelve years 
later, became the chief military commander of the United 
States forces, and later on President. 

The Grayson Guard, which was a newly organized com- 
pany of young military enthusiasts appeared in line and 
were followed by the City Guard and the Scott Guard. 
Forty men who had been members of the company which 
had borne the honored name of the dead soldier, followed 
the funeral car, and it seemed a fitting sequel that the one 

21 



having departed from this earth, the others should make 
this a time for the formal disbandment of the old company, 
but there were many of those who were yet more or less 
enthusiastic about military affairs, and they joined the 
Grayson Guard, which was organized in 1850, and com- 
manded by Col. John B. Grayson, U. S. A., who was sta- 
tioned in Detroit at that time. 

During the period of the Grayson Light Guard's exist- 
ence, no occasion arose to require their services for public 
benefit. The roster of the company is here given, and it 
may be seen that some of the soldiers of that time are now to 
be met with as grizzled old veterans. 

JOHN B. GRAYSON, Captain. 

OFFICERS. 
A. K. HOWARD, First Lieutenant. 
WM. D. WILKINS, Second Lieutenant. 
JOHN D. FAIRBANKS, Third Lieutenant. 
JOHN ROBERTSON, Orderly Sergeant. 
J. W. SUTTON, Second Sergeant. 
GEORGE DAVIE, Third Sergeant. 
H. R. MIZNER, Fourth Sergeant. 
JOHN B. PALMER, First Corporal. 
J. C. LADUE, Second Corporal. 
S. J. MATHER, Third Corporal. 
V. W. BULLOCK, Fourth Corporal. 
J. W. SUTTON, Armorer. 
CHAS. E. WHILDEN, Secretary and Treasurer. 



PRIVATES. 



J. J. ARMSTRONG, 

C. T. BERKEY, 
WILLIAM BOND, 

D. C. BURLINGAME, 
A. G. BISSELL, 

M. W. CAMPIN, 
W. R. CANDLER, 



L. C. FORSYTH, 
W. H. HOPPER, 
M. P. HUTCHINS, 
E. R. KEARSLEY, 
J. T. LADUE, 
J. L. LANGLEY, 
J. E. MARTIN, 



PRIVATE8- 
A. J. CONNER, 
A. H. CROSBY, 
JOHN COATS, 
J. L. CHIPMAN, 
JOHN COOK, 
WILLIAM COWAN, 
GEORGE DOTY, 
W. C. DUNCAN, 
C. L. DIBBLE, 
J. E. EAGLE, 
R. W. BAIRD, 



(Continued.) 

T. McCarthy, 

CHARLES MELLON, 

P. ORB, 

J. E. PITTMAN, 

S. P. PURDY, 

H. S. ROBERTS, 

JAMES SATCHELL, 

RICHARD STARKEY, 

ROBERT STOCKDALE, 

L. S. TIFFANY, 

J. P. WILLIAMS, 



J. B. WITHERELL. 



In 1855, and for some reason of which no record can be 
found, the Grayson Light Guard passed out of existence as 
far as the title was concerned, and the assets were transferred 
to a new company, together with most of the names on the 
rolls. The new company was named the Detroit Light 
Guard, and its life has been continuous ever since, thus the 
genealogical table might state that in the beginning was the 
Brady Guard, which begat the Grayson Guard, and it in 
turn begat the Light Guard. The call issued for the purpose 
of organizing the latter organization is here reproduced from 
the original, together with the signatures of those who 
joined. 



new ^^rr*"' "• "'^' "" ^''"" '''" '''"' ='^^"°'^'^<^ ^''^ f*^"-^^"? 'O'^^I paragraph ■ " The 
new m.htan. con^pany me. at the Grayson Guard Armory last evening There wer^r .0 nale 

















/.^ )^ ^ €tt^l^ 







^ eS^d.^^d=::=r- 



24 




25 



Alpheus S. Williams was elected captain. The follow- 
ing officers were appointed bj the captain to serve until the 
second Monday of January next, the day fixed upon for the 
holding of annual elections : W. D. Wilkins, first lieuten- 
ant; J. E. Pittman and John Robertson, second lieutenants; 
J. D. Fairbanks, third lieutenant; L. Davenport, surgeon; 
George Doty, first sergeant; Ed. Trowbridge, second ser- 
geant; J. H. Morrison, third sergeant; J. Christie, fourth 
sergeant; ]N". Truckey, color sergeant; Jas. P. Baker, first 
corporal; Henry E. Mizner, second corporal; Wm. J. Speed, 
third corporal; David R, Pierce, fourth corporal. A civil 
board of officers was also elected. 

Many of these were already veterans of the United States 
Volunteer service^ and nearly every one of them, as well as 
the privates, became distinguished during the Civil War, 
and some remained in the army service after that war ended, 
and are now on the retired list with high rank. 

On the 22nd of February, 1856, occurred the first parade 
of the new organization — just twenty years from the date of 
the birth of the old Brady Guard, and many of the mem- 
bers of that organization were to be found in the ranks upon 
this occasion. 

In view of the great deal to be written of in connection 
with the activity of the organization in both the Civil and 
Spanish- American Wars, it is perhaps just as well to present 
the recitation of the numerous events, outside of those two 
important periods, in the shape of a plain chronological 
statement. 

July 4th, 1856 — The company attended an encampment 
in Chicago upon the invitation of the Chicago Light Guard. 

September 10th, 1857 — The company took part in the 
celebration of the anniversary of Perry's Victory on Lake 
Erie at Put-in-Bay. 

June 11th, 1858 — The company entertained the Milwau- 



kee Light Guard, and on ISTovember 9th, 1858, the company 
visited the Milwaukee organization. 

On October 31, 1859, the Light Guard re-organized as a 
battalion of two companies, entitled A and B. Col. A. S. 
Williams was elected major, and although it was not a pro- 
motion in rank, it was a well deserved compliment to the old 
commander. This made a broader organization, but there 
being no place for the second company in the state service, 
the new company was disbanded in the early part of the fol- 
lowing year. 

In the year 1859 an enactment by the state legislature 
required an annual encampment of the militia to cover a 
period of four days. The sum of $3,000 was appropriated 
annually for the support of the militia, and a State Military 
Board was first created. There is, however, no record of an 
encampment being held by the Light Guard. 

July, 1860, the battalion went to Adrian upon an invita- 
tion from the Adrian Guard, and upon its return to Detroit 
it received the Chicago (Ellsworth) Zouaves and entertained 
them as guests. The character of the entertainment was of 
the heartiest, and when they parted it was with the expressed 
hope that they might meet each other again. Later events 
permitted that hope to be realized, but in a manner totally 
different from any that they could have anticipated at the 
time, for on the breaking out of the Civil War, Col. Ells- 
worth, accompanied by many of the members of his com- 
pany, went to New York and organized a Zouave regiment 
which became famous as the New York (Ellsworth) Zouaves, 
and when the first Michigan, Three Months, arrived at the 
point of their national rendezvous, the members of Com- 
pany A (Detroit Light Guard) found to their surprise that 
they had for their company in the first invasion of southern 
territory, many of the men with whom they had formed 

27 



friendships when thej were their guests as the Chicago 
Zouaves in July the year before. 

In 1800 the State Military Board arranged for an encamp- 
ment of the militia to take place at Jackson, on August 28th, 
29th and 30th. There were about five hundred and fifty 
men in camp, "including officers and bands." The Detroit 
Light Guard, which had re-organized as one company again, 
under command of James E. Pittman, had the right of line, 
and was the first company to be inspected. The inspector's 
report stated that the company was in such an excellent 
condition "as to win for it the title of the banner company 
of the Peninsular State." The Military Board had offered 
prizes for the best drilled and equipped military company, 
and upon the rating by tlie inspecting officer, the first prize 
of $35 pas presented to the Light Guard company. 

At this encampment the men had a foretaste of what they 
little expected to endure in the following year; a freshly 
plowed field for a drill and parade ground, and a severe 
storm were some of the things complained of. 

In the early annals of the city of Detroit may be found 
an interesting letter from the late C. 11. Buhl, then mayor of 
Detroit. This missive is dated July 25th, 1860, and is an 
invitation to the Prince of Wales, who was traveling in 
America, to ^^sit Detroit. Among other matters the mayor 
said : "I beg to assure your Koyal Highness that you will 
receive a cordial welcome from the inhabitants of the city of 
Detroit." The Duke of I^ewcastle, Lord Chamberlain, of 
the Queen's household, replied that the prince had only one 
night to spend in Detroit before proceeding on his journey. 
The distinguished visitors reached Detroit September 20th, 
1860, the party consisting of Albert Edward, Prince of 
Wales; Duke of Saxony, Duke of Cornwall and Kothsay, 
Earl of Chester and Carrick ; His Grace, the Duke of New- 
castle; the Earl St. Germains; Sir Fen wick Williams; Major- 



General, the Honorable E. Bruce; Lord Lyons, British 
Embassador at Washington, and others. The Light Guard 
was the only military company present upon the arrival of 
the Prince. It is written that, owing to the crowd, their 
movements were effected with much difficulty; that "their 
ranks were full, however, and their soldierly appearance 
created very general remark." 



CHAPTER II. 

Outbreak of the civil war — Detroit Light Guard becomes Company 
A of First Mich., Three Months — Reception at Washington — 
First on southern soil — Capture of Alexandria — Battle of Bull 
Run — Roster and lists of deaths, promotions and commis- 
sioned members. 

The American rebellion in 1861 was the culmination of a 
long period of grievances and dissatisfaction which the 
southern states imreasoningly claimed to have been victims 
of at the hands of the northern states for a period of many- 
years. 

There had always remained a more or less prominently 
drawn line of demarcation between what was called the 
northern and southern states since the earliest colonial days, 
and the task taken up by many statesmen had failed to 
bring about a close and homogeneous union of all the states 
and territories. The traditions of the south were not quite 
those of the north, and the manner of living was decidedly 
different, and "Mason and Dixon's Line" was a phrase popu- 
lar with and continually used by the southern people. The 
south scented its first danger in the results of the election in 
1856, when Fremont, the republican candidate, received 114 
electroal votes, and Buchanan, the democratic candidate, 
174 electoral votes. The republican party was then not yet 
two years old, and it was disquieting to the south to see that 
the opposing party had shown such strength within such a 
short time of its inception. 

The opening of the presidential election year in 1860, 
found uncontrolable factions in the democratic party which 
finally culminated in weakening the party by the action of 
both factions in holding distinct and separate conventions. 



The republican party meanwhile gained strength to such an 
extent that Lincoln was elected by a plurality, over the three 
other candidates, of fifty-seven electoral votes. 

John Brown's pseudo invasion of Virginia, although prov- 
ing to be a fiasco even before he reached Harper's Ferry, had 
yet given a slight foretaste of what degree the fanaticism of 
the unthinking populace might develop to in the north, but 
it had, up to the result of the elections, not disturbed the 
equanimity of the southern people, but the election of Lin- 
coln, and the significance of his platform, afforded the south 
the pretext for which history plainly shows she had been 
waiting. 

South Carolina first declared its secession from the Union, 
and by the forepart of the following year, the rest of the 
southern states had completed the secession which was to 
usher in a long period of disastrous internecine warfare. 

Abraham Lincoln remaining quietly at Springfield, 111., 
made his home — by invitation — the mecca of the leading 
statesmen and thinkers of the north, so that when he pro- 
ceeded to Washington for inauguration, he was well 
equipped, by his dispassionate observations made while rest- 
ing quietly in his home, and by keeping in touch with the 
leading public men, to take up the duties of chief executive 
at the worst period of the nation's history. 

Americans are acquainted with their history, and they 
know of the incidents and events which followed, but this 
account, dealing with a local organization, although taking 
a prominent part in the national affairs as a unit in the force 
to execute the laws of the federal government and maintain 
the integrity of the constitution, is necessarily confined to 
those immediately incidental to it. 

The suddenness of the rebellion, and the rapidity with 
which it attained formidable proportions, found all depart- 
ments of the federal government woefully unprepared for 

31 



such a fearful emergency, and the states were in an equally 
unfortunate position. 

It was at this time that the citizens of the state of Michi- 
gan began to sorely regret the inattention that had been paid 
to the state militia, but they immediately set to work to 
rectify their errors in the past, and generously contributed 
much of their means to assist in forming and uniforming 
those who would volunteer for service. An act to provide a 
military force was enacted and approved March 16th, 1861, 
to take effect immediately. 

Governor Blair reached Detroit April 16th, 1861, to make 
arrangements rendered necessary by the exigency of national 
affairs. A meeting was held at the rooms of Lieut. H. M. 
Whittlesey, Detroit Light Guard, situated on Griswold 
street, near Congress street. It was deemed advisable to 
erffect a loan of $100,000 for the State of Michigan, the 
citizens of Detroit pledging half that amount. Prompt and 
instant action being deemed necessary to comply with 
the requisition form the war department at Washing- 
ton for one regiment of infantry, on motion of Mayor 
Buhl, the following military gentlemen were appointed a 
committee to aid this object : A. S. Williams, John Robert- 
son, W. D. Wilkins, H. L. Chipman, O. B. Wilcox, H. M. 
Whittlesey and James E. Pittman. After the adjournment 
of the meeting held by these public-spirited citizens. Gov. 
Blair issued his first proclamation calling for ten companies 
of volunteers to serve three months, and directing the adju- 
tant-general to accept the first ten that should offer. 

The next evening, April lYth, the Detroit Light Guard 
held a meeting at the armory to consider -the proclamation 
of the governor calling for a regiment of volunteers in 
accordance with the requisition of the President. The presi- 
dent of the company, John D. Fairbanks, occupied the chair. 
Capt. James E. Pittman briefly stated the objects of the 

32 



meeting and read the proclamation of the governor, which 
was heard with the closest attention. He then offered the 
following resolution : 

Eesolved, That we, the Detroit Light Guard, hereby ten- 
der our services as a company to the commander-in-chief of 
the Michigan Militia, and ask to be enrolled in the regiment 
called for in his proclamation of the 17th inst. 

The resolution was at once adopted, many citizen specta- 
tors uplifting their voices in loud approval at the spontan- 
eous exhibition of hearty patriotic spirit. First Sergeant 
Charles M. Lum was proposed by Capt. J. E. Pittman — who 
was not prepared to leave the state with the company — as 
captain, and the proposition unanimously assented to by the 
company. The selection of officers, it was announced, would 
be made on the following day by those members enrolled for 
that particular service, it being understood that a special 
enlistment was to be made. So it was determined that the 
armory should be kept open daily, giving any person desir- 
ing to join the expedition, the chance to enroll his name. 

As the news of the governor's proclamation spread, com- 
panies raced mth each other to be among the first ten to be 
enrolled. 

The roll was first opened on the morning of the 18th of 
April for the signatures of members present, and afterwards 
came the names of recruits. The next day. Old Glory floated 
every^vhere. The shipping was adorned with it as on a holi- 
day; every flagstaff bore it; it floated across the avenues, 
from the roofs of houses, from cupolas, from all public places 
and in all conspicuous positions. Omnibus men decorated 
their vehicles and horses with it; draymen and wagoners 
exhibited a similar partiality for it; shops, stores, offices, pub- 
lic halls and all like places were festooned with it. Those 
who did not have a flag were eagerly inquiring for one. 



Sailmakers were driven with the great demand, and the 
supply of bunting became exhausted. 

In the evening, a meeting was held for the purpose of 
electing new members and reorganizing preparatory to 
receiving marching orders in accordance with the tender of 
their services to the government. The old commissioned 
officers handed in their resignations to make room for those 
who had enrolled their names for the service. The resigna- 
tions were accepted, and the following officers were elected 
in their stead : 

Captain, Charles M. Lum; first lieutenant, John D. Fair- 
banks; second lieutenant, Wm. A. Throop. A resolution 
was adopted that the property of the company be placed in 
the hands of James E. Pittman, Henry M. Whittlesey and 
Jerome Croul, as special trustees. Many were so anxious 
to enlist with the famed Light Guard that money was liber- 
ally offered for the honor and privilege, and those who 
couldn't go with the company were inclined to grumble and 
to envy those who had come early and were first enlisted. 

Early on the morning of the 19th a complete roll of the 
company was placed in the hands of Adjt.-Gen. John Kob- 
ertson, and by him accepted. The company being the first 
to report and receive acceptance, was assigned to first place 
in the First Regiment, and was designated as Company A. 



34 



185-1856 








C^/Ot*^ Oim)L 



Two weeks after the date of the governor's proclamation 
the regiment was organized and put under the command of 
Col. Orlando B. Wilcox, a veteran officer of the army from 
1847 to 1857, and since 1866 a distinguished officer of the 
regular service. 

The personnel of this regiment was of a very high stand- 
ard, it being composed of the first choice of young men of 
the best standing who had come forward with offer of their 
service. The regiment was assembled at Fort Wayne and a 
course of drilling vigorously prosecuted. 

The fort at that time was the mecca for the people, who 
flocked there continually, many with the set purpose of see- 
ing their friends who were in the regiment and to bring 
them reading matter and food of a better character than that 
provided by the government. 

The enthusiasm of the members of the Light Guard Com- 
pany found expression, when, after the evening parade, and 
"retreat" would sound, they would gather around the flag 
staff and sing "'The Star Spangled Banner," as the flag flut- 
tered earthward, marking the close of another day. 

The regiment was mustered in on May 1st by companies, 
and Company A was the first to pass through the ceremony. 

On April 29th — the date of the departure of the Light 
Guard for Fort Wayne — the members who had found it 
impossible to volunteer, formed an organization named 
"The Detroit Light Guard Eeserve Corps," so tliat the name 
and fame of the old company which had enlisted, could be 
perpetuated by holding this supernimierary organization in 
readiness to supply recruits, or follow in the footsteps of the 
old company if it became imperatively necessary. Promin- 
ent among those who formed this corps were: James E. 
Pittman, Jerome Croul, Oliver Goldsmith, H. H. Hodgson, 
M. S. Smith, E. E. Mathews, C. H. Southwick, Louis Daven- 
port and Wm. J. Lyster. These members who remained at 

37 



home were not idle, for they took up various duties in con- 
nection with the part that Michigan was taking in the war. 
John Kobertson became Adjutant-General; Heber Le 
Favour Assistant Adjutant-General ; Friend Palmer Assis- 
tant Quartermaster-General; James E. Pittman was made 
Pay Master on May 21, Inspector-General later, and also 
member of the Military Board; James Croul was made an 
Aid-de-Camp to the governor, and a member of the Military 
Board. 

At the Fort the drilling progressed. Many of the young 
men found it, indeed, a change to go from the desk into the 
field, drill nine hours a day, and sleep on a straw tick with 
one blanket. Some of them complained of blistered feet 
and sore joints, but this did not dampen the ardor of their 
spirits. 

Arrangements had been made in the city to have the 
regiment parade and receive a "banner," and a cockade for 
each man, which had been prepared by a number of the 
ladies of Detroit. The regiment came up from the Fort on 
a ferry boat furnished by Mr. Muir, of the D. & M. K. E., 
and after marching to the Campus Martins, and performing 
the usual dress parade ceremony, the regiment formed a hol- 
low square, and after being addressed by Recorder Henry A. 
Morrow, ten young ladies were introduced, one to each 
captain, and then placed in the hands of each man a red, 
white and blue rosette. The Jackson Greys was the color 
company of the regiment, and it came forward. Col. Will- 
cox summoned Color Sergeant Wm. Holloway, Jr., from 
Company A, and the "banner" was given into his hands 
after being received from D. Bethune Duffield. Col. Will- 
cox craved a benediction on the "banner" by Dr. Duffield, 
who was very active in organizing the ladies of his congrega- 
tion for the purpose of doing their share in the work that 
remained behind to be done. The new colors were given a 

38 



formal military salute, and the regiment proceeded back to 
Fort Wayne as it had come. 

The day previous to that set for the regiment's depai'ture 
for the front was Sunday, May 12th, and Company A 
returned to the city by steamer to attend divine service in 
Christ's Church. 

The next day was a busy one, and at ten o'clock at night 
the steamer "May Queen" pulled out from the landing with 
the Detroit Light Guard band playing "The Girl I Left 
Behind Me," and with cheers and God's blessings cried by 
thousands of people. The regiment arrived in Cleveland 
the next morning and continued its journey across Pennsyl- 
vania via Harrisburg, and upon the 16th arrived in Balti- 
more at nightfall. United States Marshal Kane, who had 
been awaiting the arrival of this regiment, stepped forward 
and advised Col. "Willcox to take his regiment quietly around 
the city to the point on the railroad from which the journey 
was to be resumed. He advised this because of the treacher- 
ous attacks made by citizens upon the Sixth Massachusetts, 
which had passed through the city a short time before. Col. 
Willcox met this precautionary suggestion by ordering a 
detail forwarded from Company A to proceed in advance 
with the marshal, who was ordered to lead the regiment the 
straightest route through the city to the other depot, remark- 
ing at the time that "he would either go through the city or 
over it." The regiment proceeded on its way to Washing- 
ton, where it remained in quarters until midnight of the 
twenty-third, when it received orders to advance. 

Upon arrival at Washington, the staff and company offi- 
cers called upon the President with the band of the regi- 
ment, and honored him with a serenade. The President 
appeared in response, and was loudly cheered. He invited 
the company into the east room, where the colonel was for- 
mally presented to him by Adjutant-General Thomas, and 

39 



afterwards each of the officers by the colonel. The Presi- 
dent then expressed a desire that the band should be intro- 
duced. Major Elderkin was first presented. Both the Pres- 
ident and Gen. Thomas spoke of the fine music of the band, 
and notified the leader that during their stay in "Washington 
they would be expected to alternate with the Marine band 
and with the Ehode Island band in furnishing music for the 
afternoon concerts which were given three times a week in 
the groimds back of the Presidential mansion. This was a 
great compliment to the Light Guard band, and one which 
was not paid the other military bands in Washington. 

At two o'clock on the morning of the 24:th, in the bright 
light of a full moon, the regiment headed for the long 
bridge across the Potomac River, and with Company A in 
the lead, the survivors, and later members of the Detroit 
Light Guard, obtained, by virtue of that moment, the claim 
that this organization was the first to place foot upon south- 
ern soil in the War of the Eebellion. 

This forward movement was in conjunction with Col. 
Ellsworth's regiment of Zouaves, and it was at this time, and 
under these greatly changed conditions, that members of 
Company A renewed their acquaintance with those mem- 
bers of Col. Ellsworth's regiment, who, as members of his 
Chicago Zouave Company, had been entertained by the 
Light Guard the year previous in its home, when none 
dreamed of the tragedy that had now fallen upon the land. 

This advance had Alexandria for its objective, and it 
proved an easy capture, although this midnight marching 
was likely to conjure up in the minds of these untried sol- 
diers, visions of various wild and stubborn charges that they 
might find themselves performing ere they won their first 
victory. It was entirely bloodless, however, but with one 
heart-breaking exception. 

As the city was reached, it was arranged that the forces 

40 



should be divided and enter at different points, with the 
market place as the point of conjunction, and in this man- 
ner the various troops moved forward, and when the head of 
the regiment arrived at the square the battery was just com- 
ing up from another point, and the Zouaves from another, 
but no armed men had been encountered. However, on one 
side of this square stood the armory of* the local cavalry 
troop commanded by a Capt, Ball. The members of this 
company, learning of the approach of the federal troops, 
hastily made their appearance, and while some had not had 
time to gather up all their equipments, they lined up, and 
just as they were forming their front, the First Eegiment 
appeared on the scene. It was the work of a few minutes to 
accept the surrender of the "gallant defenders of the 
south," to the number of thirty-five, including the same 
number of horses. 

The single exception to the peaceful character of the cap- 
ture of the place, stands forth in history as one of the most 
cowardly and vilest deeds performed: Col. Ellsworth had 
mounted to the top of Marshall House to pull down a con- 
federate flag, and upon his coming down the stairway, he 
was shot and killed by the secessionist proprietor, who had 
laid in wait to do the deed. Vengeance, however, was swift. 

When the news of the tragedy reached Detroit, the people 
were horror-stricken, for during the entertainment which 
the Light Guard had given Col. Ellsworth and his company 
upon their visit to the city, great interest was taken in the 
\asitors by the citizens. As a mark of respect and mourning, 
all flags were haK-masted, including those on government 
buildings. 

This sad event left the colonel of the First Regiment in 
command of a brigade, and Adjt. Fairbanks, who had been 
appointed from Company A to be regimental adjutant, was 

41 



promoted to the rank and position of acting assistant adju- 
tant-general. 

The regiments were set to work to build fortifications on 
Shuter's Hill to command the rear of the city, where all the 
land approaches, except those from the north, converged, 
and when completed, was named Fort Ellsworth, in honor 
of the dead colonel. 

The company found itself here at Shuter's Hill, en- 
camped upon ground made historic by the fact that Gen. 
Washington had once occupied the same premises for a 
camp. Here the regiment was kept at drill, and in readiness 
for prompt response to any orders that might come. There 
were night attacks upon the out-posts by small bodies of the 
enemy, but they were desultory affairs, rumors, however, 
were rife as to the forming of the southern armies, and it 
was kno\vn that there was serious work cut out for a not far 
distant date. 

On June 15th, the company moved four miles out on the 
Fairfax road, being detached from the regiment with orders 
to take possession of Cloud's Mill. This was an advance 
post, and several brushes occurred with the enemy, but with 
no harm done on either side. The post, however, was a lit- 
tle too far advanced from the main body for such a small 
force to be expected to hold under a possible serious attack, 
and so a company of the Zouaves was ordered to reinforce 
the company. According to the stories that some of the 
veterans of the company delight in telling nowadays, the 
duty was not altogether unpleasant, for although guard was 
mounted during the day, and a platoon mounted each night, 
it left the balance of the members with much leisure time, 
and they had learned the knack of passing it pleasantly, even 
though in the midst of such a serious situation. Among the 
principal diversions was that of foraging, and they soon 

42 



attained such skill in that line that their meals never suffered 
for lack of fresh pork and poultry. 

On July 3rd, Capt. Lum received $10.00 from Col. Wil- 
cox which the company was to use in celebrating the Fourth. 
A purchasing committee was appointed to visit the city and 
procure pipes and tobacco and certain other supplies that 
would best help to bring off a fit celebration. 

Almost daily there were attacks by that class of the enemy 
called bushwhackers, and while Company A suffered no 
loss, yet the Zouave Company did not fare so well. 

Thus time passed on with a somewhat growing spirit of 
restlessness and expectancy. 

Up in the cities and communities in the north, far re- 
moved from touch with the enormous task going on of organ- 
izing the federal forces, and out of sympathy with the pre- 
cision being exercised in the work of thoroughly preparing 
for an effective advance of the Union army, there originated 
the phrase of "On to Richmond," which being taken up by 
the most fanatical and the smaller politicians, received con- 
tinual impetus from those statesmen and newspapers who 
had come to feel an antagonism for the manner in which the 
administration was proceeding, until, like an immense tidal 
wave, it reached and flooded the executive and war depart- 
ments, and poor old Gen. Scott felt himself forced to order 
an onward movement against his own good judgment, and 
thus, Gen. McDowell, who commanded the division the First 
Michigan was in, spent the night of July 16th in consulta- 
tion with Gen. Scott at Washington, for the frontal advance 
on Richmond would necessarily be made by his command, 
occupying the post it did, and thus the dear ones at home, 
whose eyes were anxiously straining eastward, were doomed 
to hear of a sad and terrible defeat suffered by their cher- 
ished company. 

For some time the enemy had been in strength at Fair- 

43 



fax C. H., and it was believed that Beauregard could con- 
centrate 60,000 troops at any point between that place and 
Richmond. Johnston was reported to have left Winchester 
on July 15th with 20,000 men to effect a junction with 
Beauregard, and Gen. Patterson was ordered to intercept 
and give battle to Johnston regardless of all odds, but for 
some never explained reason he failed to act; thus Beaure- 
gard suddenly found himself strengthened at a critical point 
in the coming battle by the arrival of Johnston's fresh 
force. 

Meanwhile, the Union forces had been ordered to ad- 
vance. 

Col. Willcox was placed in command of a brigade com- 
posed of the Thirty-eighth Kew York, the Zouave Eegi- 
ment, First Michigan and Arnold's Battery, and in Gen. 
Heintzelman's division. 

On the 18th, the brigade moved forward to Fairfax C. H., 
from which the enemy hastily retreated. There had been a 
general movement of the Union Army, and when McDowell 
found that the Confederate forces retreated at every point, 
he exultantly wired to Washington that the enemy had been 
routed from Bull Run and was retreating upon Manassas, 
and the north laid hold of that message and celebrated a 
mighty victory, so that when the later news showed the 
enemy's retreat to be but a shrewd movement to lure the 
Union Army to attack a position of great natural strength 
at Manassas, where he received Johnston's additional 
strength, and the results became heralded, a joy-ridden 
people sought sack-cloth and ashes. 

Willcox's brigade bivouaced at Centreville in a pouring 
rain on the night of the 19th, where the men laid, wet to the 
skin, in the furrows of a field without shelter of any kind. 
Sunrise found the men hanging their clothing upon stacked 
muskets to dry, seeking the solace of a pipe meanwhile. 

44 



The day was given up to a general rest, but sleep that 
night was abruptly ended at 1 :30 on the morning of the 
memorable 21st of July, 1861. 

The best and most concise account of the First Michigan's 
service in this action is found in the report of Maj. Bidwell, 
which is given in part below, but in introducing it, its signifi- 
cance in connection with this history should be explained by 
referring to the statements of Col. Willcox and Gen. Heint- 
zelman that the First Michigan had been the last regiment 
to retire, and that the dead left on the field showed that this 
regiment had penetrated the enemy's lines further than any 
other, and also, by the statement that Company A being 
the right of the regiment, and therefore in the lead, suf- 
fered about as much as all the other companies together, 

"Headquarters First Regiment Michigan Infantry, 

"Washington City, July 25th, 1861. 

"Sir — I have the honor to submit the following report of 
the operations of the First Regiment Michigan Infantry, 
on the 21st instant, at the battle of Bull Run: 

"At 2 :30 o'clock on that morning, the regiment left its 
bivouac and was in position, \nih the other regiments of 
Colonel Willcox's brigade, prepared for the advance. At 
6 o'clock the forward movement commenced, and about 12 
o'clock noon, after a long, rapid march over roads thick with 
dust and where but a scant supply of water could be ob- 
tained, the regiment was halted with the brigade in a field to 
the right of the road leading from Centreville, and on the 
right of the enemy's entrenchments. After a brief rest, the 
regiment, together with Arnold's Battery, moved across the 
road and took position in a wheat field ; the other regiments 
composing the brigade having moved towards the battle- 
field. But a short time elapsed when the regiment was 
ordered forward, and at a double quick was hastened to the 
scene of action to support the Fire Zouaves, who had charged 
and fallen back. Moving in column by platoon along the 
slope of the hill under the fire of the enemy's batteries, we 

45 



lost one color-bearer and several of our men. The regiment 
was here filed to the left along a ravine, then marched up the 
hill and formed in line of battle near the summit, directly in 
front of the enemy's position. The regiment was at once 
ordered to charge, and moved gallantly on, exposed to a 
sharp fire, up to a fence intervening between it and the 
enemy's works. Here some little confusion occurred, the 
position of the enemy not being clearly understood, so rapid 
had been our movements, and the regiment halted, firing 
and loading under cover of the fence. An order given at 
this time, not clearly heard, a portion of the line fell back to 
re-load. They were at once rallied back to the fence, when 
the regiment was re-formed in line of battle and led by 
Colonel Willcox in advance of our center, and the regiment 
responding to the wave of his cap with a cheer, cleared the 
fence and charged down the slope upon the enemy's bat- 
tery. 

"A heavy and well-directed fire was at once opened upon 
us from his batteries and by his infantry, screened by the 
woods on both our flanks. The regiment moved bravely on, 
the firing becoming very destructive. The enemy being 
hid from view, and their fire coming from every direction, 
the line was broken, and the men, in detachments, guided by 
their officers when the enemy could be distinguished, loaded 
and fired with the utmost coolness and precision. At this 
point heavy masses of the enemy advanced along the road 
near their battery to our right and, flanking us, their fire 
became actually murderous. The men stood it coolly, and 
advancing, divided as they were, into the line of the woods, 
answered his fire. The enemy's fire being continuous from 
every quarter, their infantry advancing on us through the 
woods in great force, our officers and men falling all about 
us, the regiment unsupported in rear or flank, there was but 
one thing to be done, and, gathering what we could about 
the colors, we fell back and re-ascended the acclivity to the 
spot from whence our first charge was made. Here we ral- 
lied as many of the men of the regiment as was possible, 
and endeavored to collect stragglers from other regiments. 

"In the hope that we could more successfully stop fugi- 
tives by retiring more from the line of fire, we fell back and 

46 



continued our efforts to re-form. The enemy now appear- 
ing in overwhelming strength on the right, we moved to our 
bivouac of the morning, near Centreville, which was occu- 
pied by the regiment in comparatively good order. 

"After two or three hours' rest, in obedience to orders, 
the regiment took up the line of march in good order for 
Washington. 



"Of those brave men who have met their fate in the 
engagement, I cannot speak in too high terms. The regi- 
ment will cherish their gallantry. Nor can I refrain from 
referring with highest commendation to the valuable ser- 
vices, bravery, and good conduct of all the oflB.cers on the 
field. Where all performed acts of gallantry and valor, it 
would be invidious to particularize, and I trust that all will 
alike find in the terrible proportion of their loss, the best 
record of individual worth. 

"Yours respectfully, 
"A. F. BID WELL, 

"Major Commanding. 
"To Colonel Ward, 

"Commanding Second Brigade, Alexandria, "Va." 

Captain Lum had been acting Lieut. Col. during the 
action and gallantly assisted Col. Willcox in the successive 
charges until the latter fell wounded and a prisoner. It was 
just after the last rally and attempt to stand had been made 
that a volley fired from ambush killed his horse and hurled 
his pistol away, and upon regaining his feet a second volley 
left one knee badly wounded. He managed to make his 
escape to a field hospital where he was placed in an ambu- 
lance, only to have a thrilling escape when it became 
wrecked by the ungovernable, panic-stricken horses. 

After the regiment reached Washington, the suspense 
as to the fate of the "missing" was long imsatisfied, as many 
who were not in the hospitals, straggled in but slowly, be- 

47 



cause of intense fatigue. Those who had arrived safely, 
hastened to advise the anxious ones at home. 

Alas ! for the friends of the company at home, and with 
what yearning they awaited its home-coming. Two were 
dead, six were in the hospital, and thirteen were in the 
hands of the enemy. 

Here follows a tabulated statement of the names, rank, 
commissions, promotions, etc., of members of the Detroit 
Light Guard, Company A, First Eegiment Michigan In- 
fantry — Three Months: 

Names. Rank. Remarks. 

Charles M, Lum Captain. Col, lOth Mich. Inf. 

tJohn D. Fairbanks 1st Lieut. (Promoted Adjt. of Regt), 

Major 5th Mich. Inf. 

*William A. Throop 2d Lieut. Lieut-Col. 1st Mich. (3 

years). 

tGeo. W. Grummond 1st Sergt. Lieut. -Col. 14th Mich, Inf. 

Eugene Robinson 2d Sergt. (Promoted Sergt. -Maj. of 

Regt.) 

*Lewis Hartmeyer 3r Sergt. 2d Ijieut, Stanton Guard. 

♦William Hull 4th Sergt. 1st Lieut. 6th Cavalry. 

♦William Hallowey 1st Corp. (Promoted Color Sergt. of 

Regt.) 

Charles A. Desnoyer 2d Corp. 

♦Hubbard Smith 3d Corp. Lieut. Provost Guard. 

♦William N. Burrill 4th Corp. 

♦George C. Stewart Musician, 

♦Albert C. Pond " Captain 9th Mich. Inf. 

♦Adams, Andrew M Private. Captain 9th Mich. Inf. 

♦Ardnt, John " 

tArnold, Henry Clay " 1st lieut. 1st Inf. (3 years). 

♦Bates, Kinzie " Captain 1st U, S, Inf, 

Barse, George R " 1st Lieut, 5th Mich. Cav- 

alry. 

♦Bair, Philip J 

tBloodgood, Wilkins J.... " 1st Lieut. 1st Inf. (3 years). 

♦Bolio, Franklin M 

Brown, George 

Clark, Ebenezer F " 

Crosby, Andrew J 

♦Deceased. fKilled or died of wounds. 



48 



Names. Rank. 

Cogswell, Osmond Private. 

Cook, Henry 

♦Cook, Otis L 

tCunningham, Wm. A 

Eberts, H. Fred: 

Eagan, Hubart W 

*Eddy, Frank E 

*Fairbrother, Frank L 

*Farrar, Nelson M 

Fellers, Morgan S 

tGarrison, Irving L 

Galloway, John 

Gordon, Henry 

Goring, John 



♦Hardy, Thomas 

Hopkins, George... 
♦Hough, Jr., James. 



♦Hutchinson, Henry 

♦Hall, Charles E 

♦Ingersoll, Joseph 

♦Inglis, Charles 

Johnson, Norman 

tJones, David 

Kaufman, Charles 

♦Kydd, William 

Langley, Edwin D 

Lansing, Melancton W. 

♦Levering, John F 

♦Lennon, John J 

McMillan, John F 

♦Montgomery, Thos. S.. 

Myers, Joseph W 

♦Owen, E. Griffith 



Palmer, Lemuel F. 

Payne, John B 

^Ross, William H. . . 



Rodier, Antoine D. 



Killed at First Bull Run. 



Lieut.-Col. 29th Mich. Inf. 



1st Lieut. 1st Inf. (3 years). 



1st Lieut. (3 years), wound- 
ed and transferred to Vet. 
Reserve Corps. 



2d Lieut. 16th Inf. trans- 
ferred to Vet. Reserves. 



Killed at First Bull Run. 

1st Lieut. 16th Inf. 

Hospital Steward U. S. A. 
Private 5th Inf. 
1st Lieut. 24th Inf. 



Captain 14th Inf. 
Captain and Assistant Q. 
Master U. S. Vols. 



Lieut.-Col. 1st Mich. Ar- 
tillery. 
Sergt. 23d Mich. Inf. 



tKilled or died of wounds. 



49 



Names. Rank. 

Rice, Frank L Private. 



"Rankin, David 

"Salter, Charles H 

Starkweather, Columbus . 
"Starkweather, James H.. 
"Starkweather, John 



Schonaker, Hubert J. 
"Tyler, John 



*Thorne, William J 

*Torrens, James 

Underbill, Wm. M 

Wallace, Robert C 

Waddell, William 

Watson, William C 

♦Whipple, Wm. S 

♦Williams, George 

Williams, Richard 

♦Wertheimer, Simon S. 

♦Witherspoon, John 

♦Young, Peter 



Remarks. 
1st Lieut. 1st Inf. trans- 
ferred to Vet. Reserves. 

Captain 16th Inf. 
Captain 9th Inf. 



2nd Lieut, 
airy. 



10th Mich. Cav- 



Capt. 17th Inf. transferred 

to Vet. Reserves. 
Captain 69th N. Y. Inf. 

1st Lieut. 4th Cavalry. 
Major 5th Cavalry. 



Lieut.-Col. 21st Mich. Inf. 
1st Lieut. 8th Cavalry. 
1st Lieut. 16th Inf. 

Captain 24th Inf. 



DETROIT LIGHT GUARD'S DEAD HEROES. 



Names. Rank. 

Horace S. Roberts Colonel. 

Jno. D. Fairbanks Major. 

Robert T. Elliott Major. 

Chas, E. Wendell Captain. 

William J. Speed Captain. 



Remarks. 
(1st Mich. Inf.) Killed at 

Manassas, Aug. 30, 1862. 
(5th Mich. Inf.) Mortally 

Wounded, Malvern Hill, 

June 30, 1862. 
(16th Mich. Inf.) Killed at 

Tolapatomy, Va., May 30, 

1864. 
(1st Mich. Inf.) Killed at 

Manassas, Aug. 30, 1862. 
(24th Mich. Inf.) Killed at 

Gettysburg, July 1, 1863. 



♦Deceased. fKllled or died of wounds. 



50 



Names. Rank. Rbmahks. 

W. J. Bloodgood 1st Lieut. (1st. Mich. Inf.) Died of 

wounds received at Man- 
assas, Aug. 30, 1862. 
Henry Clay Arnold 1st Lieut. (1st Mich. Inf.) Killed at 

Manassas, Aug. 30, 1862. 
Irving L. Garrison 1st Lieut. (1st Mich. Inf.) Killed at 

Manassas, Aug. 30, 1862. 
N. Minor Pratt 1st Lieut. 8th Mich. Inf.) Killed at 

Wilmington Island, S. C, 

April 16, 1862. 
Richard Williams 1st Lieut. (16th Mich. Inf.) Killed at 

New Bridge, Va., June 17, 

1862. 
Alanson Tracey 1st Lieut. (3d Cav.) Died in Hospital, 

June 18, 1862. 
W.A.Cunningham Private. (1st Mich. Inf., 3 months.) 

Killed at Bull Run, July 

21, 1861. 
David A. Jones " (1st Mich. Inf., 3 months.) 

Killed at Bull Run, July 

21, 1861. 
John E. Levering " (5th Mich. Inf.) Died of 

wounds, Jan. 4, 1864. 

In addition to those who received commissions as shown 
by the previo^^s list, the following members also received 
commissions. 

This list is taken from the record in "Michigan in the 
War," but is only made to show the highest rank or brevet; 
appointments for duty belonging to higher rank are not 
shown in this list. 

♦Alpheus S. Williams Brigadier and Bvt. Maj. 

Gen. Vols. 

•William D. Wilkins Lieut.-Col. and Asst. Ins. 

Gen. Vols. 

♦Henry M. Whittelsey Lieut.-Col. and Asst. Q. M. 

Gen. Vols. 

Henry L. Chipman Colonel. 102 U. S. T. C, and retired 

as Lieut.-Col. U. S. A. 

tHorace S. Roberts " 1st Mich. Inf. 

Henry R. Mizner " 14th Mich. Inf. 

William W. Duffield " 9th Mich. Inf. 

•Deceased. tKiHed or died of wounds. 
51 



Names. Rank. 

Henry M. Duffield. .1st Lieut. & Aj. 

Frederick W. Swift, Lieut.-Col. 

tRobert T. Elliott Major. 

♦John J. Rhodes 

tWilliam J. Speed Captain. 

tCharles E. Wendell 

Henry H. Hodgson 1st Lieut. 

*Heber Le Favour Colonel. 

♦Nelson Truckey Captain. 

*Fred W. Backus 

Thomas Ballard 

♦Archibald McMillan 1st Lieut. 

Ernest M. Bennett Major. 

*Fred C. Adamson Captain. 

Has. B. Reeve 1st Lieut. 

Charles H. Safford Captain. 

Hobart Miller 1st Lieut. & Aj. 

Stevens T. Norvall 2d Lieut. 

Joseph P. Sanger 1st Lieut. 

William J. Lyster Captain. 

Edward Hill Lieut-Col. 

Ruf us W. Jacklin Major. 

♦Thomas J. Barry 

Edwin B. Wight 

tN. Minor Pratt 1st Lieut. & Aj. 

William N. Ladue.. " 

♦Edward Lauderdale Asst. Surg. 

♦George Robinson Capt. Bat. C. 

Albert F. R. Arndt Major. 

George L. Maltz 1st Lieut. 

Charles T. Hudson Captain. 

♦Joseph A. Eagle 

♦John W. O'Callaghan 

♦J. Edward Marum 

Augustus A. Vancleve 

Henry H. Sibley 

Samuel A. Wiggins 

♦J. Mason Norvall 



♦George M. Chester 

Lewis C. Forsyth 

♦Alanson Tracey 

Charles Dupont Captain. 

♦Wm. S. Whipple Lieut.-Col. 

♦Deceased. tKilled or died of wounds, 
53 



Remarks. 

9th Mich. Inf. 

17th Mich. Inf. 

16th Mich. Inf. 

1st Mich. Eng. and Mechan- 
ics. 

24th Mich. Inf. 

1st Mich. Inf. (3 years). 

5th Mich. Inf. 

22d Mich. Inf. 

27th Mich. Inf. 

1st Mich. Cav. 

1st Mich. Cav. 

1st Mich. Inf. 16th Cav. 

Penn. Cav. 

3d Mich. Cav. 

5th Mich. Cav. 

5th Mich. Cav. 

9th Mich. Cav. 

13th U. S. Inf. 

1st U. S. Art. 

19th U. S. Inf. 

16th Mich. Inf. 

16th Mich. Inf. 

16th Mich. Inf. 

24th Mich. Inf. 

8th Mich. Inf. 

5th Mich. Inf. 

24th Mich. Inf. 

1st Mich. Art. 

1st Reg. Mich. Artillery. 

4th Mich. Inf. 

4th Mich. Cav. 

5th Mich. Inf. 

5th Mich. Inf. 

8th Mich. Inf. 

20th Mich. Inf. 

16th Mich. Inf. 

9th Mich. Inf. 

Major and Asst. Adjt. Gen. 
Vols. 

Captain and A. Q. M. Vols. 

Captain and A. Q. M. Vols. 

Batt. Adjt. 3d Mich. Cav. 

13th Mich. Battery. 

21st Mich. Inf. 



CHAPTEK in. 

Return Home — Renewal of Strength — Formation of the Light 
Infantry — Social Events — Prize Drills, and State Service and 
Military Interments — Improvement of Quarters — Amalgama- 
tion with the City Greys — Progress— Acquisition of Company 
M — Amalgamation with Company B — The New Band — Regi- 
mental Election Troubles. 

"Military Department, Michigan, 
"Adjutant General's Office, 

"Detroit, July 24th, 1861. 
"By instructions received from Governor Blair at Wash- 
ington, the First Michigan Regiment will be reorganised 
in this State. Consequently, all the officers and men now 
in the regiment will return home. 

"JOHiT ROBERTSOI!^, 
"Adjutant General." 

Upon the issuance of this order, the citizens of Detroit 
immeditely began making arrangements to welcome home 
the regiment in such a manner that the sting of defeat might 
be made to fade from the thoughts of the heroes. 

It was a hard trip to bear, even though it was toward 
home and kin and friends. The terrible thing that fate had 
brought their bravery to, afforded but restless repose to the 
men as they stretched upon the hard floors of the box cars, 
and the hospital coach ahead but added to their depression. 

When the train reached Pittsburg, they met with a hearty 
reception and plenty of good things to eat. Here, too, they 
were transferred to first-class coaches and the trip resumed. 
The train was cheered by people at every station along the 
route, and on reaching Toledo at nine o'clock in the morn- 
ing, a warm breakfast was served to them by the citizens. 



In the city of Detroit, the alarm bell commenced ring- 
ing at one o'clock to notify the people that ere long, those 
whom they anxiously awaited would be in their midst. 
Those who were massed around the depot, strained their 
eyes continually down the track, and finally at 2 :15, the 
gaily decorated engine was discovered rapidly approaching, 
and as the train came to a stop, all restraint gave way, and 
the crowd literally received the soldiers in their arms as they 
leaped from the train. It was one of those affecting scenes 
which must be seen to be realized. 

A procession composed of several regiments on waiting 
orders, and other military organizations, together with the 
city ofiicials and reception committee, conducted the regi- 
ment to the point at which the speakers were to give their 
addresses of welcome. The Detroit Light Guard Reserve 
Corps composed the immediate escort, under command of 
James E. Pittman. 

The depression which had weighed upon the men from 
the time of their leaving Washington had been gradually 
worn away by the reception extended them along the route, 
and now here among their own friends and relatives, they 
were made to feel that theirs had been no tale of defeat. 

The people had learned with remarkable dispatch even 
the most minute details of that first battle, and the speakers' 
addresses abounded with words of praise as they strove to 
assure the survivors of the high honor in which each one 
was held. 

At the conclusion of the speeches, the members of the 
regiment were feasted and accorded every comfort possible. 

Thus had the Detroit Light Guard Company made a con- 
spicuous name for itself in the annals of state and national 
history, and although its ranks were decimated by the sad 
misfortunes of war, yet all those members who were 
physically capable of performing military duty, re-enlisted 



in various regiments, and the records show that from that 
time imtil the close of the war in ^Q6, the Detroit Light 
Guard was represented in the commissioned ranks of the 
army by eighty-three of its former members, as may be 
noticed in the foregoing list. 

The organization was kept up at home and remained in 
readiness to perform any service it might be called upon to 
do, and the reputation it had earned gave it a prominent 
place in the consideration of the citizens. 

Col. Willcox, the able commander of the regiment when 
it went to the front, arid who, through his gallantry in lead- 
ing the last charge at Bull Kun at the head of the regiment, 
had fallen badly wounded in the final charge, was made 
a prisoner and confined in the Charleston prison. Having 
been exchanged on Aug. I7th, 1862, he came home to De- 
troit to recuperate so that he might re-enter the service. 
Because he had made it possible for Detroit's first offering 
of troops to bring renown and glory upon them, an immense 
welcome was prepared for the gallant soldier, who had been 
promoted to be brigadier-general on July 21st. It was a 
long military column that acted as escort upon his arrival, 
but to the Light Guard was assigned the position of guard 
of honor, and as such it marched on the flanks of the carriage 
containing the general. His after career was a most bril- 
liant one, and naturally the veterans of the Light Guard 
took an appreciative interest in it. 

As the representative military organization of Detroit, 
and, in fact, the state of Michigan, its history from this time 
on to the beginning of the recent period of international war, 
is necessarily credited with many notable events frequently 
involving the interests of the city and commonwealth, but 
these it will be necessary to deal with in a somewhat brief 
manner because of the great interest at the present time be- 

55 



ing centered in the period covering the last service under 
the national government. 

March 6th, 1863, — ^the company performed riot duty. 

In 1864, the citv was threatened from time to time by 
the invasion of rebel refugees from Canada, and the com- 
pany was constantly on patrol duty. 

At the close of the war in 1866, old members of the Light 
Guard straggled home from their various posts of service, 
and they renewed the strength of the old company by re- 
entering its membership, bringing with them a fresh air of 
fame and glory. 

Election of officers was held so that the returning vet- 
erans might be placed in conspicuous places on the rolls of 
the company, and the following is the list of officers elected : 
Chas. M. Lum, captain; Eugene Robinson, 1st lieutenant; 
Robert S. Mason, 2nd lieutenant; H. S. Rutter, 1st ser- 
geant; H. H. Hodgson, 2nd sergeant; C. M. Garrison, 3rd 
sergeant; L. M. O'Brien, 4th sergeant; E. H. Butler, 1st 
corporal; W. C. Skiff, 2nd corporal; E. I. Garfield, 3rd 
corporal; Geo. L. Maltz, 4th corporal; J. G. Standart, 5th 
corporal; T. R. Hallock, 6th corporal; W. H. Brace, 7th 
corporal; J. J. Dumon, 8th corporal; J. D. Elderkin, drum 
major; Jos. Sigel, leader of band. Members of Board: 
F. K. Walker, Jerome Croul, James C. Latham, Robert 
Mason, Henry L. Rutter; F. K. Walker, president; J. Jj 
Speed, secretary; Ed. H. Butler, vice-president. 

In 1866 the company escorted President Andrew John- 
son from the depot to the Biddle House. 

During the first few years succeeding the war there were 
but few events of any importance. The monotony of the 
drill was spiced with receptions and concerts given at the 
Biddle or Russell House, and frequently some prominent 
lecturer was brought to the city under the auspices of the 
company. Entertainments were also frequently undertaken 



both for the benefit of the company and for charitable insti- 
tutions, and all of these events were patronized bj the best 
people in the city's society. 

At this time the company indulged much in target prac- 
tice at a range which had been constructed out on Jefferson 
avenue at the city limits. 

There were no encampments of state troops held until the 
year of 1870, and up to that time it was the habit of inde- 
pendent companies to go on a little tour of camp duty each 
year by themselves. In 1867 the company camped at 
Orchard Lake, and in 1869 at Whitmore Lake. 

In 1870, the affairs of the militia were at such a low ebb 
that there were but three companies in the state ser\dce, 
and these companies, anxious to maintain their existence, 
obtained the approval of Gov. Baldwin to hold a joint en- 
campment in August, 1870, at Slocum's Island. This en- 
campment aroused the interest of the martial inclined, and 
the state organization rapidly grew in strength from that 
time on. Thus it may be seen that the Light Guard had a 
conspicuous share in helping the growth of the state organ- 
ization. 

Nov. 16th, 1871, the command celebrated its anniversary 
by parading in a new dress uniform. 

In 1872 Color Sergt. Hubbard Smith presented the com- 
pany mth a new stand of colors, and on April 9th of the 
same year the company participated in the dedication of 
the soldiers' monument. The Light Guard had a special 
interest in this monument, for at the time subscriptions 
were taken for its erection, the organization subscribed and 
paid one hundred dollars. 

July 4th, 1872, the company visited Cleveland as guests 
of the Cleveland Greys, and on July 4th, in the following 
year, the Greys made a return visit to Detroit. Both organ- 

57 



izations have mementos of these events upon the walls of 
their armories. 

In 1873, the state began to extend real support and proper 
recognition of the various militia organizations, and the 
First Michigan Infantry was organized with the Light 
Guard as Company A. 

The various military companies of the state, and some 
from other states, had begun a system of exchanging visits, 
and many such events were participated in by the Light 
Guard. On May 20th, 1874, the company visited the Flint 
Union Blues, and upon the return home, a silver water ser- 
vice was sent to the Flint company as a token of the Light 
Guardsmen's appreciation of the hospitality extended to 
them. 

On the afternoon of July 22nd, 1874, Gov. Bagley issued 
orders for three companies to prepare for service in quelling 
the riot by the iron miners at Marquette. The Light Guard 
was one of the three companies ordered out, and mustering 
over sixty men, boarded the train for the scene of the 
trouble. The occasion proved uneventful, however, as peace 
came with the arrival of the militia, but to those members 
of the company who were not veterans of the war, the tour 
of duty had been of much benefit. A pleasant sequel to this 
event came six years later, when the treasurer of the Lake 
Superior Iron Company of Boston, Mass., sent a check for 
$500 to the company, accompanied by a very complimentary 
letter. 

In February, 1876, the surviving members of the Brady 
Guard living in Detroit laid elaborate plans for a celebra- 
tion of the fortieth anniversary of the organization to be 
held on April 13th, but as the date approached, it was found 
that there would be so few able to attend that the parade 
planned for with the old uniforms and flint lock muskets, 
together with cannon salutes, would have to be abandoned, 

58 



and when the evening arrived and First Sergt. George Doty 
called the roll, seven responded to the roll of 1836, eleven 
answered to the roll of 1837, none to those of 1839 and 
1841, two to that of 1843, and six to that of 1844, making 
twenty-six, whose ages averaged about sixty-three. The 
banquet was held at the Russell House. It is difficult for a 
youthful pen to comprehensively write of such an occasion; 
one must be an old veteran to get to the bottom and appre- 
ciate in all its fullness the spirit of such a reunion. Of 
course there were speeches and reminiscences and last of 
all, songs. It was the last reunion of the survivors of the 
Brady Guard, and although there are a half dozen of those 
who were charter members still living, the work of time has 
made later reunions impossible of success in point of at- 
tendance. 

In the previous year (1875) plans were laid to represent 
the state at the Centennial celebration in Philadelphia. The 
members pledged themselves to attend drill, and the result 
was that, when the date of departure arrived, the company 
was in the finest condition yet attained in point of perfection 
in drill. 

Col. Lochhead granted the company leave of absence 
conditional upon its return and report at the opening of the 
state encampment on Aug. 14th, so on Aug. 5th, the Light 
Guard, with a strength of fifty members, and with a new 
stand of colors, departed amidst the cheers of a large crowd 
to win what laurels it could in its eastern trip. The hard 
work put in in the long course of preparation made itself 
evident upon every occasion upon which the company assem- 
bled or took part in parades, and it received continual com- 
plimentary expressions, both from the press and prominent 
public men, and citizens of Detroit who were there at the 
time, took much pride in renewing their acquaintance with 



Detroit, Jackson and Grand Rapids, those places being the 
largest railroad centers, and owing to the serious aspect of 
the ailair,.the commands were supplied with ball cartridges. 
The disturbances were finally subdued without recourse to 
arms. 

The secession affair had left the ranks and finances of the 
old company in a rather unsatisfactory condition, and a 
season of lethargy existed, until, on December 3rd, 1878, 
A. P. T. Beniteau was elected captain; J. I. Haight, 1st 
lieutenant; and Fred E. Farnsworth, 2nd lieutenant. 
From this date the company improved, and its ranks filled 
with good material. 

On December 24th, 1878, the company was called upon 
to perform the saddest duty in its history. The old hero and 
patriot, the gallant veteran, the old soldier who had been 
comrade and commandant of the Brady Guard, Gen. A. S. 
Williams, had been called to answer to a higher roll call. 
The old company that he had loved so well, acted as an 
escort of honor in conducting the remains to their last rest. 
Capt. Twombly of the Light Infantry, Capt. O'Keeffe of 
the ISTational Guard and Capt. Donnelly of the Montgom- 
ery Eifles joined with Lieut. Wormer of the Light Guard 
in a request to Gen. Wm. A. Throop that he take command 
of their respective companies as a battalion escort. General 
Throop acknowledged the compliment and accepted the 
offer, stating that he had an earnest desire to do full honor 
in every manner in his power to his old commander. "Taps" 
were sounded, and the parting salute fired. The form of 
the ceremony was a familiar one to many of the veterans of 
the company who had served through the war, but it had a 
keener meaning for them now, and their sorrow was the 
more emphasized. 

On Feb. 20th, 1879, the Light Guard strengthened its 
social prestige by establishing a custom of holding a levee 



for each new governor, and the first levee, held on this date, 
was in honor of Gov. Croswell and staff. 

In August, the companv went into camp with its regiment 
(Third) at Port Huron, which was named Camp Williams in 
honor of the deceased general. 

About this time, the arms of the militia had been changed 
from the old Springfield musket to the forty-five caliber 
Sharp's rifle, and a more rigid system of inspection mth an 
eye to perfection in marksmanship had been inaugurated. 
The Light Guard had spent much time at target practice, 
and on September 1 9th inaugurated a target shooting tour- 
nament at Belle Isle which was attended by fifteen teams 
from different parts of the state. 

On Kov. 5th, the company was called upon to act as 
guard of honor over the remains of the late Hon. Zachariah 
Chandler, one of the earliest honorary members of the com- 
pany and one of Michigan's most distinguished citizens. 

The custom of holding anniversary celebrations had be- 
gun to be a pronounced feature in the annual life of the 
company, and in this year, when the twenty-fourth anni- 
versary was celebrated, the war department, which at that 
time had charge of the weather bureau, must have had a 
sympathetic interest in military organizations, for it is re- 
corded that the occasion was celebrated with a lawn party 
and reception at the residence of one of the members. 

On July 5th, 1880, the company, after much prepar- 
ation, entered a prize drill at Monroe and won the first prize 
of $150 in gold. This inaugurated a series of like events 
which it might be well to enumerate here. In June, 1882, 
the company won third prize of $300 against companies 
from various states in a contest held in Detroit. The 
grounds were rather crowded when the company made its 
appearance to drill, but through skillful maneuvering the 
ground was cleared and the drill proceeded; the affair, how- 

63 



Detroit, Jackson and Grand Rapids, those places being the 
largest railroad centers, and owing to the serious aspect of 
the affair,.the commands were supplied with ball cartridges. 
The disturbances were finally subdued without recourse to 
arms. 

The secession affair had left the ranks and finances of the 
old company in a rather unsatisfactory condition, and a 
season of lethargy existed, until, on December 3rd, 1878, 
A. P. T. Beniteau was elected captain; J. I. Haight, 1st 
lieutenant; and Fred E. Farnsworth, 2nd lieutenant. 
From this date the company improved, and its ranks filled 
with good material. 

On December 24th, 1878, the company was called upon 
to perform the saddest duty in its history. The old hero and 
patriot, the gallant veteran, the old soldier who had been 
comrade and commandant of the Brady Guard, Gen. A. S. 
Williams, had been called to answer to a higher roll call. 
The old company that he had loved so well, acted as an 
escort of honor in conducting the remains to their last rest., 
Capt. Twombly of the Light Infantry, Capt. O'Keeffe of 
the JSTational Guard and Capt. Donnelly of the Montgom- 
ery Eifles joined with Lieut. Wormer of the Light Guard 
in a request to Gen. Wm. A. Throop that he take command 
of their respective companies as a battalion escort. General 
Throop acknowledged the compliment and accepted the 
offer, stating that he had an earnest desire to do full honor 
in every manner in his power to his old commander. "Taps" 
were sounded, and the parting salute fired. The form of 
the ceremony was a familiar one to many of the veterans of 
the company who had served through the war, but it had a 
keener meaning for them now, and their sorrow was the 
more emphasized. 

On Feb. 20th, 1879, the Light Guard strengthened its 
social prestige by establishing a custom of holding a levee 



for each new governor, and the first leree, held on this date, 
was in honor of Gov. Croswell and staff. 

In August, the company went into camp with its regiment 
(Third) at Port Huron, which was named Camp Williams in 
honor of the deceased general. 

About this time, the arms of the militia had been changed 
from the old Springfield musket to the forty-five caliber 
Sharp's rifle, and a more rigid system of inspection with an 
eye to perfection in marksmanship had been inaugurated. 
The Light Guard had spent much time at target practice, 
and on September 1 9th inaugurated a target shooting tour- 
nament at Belle Isle which was attended by fifteen teams 
from different parts of the state. 

On jSTov. 5th, the company was called upon to act as 
guard of honor over the remains of the late Hon. Zachariah 
Chandler, one of the earliest honorary members of the com- 
pany and one of Michigan's most distinguished citizens. 

The custom of holding anniversary celebrations had be- 
gun to be a pronounced feature in the annual life of the 
company, and in this year, when the twenty-fourth anni- 
versary was celebrated, the war department, which at that 
time had charge of the weather bureau, must have had a 
sympathetic interest in military organizations, for it is re- 
corded that the occasion was celebrated with a lawn party 
and reception at the residence of one of the members. 

On July 5th, 1880, the company, after much prepar- 
ation, entered a prize drill at Monroe and won the first prize 
of $150 in gold. This inaugurated a series of like events 
which it might be well to enumerate here. In June, 1882, 
the company won third prize of $300 against companies 
from various states in a contest held in Detroit. The 
grounds were rather crowded when the company made its 
appearance to drill, but through skillful maneuvering the 
ground was cleared and the drill proceeded; the affair, how- 

63 



ever, had cost the company the loss of several points, and in 
recognition of this fact, Mr. C. J. Whitney, who had been 
one of the promoters of the test, presented an elegant piano 
to the company. 

The next prize was won at Grand Eapids, on July 4th, 
the company being awarded second prize of $300. On the 
fourth of July, 1883, the company entered a prize drill at 
Cleveland and won the first prize of $500. On Sept. 21st 
the company won third prize of $100 at the state fair 
grounds in Detroit. 

These tests had all been entered under the leadership of 
Capt. Beniteau, who was one of the best drillmasters the 
company ever had. 

Beginning on August 10th, 1880, at Kalamazoo, was 
held the first encampment of the brigade of state troops 
fully uniformed and presided over by the first brigadier- 
general of the state. Field drill and target practice were 
the principal features, and in these the company made a 
most creditable showing. 

On the 16th of the same month, the silver anniversary of 
the organization was celebrated in a very elaborate manner. 
The veterans of the organization, those who had grown out 
of active service, had made arrangements to organize a vet- 
eran corps on the sixth of the month so that they might 
manifest their interest and pride in the old company upon 
the occasion of the anniversary. 

Another memorable event connected with the celebration 
was the presentation to the organization of a handsome stand 
of colors by the f ollomng ladies : Mrs. Zachariah Chandler, 
Mrs. John J. Bagley, Mrs. C. E. Mabley, Miss Grace Whit- 
ney, Mrs. Robert Liggett, Mrs. O. Goldsmith, Mrs. C. J. 
Whitney, Mrs. J. B. Book, Mrs. D. M. Cooper, Mrs. Alex. 
Le^-is, Mrs. J. H. Farwell, Mrs. Strachan, Mrs. O. S. Gul- 
ley, Mrs. C. H. Buh], Mrs. R. A. Alger, Mrs. Allan Shelden, 

64 



Mrs. Samuel Heavenricli, Mrs, Wm. A. Butler, Jr., Mrs. 

D. M. Ferry, Mrs. Robert McMillan, Mrs. E. L. Shurly, 
Mrs. Luther Beecher, Mrs. A. Sheley, Mrs. E. H. Butler, 
Mrs. R. W. Bissell, Mrs. Wm. A. Butler, Miss Clara Avery, 
Mrs. S. A. Murphy, Mrs. A. L. Stebbins, Mrs. Col. Swift, 
Mrs. H. M. Duffield, Mrs. Newell Avery, Mrs. J. L. Edson, 
Mrs. D. V. Bell, Mrs. G. S. Wormer, Mrs. D. Preston, Mrs. 

E. A. Brush, Mrs. Jerome Croul, Mrs. S. D. Miller, Mrs. 
R. P. Toms, Mrs. D. O. Farrand, Mrs. Chas. Root, Mrs. 
Wm. A. Waterman, Mrs. L. L. Farnsworth, Mrs. George 
Jerome, Mrs. Frank Farnsworth, Mrs. L. Lambert, Mrs. 
Robinson. 

The Hon. Alfred Russell always makes a happy speech, 
and upon every ceremony he has been sought after for some 
words to grace the occasion. His presentation speech upon 
this occasion had this in conclusion : ''Long may it wave 
over you and over this company, in sunshine and in storm ; 
if ever you are called upon to again engage in the shock of 
war, when you return to Detroit, though it may be torn and 
tattered by shot and shell, though it may be covered with 
smoke, yet I am sure you will never have shrunk from dan- 
ger, that it will never have covered a coward, nor one who 
turned his back upon the enemy." 

On Feb. 24th, 1881, tlie organization gave its second 
governor's levee in honor of Gov. Jerome and staff. It 
took place in the music hall and was a very brilliant social 
event with many distinguished guests from other states. 

The death of Ex-Gov. John J. Bagley occurred in August, 
and on the 7th, the remains were escorted to the grave by 
the active and veteran corps, and full military honors ac- 
corded. 

No state encampment was held in this year, but the Light 
Guard attended the funeral of President Garfield at Cleve- 

65 



land, Sept. 26th, forming a part of the Detroit infantry- 
battalion. 

On April 2nd, 1882, the company turned out for the pur- 
pose of providing military interment for the remains of 
Col. Wm. D. Wilkins, who had been a charter member. 

It was on May 1st of this year that the company adopted 
the present crest, consisting of a tiger's head, with the motto 
"Deo Liberati Gloriae," and ever since, the members have 
styled themselves ''The Tigers." 

In August, 1882, the company assembled with the bri- 
gade for instruction at Island Lake, and the location proving 
to be so satisfactory in every respect, it has continued to be 
used as a rendezvous for the state troops on almost every 
occasion upon which it has been necessary to assemble the 
brigade. 

The year 1882 happily culminated in the twenty-seventh 
anniversary, and found the company again in possession of 
very fine parlors. With the split of 1877, the parlors were 
given up, and when taken possession of again, on ISTovember 
16th, 1882, they were opened with a grand evening recep- 
tion and ball, complimentary to the honorary and veteran 
members. The furnishings were described by the local 
press as complete, artistic and beautiful. A fund had been 
raised for the purpose, and many handsome gifts in bronze, 
bric-a-brac and furniture came from the friends of the com- 
pany. It was a red-letter day for the organization. 

The third governor's levee was given in honor of Gov. 
Begole and staff at the music hall. The standing of the or- 
ganization attracted many distinguished guests, and the af- 
fair was patronized by some of the most prominent ladies 
and gentlemen of the city. 

The twenty- eighth anniversary was celebrated at Island 
Lake with an old-fashioned barbecue and target shooting, 
thus combining business and pleasure. 



In December, Capt. Beniteau retired from command. 
Under his energetic leadership, and with the able assistance 
of Lieut. Famsworth, the company had attained a most ex- 
cellent condition and was accorded the highest standing 
generally over all other local organizations. 

The company was present at the brigade encampment in 
1884, and on Oct. 5th, it was called upon to escort to the 
cemeter}^ the remains of Gen. W. A. Throop. He had been 
a veteran member of the company and had entered the First 
Michigan — three months — during the Civil War as second 
lieutenant of the company, and his subsequent record had 
been very brilliant. 

It had become the custom for the veteran and active corps 
to hold a joint celebration upon the date of each anniversary, 
and they were very successful affairs. The presence of the 
veterans always added strength to the celebration, and the 
sympathy extended by them to the members of the company 
had the effect of bringing the two organizations closer to- 
gether in their general interests. There will be no attempt 
made to give an account of the celebration of each anni- 
versary, as it would involve the use of too much space, and 
sufficient mention has been made of each occasion in that 
part of this volume dealing with the Veteran Corps. It is 
a fact, that such events are almost necessary in maintaining 
a sufficient degree of enthusiasm to hold an organization up 
to a point of good standing and effectiveness, and the suc- 
cessive celebrations, which might better be called reunions, 
held upon the occasion of each recurring anniversary 
of the organization have always been productive of 
a great amount of good. The relative character of both 
corps can best be exhibited by the following quotation: 
Section 4 of Article I., Civil Code of the Detroit Light 
Guard, adopted July 11, 1881, provided: 

67 



"The company shall comprise four classes, and its mem- 
bers shall be classified respectively as : 

"1, Active. 

"2. Veteran. 

"3. Honorary and Contributing. 

"4. Life Honorary," 

Section 6, Article I., provides: 

"The Veteran Corps shall be composed of members 
chosen from the ex-members of the Active Corps, who have 
not been expelled therefrom. Members of this Corps shall 
be entitled to all privileges of the members of the Active 
Corps, except a vote at company meetings and eligibility 
to office. They may adopt such regulations of their own 
organization and government as are not inconsistent with 
the provisions of this code," 

After the revival which began in 1878 and reached its 
climax in 1880, there came a relapse, which, though not 
serious at first, grew in proportions, until, in 1884, the 
membership had fallen off considerably, and interest in 
drills was at rather a low ebb, but with the election of Wm, 
G, Latimer to the captaincy in December, 1884, there came 
a renewal of activity in the company's affairs, and there 
has been no retrogression at any time since. 

On Feb. 12th, 1885, the organization gave its fourth 
governor's levee in honor of Gov. Alger and staff at a place 
called Princess Rink. It is stated that the affair was so 
elaborate that dwelling houses adjoining the Rink were 
rented for dressing rooms, and a refreshment room was 
built expressly for the occasion. It is also recorded that 
"the decorations were the most elaborate ever seen in this 
section of the country." The governor did not know then 
that he was to be accorded a greater and more public recep- 
tion at a certain time in years to follow. 

In July, the company had been drilled industriously with 



a view to visiting l!^iagara Falls upon the occasion of the 
dedication of the National Park, but upon the day chosen 
for the trip, Gov. Alger issued orders for the company, to- 
gether with a number of others, to proceed to Bay City to 
assist the authorities in suppressing a serious labor riot. The 
show of troops, however, caused the abandonment of all un- 
lawful proceedings. 

The thirtieth anniversary was observed in a manner 
which quite revived old times and brought again to the 
immediate front many of the dear traditions and much of 
the honored record of the organization. 

In the forepart of 1886, Capt. Latimer resigned the cap- 
taincy to accept the position of major of the Fourtli Regi- 
ment, and Sidney R. Dixon was elected to fill the vacancy. 
Capt. Latimer left the company in excellent condition in 
all respects, but Capt. Dixon proved to be a most successful 
successor in maintaining, and even advancing beyond the 
high standard left for him. 

On July 18th, 1886, during the brigade encampment, 
the Veteran Corps paid a visit to the company in a body 
upon the company's invitation given some time before. 
This event is described in the history of the Veteran Corps, 
but for lack of mention there, it should be stated that a sou- 
venir memorial had been prepared by the company with 
very appropriate inscriptions. The brilliance of the occasion 
was added to by the presence of Gov. Alger and staff, Brig.- 
Gen. Smith and staff, and Gen. Pennington, U. S. A., in 
full dress uniform. 

In the year 1877 there occurred the death of two prom- 
inent veterans of the Light Guard. The first was John 
Robertson who had been adjutant-general of the state for 
twenty-six years continuously, and one of the organizers and 
signers of the original roll of the company. The other was 
Robert A. Liggett, who had been captain of the company in 

69 



1875, and one of the company's most popular officers. Both 
corps attended the interment of the remains. 

The fifth governor's levee was held in honor of Gov. Luce 
and staff on Jan. 26th, 1888, and was characterized by the 
usual brilliance. 

At this time there were very few social clubs in the city, 
in fact, only two or three, and it became the idea of the lead- 
ing spirts of the organization that, by leasing the whole sec- 
ond floor of the building, their quarters could be enlarged 
and refurnished, and various club attractions introduced, and 
the result might be that a good class of young men would 
come forward and enter into membership. Two thousand 
dollars was secured for the purpose by issuing "Improve- 
ment Bonds," and a house committee composed of Capt. S. 
R Dixon, J. D. Suckert, Wm. M. Harvey, John Hutchings, 
J. O. Marx, C. D. Schulte and A. O. Gray were authorized 
to lay plans and execute them. So the sign "Firemen's 
Hall" was covered up by a new sign which read "The Light 
Guard Armory," and on March 7th, 1888, the organization 
formally opened its improved quarters for public inspection. 
Twenty -five hundred dollars had been spent, and it had 
been exceedingly well spent, as the new, rich furnishings 
testified. 

The veterans had their quarters and their own mail box, 
and right across the hall were similar quarters for the 
actives. The frescoer had not stinted the use of gilt, the 
profusion of which gave a most pleasing effect. Oak had 
been used in relaying the flooring and stairway, and stained 
glass was used in the doors. The parlors were carpeted in 
velvet and brussels, with Turkish rugs strewn about, and in 
the drawing room a fine mahogany piano had been installed. 
The fireplace and mantel had been treated in antique style, 
and through the rooms were scattered pieces of mahogany 
furniture, and alcoves and mantel pieces adorned with sub- 

70 



jects done in bronze and marble. The walls were covered 
with paintings, engTavings, and many photographs. A 
small rooom had been handsomely finished off in green, and 
was used for the officers' meetings. The old equipment 
room had been turned into a dining hall, and the kitchen 
had been provided with all culinary furnishings. 

All the rooms on one side of the hall could be connected 
by simply drawing the heavy curtains aside which separated 
them. On the other side of the hall, there was a reading 
and smoking room, and billiard parlor with a richly carved 
Schulenburg table, and in the front was a quiet little room 
called the "study." The legacy of dust and dilapidation 
which the Fireman's Association had left, disappeared at the 
magic touch of the decorators. Fi-om the richly frescoed 
ceiling there hung two immense bronze chandeliers. A 
stage had been built at one end, and accommodation had 
been made for eight hundred seats, so that this hall might 
be used for an auditorium as well as a drill floor. A series 
of twenty fine engravings, illustrating military life, was 
presented by Mr. Sidney B. Dixon, father of the company's 
captain. The gim racks, built in this room, were of black 
walnut, and contrasted with the shining barrels of the rifles. 
There were other rooms fitted up; the company rooms, and 
rooms for stores of all kinds. 

Years have passed since then, and there is a new sign 
covering the one placed there by the Light Guard, for, ac- 
cording to the laws of progress, the organization's ambition 
has been richly favored. 

On Sept. 17th, Capt. DLxon resigned and Fred L. Abel 
was elected to fill the vacancy. The going of Capt. Dixon 
was greatly regretted, as the company, during his com- 
mand, had been maintained in a prosperous condition and 
up to a very high standard of efficiency. The report of 
Inspector-General Kidd for 1887 shows the proficiency in 

71 



drilling, etc., of the company under Capt. Dixon's com- 
mand. Gen. Eadd stated : "The manner in which that 
company acquitted itself, not only in tactical precision, but 
soldiery bearing, attendance, military courtesy, and clean- 
liness of habiliments, is rarely excelled." 

On ISTov, 17th, 1889, the company appeared in their an- 
nual parade with new coats just issued by the state and 
worn for the first time. 

Capt. Abel resigned the command of the company right 
after the brigade encampment in 1890, and Capt. S. R. 
Dixon was again called to take command. 

The most important event of the year had been the amal- 
gamation in June of the Detroit City Greys, commanded by 
Capt. C. Ed. Richmond, with the Detroit Light Guard. This 
gave the organization a battalion formation again. 

The record of the City Greys, now Company F, Detroit 
Light Guard, was a brilliant one, the few years of their 
existence being filled with splendid victories won upon the 
drill ground. The company was organized in 1881 as an 
independent company; the idea predominating being to 
form a company of citizen soldiery of purely young men, 
who, filled with an ambition to excel, would be a credit to 
themselves and to the city of Detroit. That their purpose 
was carried out is evidenced by a rapid succession of brilliant 
performances upon the prize drill fi,eld. Victory followed 
victory in a remarkable short space of time, and the com- 
pany soon came to be looked upon as one of the best drilled 
companies in the northwest. 

The following are the most notable victories won by Com- 
pany E : At Grand Rapids, July 4th, 1882, first prize, $800 
and a handsome banner. At Detroit, Aug. 11th, 1883, first 
prize, $400. At Milwaukee, Wis., Sept. 23rd, 1884, first 
prize, which consisted of individual diamond medals. Be- 
sides the above first prizes. Company F has also won several 



second prizes. The companies visited Monroe on July 4th 
to assist the local company and the citizens in an elaborate 
celebration. 

In November, 1890, the thirty-fifth anniversary was very 
interestingly celebrated. It was the first anniversary cele- 
bration for the new company, and the interchange of good 
fellowship had the effect of bringing the two companies 
closer together. The event was yet more notable because 
a history of the organization, carefully compiled, had been 
published in very handsome style and was circulated among 
the members. 

On Feb. 10th. 1891, the Light Guard honored Gov. 
Winans and staff by holding a levee. This was the sLxth 
affair of its kind without a break in the custom, and it had 
come to be regarded as a fixed event. Many prominent 
public men added importance to the occasion by their pres- 
ence, and among the principal guests was Gen. Miles and 
staff. 

During the spring of 1891, more or less disorder was 
threatened by rioting laborers, and the companies of 
the Light Guard kept themselves in readiness for any call 
that might be made, and maintained a guard at the armory, 
principally for the purpose of protecting the ordnance stores 
from the strikers. 

On Nov. 2nd, 1891, the companies assisted the veterans 
who participated in the Civil War, in giving a campfire to 
invited guests in attendance upon the G. A. R. National 
Encampment. The companies spent $465, and this liberal 
expenditure helped make the affair a complete success. 

On July 4th, 1892, the companies visited Bay City by 
special invitation to participate in the observance of the day 
at that place. 

The annual brigade encampment found the companies 
at their post in excellent condition, for at the regular meet- 

73 



ing of the Light Guard in June, the captains had been in- 
structed to drill their companies three times per week until 
the time of encampment, and Captains Dixon and Borgman 
each offered a badge to be presented to the man who could 
be rated as being best in appearance and behavior during 
the tour. 

In the following month, Lieut. Harrah succeeded Capt. 
Dixon in the command of A Company. Although Capt. 
Roehm had resigned the command of Company F in the 
spring, and Lieut. M. G. Borgman having been elected to 
succeed him, immediately assumed command, yet the lat- 
ter's commission was not formally made out imtil in Sep- 
tember, at which time Capt. Roehm's bond was discharged. 

A very large initiation fee was charged all applicants for 
membership in the organization, and the election of new 
members was always very carefully conducted, with the 
result that many names appear upon the records as having 
failed to receive admission. The dues were also rather large, 
but it kept the finances of the organization in very good con- 
dition, and enabled it to make continual improvements in 
that portion of the building which had been leased from 
the Water Board for the armory. The house committee 
was continually charged with making some new improve- 
ments, and subscriptions were kept up for such publications 
as Army and Xavy Journal, Harper's Weekly and humorous 
weeklies. 

In March of 1891, a movement was started for the forma- 
tion of a third company, but although the matter had pro- 
gressed later on in the year to the point of the authorization 
of the purchase of uniforms, yet because of the difficulty 
of maintaining the ranks of the other two companies up to 
the maximum, it was finally decided to be impossible to 
maintain a third company in the organization. There was 
a continuous enrollment of new members, and just as active 

74 



a discharge of old members, principally because of delin- 
quency in paying dues, and so in order to remedy the situ- 
ation, the requirement of a ten dollar initiation fee was 
stricken out of the constitution and by-laws in June, 1892. 
In the latter part of the same year, the requirement that an 
applicant measure five feet, seven inches in height was 
changed to five feet, six inches. Members who were out of 
regular employment were permitted to work out their dues 
by cleaning guns at the rate of forty cents per gun, just as a 
farmer will work out his taxes on the public roads. 

At this time there was no provision made by the CTeneral 
Regulations for the period covered by the commissions of 
officers, that matter being left to the by-laws of all com- 
panies in the brigade. The Light Guard companies elected 
their officers annually on the first day of December of each 
year, and continued to do so, until, in 1893, the General 
Regulations were changed to provide for a three-years com- 
mission. 

The thirty-seventh anniversary was celebrated this year 
in a manner somewhat different from that of all previous 
occasions. The change was that the Active Corps ban- 
queted at the Armory as usual, but the veterans held their 
reunion and banquet at the Wayne Hotel. This caused 
more or less feeling among the members of the Active Corps, 
but reference to the history of the Veteran Corps \vill do 
this incident justice. 

Discipline had become a marked feature, and regulations 
were supported by positive execution. The rules required 
that the first sergeants make monthly reports of members 
of their company absent from drill without excuse. These 
absentees were assessed a fine of twenty-five cents, and if 
absence occurred five times in one quarter, the member was 
eligible for dishonorable discharge. 

In February, 1893, there was appointed a committee 

75 



whose duty it was to visit the sick members and to purchase 
and present, in the name of the organization, such articles 
as flowers and other things enjoyable to invalids. This 
committee proved to be a happy institution, and although 
there was not much sickness among the members, such 
cases as there were, were taken care of by this committee, 
and the fellowship effect was more or less felt. 

The jury laws of this state, as well as that of numerous 
other states, provides that each company of state militia 
may have the privilege of selling one hundred and fifty 
contributing memberships with a face value of $10.00, thus 
opening up one source of income. In 1893 an effort was 
made in the state legislature to repeal that law, and as the 
Light Guard would naturally suffer very much from the 
change, it used all its influence, and helped with the other 
military organizations to prevent the passage of the repeal. 

At a meeting of the companies in March, 1893, Capt. 
Eberts, of the Veteran Corps, presented the meeting with a 
book of tactics compiled by an officer of the Brady Guards in 
1843, and he also stated that Col. Lum was desirous of pre- 
senting his picture to the organization. The action taken in 
connection with this information is set forth in the history 
of the Veteran Corps at the time of the celebration of the 
thirty-eighth anniversary. 

On July 4th, 1893, the normal standard of efficiency of 
the companies was made apparent, when, upon their visit 
to Saginaw, Company F, under Capt. Borgman, entered 
the prize drill field upon two hours' notice, and without any 
previous preparation, won the first prize of $150. 

Brigade encampment was attended as usual in August. 

It was in November, 1893, that Capt. Harrah proposed 
that an iron medal be given to men who attended every 
drill in three months; a bronze medal for six months; silver 
for one year; and gold for two years. This custom was a 



marked success for a while, and would have continued to be 
one of the strongest features of the organization, and one 
of the most potent influences in keeping the membership 
in high standing, but from time to time after this, whenever 
it would occur to any member that a performance of a cer- 
tain duty for a certain length of time should receive recog- 
nition in the shape of a presentation of a medal, there got 
to be a confusion of such rewards, and interest in their own- 
ership gradually died out until the custom became extinct 
about four years later. 

With the beginning of the year 1894, arrangements were 
made by the house committee for the conversion of the drill 
room into an indoor base ball held. The game became very 
popular, and a league was formed to play other clubs during 
the rest of the winter. 

In January of this year, it was found that the sinking 
fund had accumulated sufficiently to make it good policy to 
make an income bearing investment, and it was decided to 
make a loan of $1,000 to Edmond Atkinson at eight (8%) 
interest. At this same time, it was proposed that a compe- 
tent man be employed at a moderate salary to act as mana- 
ger, whose duties it would be to keep the contributing mem- 
bership certificates placed, collect dues, rent the hall, devise 
and supervise entertainments, and in general do all in his 
power to advance the interests and improve the condition of 
the Detroit Light Guard. The proposition got pigeon-holed, 
however, and was lost sight of. 

On April 26th the seventh governor's levee was given in 
honor of Gov, Rich and staff at the Hotel Cadillac. 

It may puzzle the reader, if he be a member of the Active 
Corps, that there should appear no account of the celebra- 
tions of the various anniversaries, but following out the idea 
that is laid down in the preface of this volume, the reader 
will find a proper mention of these events in the text of the 

77 



Veteran Corps history, as it is acknowledged and believed 
that these affairs would not have been the happy and prom- 
inent events they were, had it not been for association with 
such a class of men as composes the Veteran Corps. 

Early in the year of 1895, the company completed what 
was regarded as the best rifle range in the state, but it has 
latterly passed out of the hands of the organization, al- 
though it is in a measure made up for by the fact that there 
is a good range in the new armory building. 

It is unnecessary to record that both companies attended 
the usual annual encampments of the brigade, as they were 
both a sworn part of the state troops, and of a necessity had 
to attend all encampments. The members of the Detroit 
Light Guard play a dual roll ; in one they are amenable only 
to the state, and in the other to the Light Guard organiza- 
tion. When a man makes application for membership in 
the Detroit Light Guard, he appears before the Board of 
Directors of that organization, which is practically nothing 
more or less than the civil corporation of the active mem- 
bership. The applicant is eitlier admitted or rejected upon a 
vote of the directors, and if accepted, is assigned to one of the 
companies for regular enlistment as a isTational Guardsman. 
He has now to observe the rules and regulations of both 
spheres of authority, and if he digress the rules of the civil 
organization, and is found to merit dishonorable discharge, 
such action is recommended to his commanding officer, who 
must approve or disapprove the charges, and if, in his opin- 
ion, the man is not also guilty of a breach of the miKtary 
code, he retains him as a member in his company, but his 
status in connection with the property represented by the 
civil organization is such that, any relations he may have 
with it is trespassing, except when they are upon the orders 
of his commanding officer. There are no such cases in 
existence at present, and there is small possibility of their 

78 



occurrence, as both military and civil organizations are too 
closely knitted together, and both are so totally dependent 
upon each other that they must necessarily work in harmony, 
for the law does not permit a company to hold other than 
state property unless it incorporates with a civil organiza- 
tion, when each company becomes entitled to hold $30,000 
worth of property. 

In December of this year, an independent company known 
as the St. Johns Cadets applied for the privilege of con- 
solidating with the Light Guai*d companies. The company 
had a membership of thirty-two, but although the experi- 
ment of having a third company had been tried and proved 
a failure, yet it was decided to make another attempt, as it 
was more likely to prove a success this time, and so, on 
January 9 th the company was formally received and pro- 
vided with quarters. The strength of the company was not 
quite what had been expected, but it was taken in hand 
right at once, and the members were requested to elect a 
captain. Ever since 1891, the maximum number of com- 
panies in the state military organization has been forty, and 
there have always been new companies watching for some 
old company to be disbanded so that it might take its place, 
so with this idea in view, the company was given the title of 
M, as there was no company of that letter in the regiment 
to which the other companies belonged, at that time, but it 
was figured that there might either be a vacancy, or an 
increase in the number of companies, and in that event they 
might be able to get this new company in, and thus full 
preparations remained to that end. At that time, Duncan 
Henderson was the senior lieutenant of the Light Guard 
Battalion, and it was thought proper to place him in line 
for promotion by having the new company accept him as its 
commanding officer, but this action did not affect in any 
way his commission as first lieutenant in A Company, be- 

79 



cause, as has been stated, M Company was not in the state 
service. 

On February 24th, a camp fire was held in honor of Col. 
Charles M. Lum, who presented the active corps with a 
painting of Cloud's Mill, executed by himseK. The interest 
centered in this picture is accounted for in the history of the 
First Michigan Three Months. It was an enthusiastic affair, 
and Capt. Eberts, speaking for Col. Lum, made the event 
very interesting by reading an original account of the Light 
Guard's Three Months' service at the front in 1861. 

On April 23rd, Gen. R. A. Alger entertained the organi- 
zation at his residence upon the occasion of the presentation 
of service medals. 

As has been stated before, a description of the celebra- 
tions of each anniversary is to be found in the history of the 
Veteran Corps in this volume, and as the account of the 
armory, which appears elsewhere in this volume, covers 
completely everything relating to it, it mil be unnecessary 
to deal in this part with any events connected with the build- 
ing, as it would simply be a repetition. 

The Inspector General's report, issued in December, is 
here quoted as regards the condition of both the companies. 

''Company A — This company is found to be in a gener- 
ally satisfactory condition. The property is well taken care 
of; men attentive and earnest. A new armory is sorely 
needed and steps are under way for obtaining same. 

''Company F — This company is doing hard and earnest 
Avork and making great strides toward perfection. It is a 
pleasure to note the improvement in the company." 

The rating for Company A was 83^, and Company F 83^ ; 
the general average of the brigade was 78 per company, 
thus showing that the two companies of the Light Guard 
were in a very satisfactory condition. 

The fore part of the year of 1897 found the interest of 



the organization actively centered upon plans for building a 
new armory, and their possible ultimate successful execu- 
tion. The two events, breaking the ground and laying the 
corner stone, are described in the history of the armory, but 
it should be stated here that, the first occasion exhibited what 
was to be an additional factor in the organization. When 
the ceremony of breaking the ground took place. Company 
B, Fourth M. N. G., and known as ''The Detroit Xational 
Guard," participated with the Light Guard companies, and 
the incident culminated in the amalgamation of that com- 
pany with the others on June 25th, 1897. 

This company enjoyed the distinction of being the third 
oldest company of Detroit then in existence, and its origin 
dated back to 1865), when the Detroit Light Guard and the 
Porter Zouaves of Ann Arbor were encamped at Whitmore 
Lake. A young man by the name of James \V. Fisher re- 
turned home, after his visit to the camp, and inspired with 
martial enthusiasm, enlisted the interest of some elder 
friends, with the result that enough material was secured 
in a very few days to organize a company. 

In selecting the name, the members, wishing to make it 
an impersonal one, finally decided to adopt the title. The 
Detroit ISTational Guard. The title was broad enough to be 
non-indicative of the nationality of the members, but as a 
matter of fact, the organizers being of Irish nationality, the 
membership of the company maintained the same coloring 
for many years. 

The company prospered from the start, and very soon 
had the members equipped with very handsome and expen- 
sive uniforms. It was mustered into the state service in 
1870, and first rubbed shoulders with the Detroit Light 
Guard on state service, when both companies were called to 
the upper peninsular to assist the authorities in keeping the 
peace during the iron miners' strike, and when the Detroit 

81 



Light Guard received a check for five hundred dollars from 
the Iron Company a few years later, Company B was simi- 
larly remembered. 

The company went to Philadelphia during the time of the 
centennial exposition, and prepared the people there for 
further appreciation of the Michigan military as exhibited 
later upon the visit of the Detroit Light Guard. 

In 1876, Liberatti was unknown to the great fame that 
came to him in later years. At that time he played a cornet 
on one of the ferry boats, and the company, desiring to add 
a band to their organization, persuaded him to organize and 
train one. The genius of the musical Italian developed a 
group of musicians which found much favor with the peo- 
ple of Detroit, and while adding to the importance of the 
company, he also found himself launched upon the stream 
that was to give him a foremost position among cornet 
soloists. 

The company again saw service in company with the 
Detroit Light Guard during the time of the railroad riots. 

It was not long after the occurrence of the unhappy 
split in the Detroit Light Guard that a similar action hap- 
pened within the ranks of the Detroit N^ational Guard, for, 
owing to a close division during an election of officers, one 
faction withdrew and organized what has been known since 
as The Montgomery Rifles. 

The company, like other prominent military companies 
of the country during the late years of 1870 and most of 
1880, made frequent interchanges of visits with companies 
both in Michigan and in other states. 

The company had earned a reputation in marksmanship, 
and in 1893, in order to keep up the practice of target shoot- 
ing, a private range was built seven miles out on Grand 
River avenue, but later they selected a new location out on 
Jefferson avenue, near the Detroit Light Guard range. The 



success of the members in numerous contests resulted in 
their winning many trophies, and in 1897 the company 
made the second best percentage in competition with the 
whole Fourth Regiment, one of its members making the 
best score in the regiment. 

The company visited Chicago during the World's Fair, 
and took the Detroit Newsboys' Band with it; the same that 
afterward became the band of the Detroit Light Guard. 

There came a time when the ambitious spirit which had 
kept the company to the front in military circles demanded 
that a new armory be erected, as the antiquated and primi- 
tive hall in the old Board of Trade Building had become 
but a sorry place to be the repository of such honor as 
perched upon the colors of the company, and so plans were 
made to build a fine structure at a cost of thirty thousand 
dollars, but before any positive steps were taken, the matter 
of consolidating with the Detroit Light Guard began to be 
discussed, but as the plans of that organization were not yet 
in any definite shape. Company B allowed the matter to 
rest. However, it was discussed a great many times during 
the two years preceding the time when the Detroit Light 
Guard actually bought ground and had plans drawn for an 
armory building, and upon the special invitation of the 
Light Guard, given out of friendly feeling, and for the more 
important purpose of impressing the Detroit National Guard 
with the fact that the Light Guard would have a fine armory 
which it would like to have the company share, the company 
participated in the ceremony of breaking ground, as has been 
stated. 

At the time of consolidation, the company was in com- 
mand of Captain Wm. H. Sink, who had been commis- 
sioned April 24th, 1896. He had seen much National 
Guard service, and had risen steadily from the ranks, and the 
date at which this volume goes to press, finds him wearing 



the gold oak leaf, as second battalion commander of the new 
First Eegiment. 

The state brigade encampment in August, 1897, was the 
most successful encampment held since the brigade was 
organized. In January the war department had detailed 
Gapt. Cornelius Gardner, of the Nineteenth U, S. I. for 
duty with the Michigan National Guard as instructor. This 
was an innovation, but the positive benefit to the organiza- 
tion made itself evident by the increased standard of effi- 
ciency as displayed by the troops at this encampment, and it 
was this same army officer who was later to be the comman- 
der of the Detroit Light Guard companies in the volunteer 
service in 1898-9. It was particularly appropriate— in the 
light of subsequent events — that at this encampment the 
men were for the first time given a practical knowledge of 
campaign life in everything but actual combat. 

Although Company B had consolidated, yet it had certain 
traditions and customs which were not lightly to be thrown 
aside imder the new order of things, and so, according to 
their time-settled custom, the members gave an after drill 
hop at the Light Guard Armory on October 23rd, and per- 
formed the ceremony of the presentation of medals. 

The middle step in building the Armory was celebrated 
on October 18th by the laying of the corner stone. 

The forty-second anniversary celebration was a marked 
success, and unwittingly productive of momentous expres- 
sions by those present, there having been introduced in 
speeches no reference whatever of the chances of a possible 
international war, except in the general manner that 
speeches in the past had dealt with such a possible circum- 
stance in an abstract way. 

For several years previous to November 3rd, the Light 
Guard had been without a band of its own, but on this date, 
the band which had been known as the Newsboys' Band 

84 



attached itself to the Light Guard. This band was organ- 
ized in 1890, and as many of its members had grown almost 
to manhood, they sought to obtain a more prominent title 
and position by affiliating with the Detroit Light Guard. It 
had a good record, and had been before the public on 
numerous occasions outside of the state. 

Going back to the 5 th of October, we find the Light 
Guard entering upon a contest for supremacy in the affairs 
of the Fourth Regiment, M. N, G. In 1893 Capt. Borgman 
of Company F of the Light Guard, was elected to fill a 
vacancy for a major with the assistance of the officers of the 
Light Infantry Companies in the regiment, and it was 
agreed, in return for the assistance, that the next vacancy 
would be filled by a candidate from the Light Infantry, but 
the acknowledged rule was that of promotion by rank, and, 
of course, the agreement, even without specification, would 
be in conformity with that established rule. Suddenly, in 
1894, Col. Sheehan resigned, and Capt. Lothrop of the 
Light Infantry, immediately came forward as candidate for 
succession, but as he was only the sixth ranking officer, the 
Light Guard officers considered that this was unreasonable, 
and since Capt. Lothrop had chosen to ignore the rule of 
promotion by rank, thereby passing over the head of Lieut.- 
Col. Geo. W. Corns, who was the logical candidate under 
the agreement, as his rank placed him in line of promotion, 
and he was also a Light Infantry man, they would consider 
the old agreement broken, and enter the contest with a 
candidate of their own, with the result that William G. 
Latimer was elected to fill both the unexpired and full 
terms. Col. Latimer had an early military training at 
the Michigan Military Academy, and was elected 
major in the Fourth Regiment in 1887 from the captaincy 
of the Light Guard Company. He dropped out of the 
service for a while, but at the time he was elected colonel, 

85 



lie was filling the captaincy of Company F. He 
proved to be a thoroughly competent officer for the com- 
mand of a regiment, and so, when the date for the regular 
election took place three years later, it was partly because 
of his efficiency, and partly because of the antagonism of the 
Light Infantry officers, that the Light Guard decided to 
press the re-election of Gol. Latimer, but when the time 
came. Col. Latimer decided to retire from the contest, and 
the Light Guard immediately put forward Lieut.-Col. 
Webb, this time for the specific purpose of emphasizing the 
rule of promotion by rank, and attesting the organization's 
strength in the regiment. The proceedings which followed 
were erroneous upon two points, chargeable one each to both 
parties, but the one which the Light Guard officers made 
was not discovered imtil several months later, while the 
result was still being contested. 

The strength of both parties was equal, but Col. Latimer 
ruled, and confirmed by a credential committee appointed 
on the moment, that the commission which Lieut. Winkler 
of the Light Infantry held, was not regular, and that there- 
fore, he was not entitled to vote. This resulted in the Light 
Infantry party retiring, when the Light Guard candidates 
were at once elected among themselves. This was a very 
clever move, but it was a most proper one nevertheless. 
Lieut. Winkler's commission had been issued close upon the 
heels of the resignation of his predecessor, Lieut. Chipman, 
and the contention was that, the governor being absent from 
the state when Lieut. Chipman resigned, the resignation had 
not been authoritatively acted upon, therefore the com- 
mission issued to Lieut. Winkler — also during the gover- 
nor's absence — was not valid. If the resignation of the one 
had been accepted by the lieutenant governor, and the com- 
mission to the other, issued by him, there could have been 
no such ruling as Col. Latimer made. It has always been 



alleged that it was the habit with the governors to sign com- 
missions in blank to be filled out at any time by the adjutant 
general, but the adjutant general, or an adjutant of any 
rank, has no authority of his own to issue orders, and this is 
as well known in the militia as it is in the regular army. The 
ruling was a surprise to the Light Infantry party, for under 
it, the Light Guard party would have a majority of one, so 
they withdrew, and Col. Latimer certified the elections by 
the Light Guard to the adjutant general. However, the 
adjutant general did not apply for the issuance of commis- 
sions for the new officers, but instead, called another elec- 
tion to take place on January 4th, 1898, but after one hun- 
dred and ten ballots had been taken, the session was brought 
to a conclusion at five o'clock in the morning by an adjourn- 
ment ordered by Col. Latimer. The Light Infantry party 
contended that Col. Latimer had not this authority, and so 
they assembled in the street and elected their candidate, 
which the governor declared a few days later was illegal, 
and the adjutant general transmitted instructions through 
Col. Latimer to the other faction that their action had been 
improper, and their position untenable. 

In January, 1898, the military board investigated the 
matter, and decided to order another election and see 
whether the officers could not effect a more harmonious con- 
clusion, but it was evident that the roots of antagonism had 
sunk deeper than the board had any idea of. This third 
election was called for January 31st, but omng to the fact 
that steps had been taken by the Light Guard party to have 
a test made in the courts, all parties agreed to have the elec- 
tion postponed, and it was upon the review of the case by 
the supreme court that the error committed by the Light 
Guard was brought to light, but one, however, which had 
been unwittingly made. The court ruled that elections 
held to supply a vacancy in a field office made by a resigna- 

87 



tion, was one in which field officers were entitled to vote 
with the line officers, but that where there was no vacancy, 
and the election was held at the expiration of a term, only 
the line officers were entitled to vote, and thus it was that the 
new election was called, which simply resulted in a new 
deadlock, for the strength of both parties had been reduced 
equally by the court's ruling. It might be stated with due 
respect to the court that the findings were not in accordance 
with customary rulings in the cases of contested elections. 
When a political election is before a court for review, the 
ballot boxes are simply purged of the incompetent votes, 
and if this precedent had been followed by the court, the 
vote of Lieut. Winkler would have simply been thrown out, 
and the majority of one in favor of the Light Guard's can- 
didate, would have justified the ruling of Col. Latimer that 
Major Webb had been properly elected colonel. 

An incident which shows the character of the earnestness 
of the two parties, is that Capt. Harrah, who, finding him- 
self belated at Port LIuron on the evening of the election, 
having just missed the train for Detroit, finally arranged to 
rent a locomotive — at great expense to himself — and at the 
rate of forty-five miles an hour, he arrived, almost sea sick 
from the swaying of the engine, just in time to report at 
eight o'clock. 

It now became apparent to the governor and Military 
Board that the only relief in the matter was to disorganize, 
or re-organize the regiment, but they finally decided to 
divide it, making two separate battalions, of which the three 
companies of the Light Guard and one from Monroe com- 
posed the Second Battalion, and the other companies con- 
stituted the First Battalion, as its commander was the senior 
major. The Second Battalion was ordered to report to 



Capt, Harrah, who was detailed in command, thus causing 
the ending of a very unhappy situation, and while the re- 
sults were not altogether to the tast« of the Light Guard 
officers, yet it brought peace, and they had established the 
appropriateness of their crest. 




89 



CHAPTEE IV. 

Unconsciously Fitting for Coming Events — Cuba — Uprisings — 
Efforts of President McKinley to Relieve Suffering and Restore 
Peace— Destruction of the Maine — War — First Call. 

It has been shown how the Detroit Light Guard received 
its birth and grew into manhood, adding to its strength in. 
later years, and by reference to the account of the armory, 
the reader will be impressed with the energy and ambition 
which is a marked characteristic of the organization. Its 
fight for supremacy in the Fourth Regiment, while not 
resulting as they had planned, yet left them with peace, 
and that is always necessary when an organization is trying 
to accomplish something. 

Upon every occasion when the active members were 
assembled for the purpose of celebrating an anniversary or 
some other event in conjunction with the Veteran Corps, it 
was the custom of the speakers to express their approval of 
military organizations, and the assurance that the members 
of the Light Guard would maintain their high state of effi- 
ciency and thus be prepared when their country needed 
them. It may be that these old veterans had fallen into the 
habit of making just such speeches, and were not themselves 
impressed with the significance that growing events were 
likely to add to them, or it may be that communities far 
removed from the seaboard, do not appreciate events of a 
more or less international character in the same light in 
which they are regarded by their fellow citizens who live in 
coast cities, but in these days of press associations that 
gather news from the earth round, and place it before a man 
several times daily if he lives within a few miles of any kind 

90 



of a railroad station, it is hard to draw the line of demarka- 
tion in the various degrees of regard with which the people 
look upon events of the character mentioned. 

The American people have never had a thirst or desire 
for conquest. The sword was never drawn, or the musket 
shouldered, except where the Americans burned with a 
righteous wrath to avenge some wrong inflicted upon them. 
This is plainly to be read in the history of the Revolution, 
and in all the lesser subsequent wars the principle was 
equally as prominent. When we fought Mexico, it was not 
for conquest, but to right a wrong that was done to Ameri- 
cans, but the fortunes of war generously placed additional 
territory in our hands, and thus, all through the history of 
our nation, it will be found that where new territory was not 
bought, it came to us in the manner just described. The last 
piece of territory we added to our national holdings is 
Alaska, which we paid $7,200,000 for in 1867. 

There was, therefore, no rational reason why we should 
make militarism a prominent feature of our government, 
for the beckoning finger of conquest cannot bait itself with 
enough glitter to induce the nation to follow after. 

Thus, since the close of the Civil War, when there was a 
reaction from the military activity that had drained the 
resources of the country, the regular army of the United 
States had been reduced to a size just sufficient to cope with 
the Indian disturbances, and to do fatigue duty at the vari- 
ous military posts throughout the country. Its strength was 
estimated in round numbers at 25,000 officers and men, 
hence at the beginning of the year 1898, the United States 
was as little prepared for military activity as the government 
had been in the year 1861. During the intervening period 
she had been at peace with all nations, and it never entered 
the mind of Americans to even imagine themselves being 
mixed up in a howling storm of war. The navy itself had 

91 



progressed slowly in its growth, but later events proved that 
it had grown in a healthy manner, though it was not yet 
rep^esentati^'e of this country as judged by the standard 
set by European powers. 

The reason for setting down these statements here will be 
finally unfolded as the reader proceeds with the succeeding 
pages. 

A trifle over five centuries ago, there lived an Italian who 
had formed a conviction that the world was round, and it 
became the deep-rooted purpose of his life to prove it. The 
schoolboy will never cease to be fascinated by the story of 
Colimibus and the egg — the Columbus who begged so hard 
for a ship to sail in, out into the great unknown. His fruit- 
less efforts to interest Spain drove him to the court of the 
neighboring maritime nation, but just when Portugal had 
agreed to equip the explorer, Spain hastily recalled him, 
and with liberal hand fitted out an expedition. Thus 
equipped, firm in his convictions, and fired with the chroni- 
clings of the jaunts of that old globe trotter, Marco Polo, 
the indomitable navigator set sail and eventually planted, on 
a spot antipodean to the port from which he set sail, the 
first European standard to appear in the western hemis- 
phere. 

It is reasonable to wonder what difference it would have 
made if that had been Portugal's flag, but a fair guess is that 
England would have dominated the weaker power, and the 
whole West Indies might now be a part of her belt of 
sovereignty. 

The natural beauty of mountainous Cuba drew Columbus 
to its shores, and with heart beating high in the belief that 
he had reached the western end of the Asiatic mainland, and 
would soon find himself treading in the steps of his hero 
Polo, at the court of the Tartar' Sovereign, he made haste to 
land and dispatch his ambassadors, but alas, their report 



dispelled his illusion ; there was no princely court, and they 
had traveled far, but found neither highways or cities — 
just the plain Indians, and nature's untouched handiwork. 

Spain was the greatest maritime power at this period, and 
she lost no time in following up the discoveries of new lands, 
by sending ships and troops, and as her appetite for conquest 
grev/, the mainland of North and Central and South Amer- 
ica came under her baneful touch. 

Santiago was established as an armed post and first seat 
of government in Cuba, but the island was not developed, as 
Spain was busy with her new mainland possessions, so that 
for a long time, the harbors of Havana and Santiago were 
used simply as bases for local expeditions, and calling ports 
on the long voyages, but the growing antagonistic activity 
of the other maritime European powers in the new world, 
made it necessary that the ports be fortified, and when our 
ships of war lined up in front of Havana on that April even- 
ing in 1898, they were confronted by the very fortifications 
which the Spanish King had ordered built in 1589, a few 
years after the seat of government had been transferred 
there from Santiago. 

In the beginning of the eighteenth century, attention 
was directed to the development of the island, and agricul- 
ture soon became the prominent industry, but the laborers 
were not the original natives — for Spain hal exterminated 
them by this time — but a race of blacks installed by her in 
ship loads, and it is the descendants of these who are now 
called native Cubans. 

It seems that the present generation of Americans inher- 
ited war with Spain from the time when the American 
colonies of England supplied their quota of troops to assist 
in the capture of Havana in 1762 ; but Spain regained her 
sovereignty a year later by giving Florida to the British. 
However, the period of British occupation gave the same 



beneficial sanitary improvements that have characterized 
our latter day investment. 

Spain found herself, in the early years of the nineteenth 
century, in almost a death struggle at home with Hapoleon's 
legions, and although she was saved through the aid of other 
powers, yet many of her colonies had successfully seceded, 
and her finances and naval and military forces were in a 
thoroughly weakened condition. This state of affairs con- 
tracted her intercourse with her favorite possession in the 
"West Indies, and so, Cuba being thus left to practically gov- 
ern herself, and with a constant increase in population 
through the settling of large numbers of white colonists 
from neighboring islands, fast falling into other hands, 
enjoyed what has been termed her "golden period." 

In 1823, the famous doctrine declared by President Mon- 
roe stood in the way of Spain's hinted desire to realize a 
replenishment of her finances by transf ering the island to a 
continental power, and so Spain was compelled to retain the 
responsibility for its welfare. 

Meanwhile, the negro slaves had multiplied in numbers 
according to JSTature's laws, and by reason of continual im- 
portations, and these formed one caste in the population. 
The middle class was composed of the ordinary white set- 
tlers, many of whom intermarried with the blacks, and the 
third was made up of the planters and large land owners, 
and while the latter was small in numbers, yet by virtue of 
their wealth, they held the controlling power, and retained 
the integrity of their blood. 

It was the black element that attempted the first series of 
revolts, but later, the uprisings were principally in the hands 
of the second class, and as the century grew, American 
sympathy became more and more pronounced, until in 1850 
filibustering expeditions began to leave our shores in charge 
of bands of Cuban refugees, but always aided by the wealth 
of individual Americans, and even their persons. 
94 



The desirability of the acquisition of Cuba had been first 
declared by Quincy Adams, and later by Jefferson, but the 
effort was never made, and had it been accomplished, there 
would be no account of the Detroit Light Guard in the 
Spanish- American War to be set down. 

The success of Spanish patrol ships in holding up the 
many filibustering expeditions, and her course in subjecting 
all American citizens captured to the same penalties meted 
out to the Cubans, kept the United States constantly on the 
verge of war with Spain by insisting to the point of threats 
upon the release of the captured Americans. The most 
deplorable of these affairs was the capture of the Virginius 
during the ''Ten Years' War,'' which began in 1868, when 
one-third of the party of one hundred and fifty-five Ameri- 
cans were executed at Santiago, before a British warship 
entered the harbor and checked the further vent of Spanish 
rage. 

Spain found herself compelled to end this war by making . 
a treaty with the insurgents, and eight years later made all 
the inhabitants free by a decree abolishing slavery. 

When we seek the cause of the late insurrection in 1895, 
we might as well conjure up the shade of the great Washing- 
ton, and question him about the American struggle for 
independence. 

Immediately upon the outbreak, did individual America 
respond to the situation with sympathy and means, and 
many National Guardsmen, through whose veins coursed 
the venturesome and battle-loving blood of heroic sires, 
placed their training and persons at the disposal of the insur- 
gents in the field. 

Official America did her part by continual kindly spirited 
representations to the Madrid Government, but when the 
Cleveland administration went out of office, no tangible re- 
sult had been accomplished, and McKinley, whose election 

95 



principle was tariff reform, soon found it overshadowed by 
the Cuban situation. 

Spain did not openly resent the ofHcial interest displayed 
by the United States, but continued to conduct the matter 
apart from outside influences, with the result that, by the 
hideous workings of Weyler's reconcentration bando, the 
United States was presented with the spectacle of a multi- 
tude of peaceful human beings slowly starving to death 
within ninety miles of her coast. 

President McKinley characterized this order of Weyler's 
as brutal and horrible, and although it was revoked by 
Blanco in 1897, yet the mischief could not be undone, al- 
though he raised quite a sum for the benefit of the starving 
pacificos. Individual America formed Cuban Relief Com- 
mittees, and effected much good, and on May I7th, Presi- 
dent McKinley stated to Congress that official information 
from our consuls reported a large number of American citi- 
zens in a state of destitution, suffering for want of food and 
medicines, and asked for an appropriation of fifty thousand 
dollars for relief purposes, and for the transportation of 
American citizens who desired to return to the United 
States but who were without funds to do so. Congress made 
the appropriation on May 24th. 

On December 24th, 1897, the President issued a public 
appeal, and two hundred thousand dollars were immediately 
contributed by citizens and applied in giving relief through 
the Red Cross Society. 

The difficulties of this government in trying to prevent 
filibustering expeditions from leaving our shores during the 
Ten Years' War again arose, but on a much more extensive 
scale. The efforts to check these expeditions entailed an 
enormous expense to the government, and the state depart- 
ment was continually placed in the embarrassing position of 
having to demand the release of some of our citizens, al- 

96 



though caught red-handed by the Spanish patrols. The 
sincerity of our government in this matter was shown when- 
ever it was successful in making captures of parties prepar- 
ing to go upon an expedition, by promptly placing them on 
trial, with the result that some were sentenced to confine- 
ment. 

The activity of our government in making representa- 
tions to the Madrid government was checked by the assassin- 
ation of the Spanish premier in August, for his successor, 
Sagasta, came forward with the assurance that the affairs 
of Cuba would soon be put into a satisfactory condition, and 
as an evidence of his sincerity, Weyler was recalled, and 
Blanco sent to take his place, so that the President, in his 
message to Congress in December, reviewing the Cuban 
question, announced that the new Spanish ministry would 
very likely adjust affairs to America's satisfaction. How- 
ever,- what merit there was in the plans of Sagasta, they 
came too late, for by this time nothing short of absolute inde- 
pendence would satisfy the Cubans. 

Eioting began in January, 1898, in Havana, and Consul- 
General Lee telegraphed to Washington that uncertainty ex- 
isted as to whether Blanco could control the situation, and 
that if he was powerless to protect Americans and their inter- 
ests, our government should send a ship of war to the port, 
and the government, having great confidence in General 
Lee, at once ordered the fine second-class battleship Maine, 
which had been lying at Key West for a month, to proceed 
at once to Havana on what was called a "friendly naval 
\asit." On the morning of January 25th the beautiful white 
battleship took our Stars and Stripes into Havana harbor, 
and after an exchange of salutes with the shore batteries, 
moved to her anchorage buoy which had been selected by 
the port officials for her position during the visit. 

On February 9th came the first evidence of the bitter 

97 



hatred which all Spaniards had for Americans, when a let- 
ter, written by the Spanish minister at Washington to the 
editor of a newspaper in Madrid, and taken from the mails 
in some mysterious manner, evidently by Cuban sympa- 
thizers, reached the eye of the public through its publication 
in the newspapers. The letter, expressing De Lome's pri- 
vate opinions, informed his friend that President McKinley 
was a weak, ignorant politician, and characterized his utter- 
ances as coarse. The incident opened the eyes of the Ameri- 
can people, who could not understand how the suave and 
courtly diplomat could conceal beneath the surface, such a 
violent dislike for those before whom he purred, and so, 
when Americans arose from their usual night's rest upon the 
morning of the 16th of February, and heard of the total 
destruction of the Maine and all but a few of her officers and 
crew, and after their faculties had recovered from the daze 
caused by the news, the whole terrible thing was pieced 
with the De Lome incident, and no wonder that the cry of 
treachery was heard across the land. American blood be- 
came fired to a fever heat, and it was hard to tell a jingo from 
a man of conservative ideas about war, but here was some- 
thing terrible that their whole being cried out for the aveng- 
ing of, and what made it hardest to bear was the restraint 
entailed by having to await the due action of the govern- 
ment, no matter how much their patriotism would chafe at 
delay. 

Capt. Sigsby had immediately wired that public opinion 
should be suspended until positive proof was obtained as to 
the cause of the explosion, and then followed the long sitting 
of the Court of Inquiry, but no matter whether the United 
States would go to war mth Spain for any other reason than 
that of the loss of the Maine, our soldiers would go into every 
battle with an inspiration born of the war slogan, "Kemem- 
ber the Maine." 



Bj the first of Marcli, Spain had such a respectable naval 
force at Havana that it was incumbent we should have a 
ship there, and accordingly the Montgomery arrived on 
March 9th. 

It was not until the 28th of March that the naval Court 
of Inquiry finally made its report, and its very studiously 
worded indefiniteness at once fitted in with the settled con- 
victions of Americans that there had been treachery at work 
upon the night of the 15th of February, and while the gov- 
ernment could not recognize the findings of the court as a 
casus belli, and discountenanced the popular expression, 
"Kemember the Maine," yet there had been going on, ever 
since the destruction of that vessel, the most energetic activ- 
ity in naval yards and arsenals, and ammunition factories 
were crowded to their fullest capacity with government 
orders, but of course all this was not known to the public, as 
it would not do, for war had not yet been declared. How- 
ever, there was, even among the members of Congress, a 
disregard for the need of military preparations, and had it 
not been for the ignorance of many of the congressmen as 
to the subject of the army, the Hull bill would have escaped 
defeat, and by the time of the outbreak of hostilities, the 
regular army would have been sufiicient to meet all imme- 
diate needs, but there was a sentiment among the national 
representatives that it should be a Patriots' TVar, and Sena- 
tor Foraker declared that an army could be raised 
in a day, and drilled and disciplined in thirty days. In 1893, 
Gen. Alger, who could have had no idea of the public posi- 
tion he was to hold, made the statement, in a speech at the 
annual celebration of the Light Guard's anniversary, that he 
had informed a foreigner, who was his guest, that "the 
United States was able to take care of itself without a large 
standing army, and if needs be, would have five hundred 
thousand men ready for battle at the shortest notice, and that 



five million men were ready, if called to the field for three 
months," 

The closing days of the month of March saw the last 
efforts of diplomacy on the part of our government in try- 
ing to establish peace in Cuba, by proposing, through our 
minister at Madrid, that Spain should grant a six months' 
armistice in Cuba to give time "for the negotiations of peace 
with the good offices of the President." The reply 
was that if the request would come from the insurgents it 
might be granted, but that nothing could be done until the 
island's recently constituted parliament could convene on 
the 4th of May. This was, of course, entirely unsatisfac- 
tory, and the continued note of ambiguity in all of Spain's 
replies, had brought the patience of the Washington govern- 
ment to a breaking point. 

It was on April 11th that the President of the United 
States addressed Congress in a special message, declaring it 
had become his duty to specifically bring to its attention, the 
grave crisis that had been reached in the relations of the 
United States to Spain by reason of the war that had been 
carried on for three years in Cuba. He emphasized the 
gravity, because any course pursued must be consistent with 
the traditional policy of the government, and in full accord 
^\dth the principles specified by the founders of the Repub- 
lic. He called attention to the expense entailed by this 
government in enforcing the neutrality laws, and the great 
loss to our shipping, and he deplored the inhumanities suf- 
fered by the inhabitants. Since the beginning of the last 
revolution, what had once been called the "Pearl of the 
Antilles," had become but a poor, desolated island, with but 
few signs of industry to mark it as the abode of a domestic 
people. He expressed his concern at the manner in which 
the inhabitants of this country had grown to express them- 
selves about the situation, as it was indeed a thing that 

100 



would naturally bring forth a spontaneous and strong feeling 
of sympathy for a tyranny-ridden people. The complexity 
of the situation was further added to by the fact that much 
American property had suffered great damage, and was likely 
to suffer much more. The effort to succor the starving in- 
habitants was not a successful measure except as a tempor- 
ary kindly office. He was convinced that nothing short of 
physical exhaustion of either one or other of the combatants, 
or perhaps of both, could end the war that was going on, and 
that the strife, even for that end, would continue for some 
years. It was hard to be reduced to such a conviction, for 
the President had endeavored ever since his induction to 
office to bring about some arrangement, or some adjustment, 
that might restore peace in the island. He was, however, 
wisely guided in forming his opinions about what course to 
be pursued, by his study and knowledge of international 
law, and of specific precedents, and he therefore advised that 
"a recognition of the independence of Cuba was impractica- 
ble and indefensible, and that the recognition of beligere-nce 
was not warranted by the facts according to the tests of 
pubKc law." After reviewing these points thoroughly, and 
dwelling upon the various constructions that other powers 
might place upon the intervention of this country, he finally 
declared that there remained but two alternative courses; 
intervention as an unbiased neutral, by imposing a rea- 
sonable adjustment between the combatants, or as the active 
ally of one side or the other, and either course would neces- 
sitate an immediate strengthening of the military and naval 
arms of the country. 

It has never been positively known what were the private 
convictions of President McKinley regarding the destruc- 
tion of the Maine, but in his message, he mentioned, after 
stating that the naval court of inquiry commanded the un- 
qualified confidence of the government, that the report 

101 



found that the destruction of the ship had been caused by 
an exterior explosion, although the responsibility had re- 
mained unplaced, and this, he stated, showed the inability of 
Spain to assure the safety of any American vessel in Havana 
harbor, either on a mission of peace or by right of business. 
In his conclusion, his utterances stand in bas-relief upon the 
pages of American history. "In the name of humanity, in 
the name of civilization, in behalf of endangered Ajnerican 
interests which give us the right and the duty to speak and 
act, the war in Cuba must be stopped. In view of these 
facts, and of these considerations, I ask the Congress to 
authorize and empower the President to take measures to 
secure a full and final termination of hostilities between the 
government of Spain and the people of Cuba, and to secure 
in the island the establishment of a stable government capa- 
ble of maintaining order and observing its international ob- 
ligations, insure peace and tranquility and the security of its 
citizens as well as our own, and to use the military and naval 
forces of the United States as may be necessary for these 
purposes." He then left the issue with Congress and empha- 
sized its solemn responsibility. 

This message was withheld for a few days so that Ameri- 
cans on the island would have time to leave, and because he 
was also encouraged to expect peace by a new plan proposed 
by the Spanish government to the Cubans, but when the 
message reached Congress, day followed day, filled with 
impassioned debate, and it was not until the 19th of April 
that both branches of the national legislature agreed upon a 
joint resolution, the point of variance being the question of 
the propriety of giving recognition to the insurgents. Mean- 
while, the American had eagerly read his newspaper, and 
pubKc bulletins, and grown impatient at delay, but he now 
found himself wildly rejoicing that Congress had spoken at 
last, and to his heart's content. 



The joint resolution called for the recognition of the inde- 
pendence of the people of Cuba, and demanded that Spain 
relinquish its authority in the island, and withdraw all its 
forces from Cuba and its waters, and directed the "Presi- 
dent of the United States to use the land and naval forces of 
the United States to carry these resolutions into effect." 
The resolution also embodied the statement that the United 
States disclaimed any intention to control the island in any 
manner, except for its pacification, and that when that had 
been accomplished the government would be left to the 
Cuban people. 

The President acted promptly, and on the next day sent 
the ultimatum to Spain, but the vanity of Spain prevented 
the transmission of the ultimatum through our diplomatic 
representative, by handing him his passport before he could 
perform his mission. 

The President, acting under the authority placed with 
him, proclaimed a blockade of certain ports upon the north- 
ern and southern coasts of Cuba, and this was immediately 
followed up by naval activity, and on April 23rd he issued a 
proclamation calling for 125,000 volunteers to serve for two 
years in the army, and two days later the statement as to the 
quota expected from the different states was flashed to each 
anxiously awaiting governor and military staff. However, 
it was not until April 25th that Congress unanimously 
declared that war was begun with Spain on April 21st, and 
this date marks the official opening of hostilities. On the 
twenty-ninth the sinews of war were provided for by the 
authorization of a $500,000,000 bond issue, and provisions 
for a war revenue bill, and now all was ready for the roar of 
guns. 

All these events and incidents had been closely followed 
by military men, and national guardsmen in particular, for 

103 



here was coming to them an opportunity to show the coun- 
try the stuff that their organizations were composed of. 
There doubtless was a great variety in the points of view 
of the matter held by the militia as individuals, but over all 
there was the one covering of patriotism. 




104 



CHAPTER V. 

Response to The Call — Exercises at The New Armory — Arrival at 
Island Lake — Muster-in as 2nd Battalion of the Thirty-first 
M. V. I. — Departure and Arrival at Chickamauga Park. 

When the situation had begun to near a crisis, the inter- 
est of the American public became focused upon Washing- 
ton, and when finally the national legislators united upon a 
resolution, and it became known that the President was in- 
structed to send an ultimatum to Spain, the tocsin of war was 
pealed forth by every iron-throated and steam-chested signal 
apparatus, from church spire to factory boiler house. 

Until the President's message of April 11th had reached 
Congress and become public knowledge, the conservative 
element of the country could not make up its mind that the 
country was to actually enter into an international war, but 
up to a week previous to the passing of the joint resolution, a 
unanimous belief had become established that the long- 
threatened conflict was to be an actuality, and acting upon 
this conviction, the many large corporations in Detroit ad- 
vised those of their employees who would enter the service 
because of their enlistment in the National Guard, that they 
would have their positions protected and their home respon- 
sibilities looked after for them, until such time as the for- 
tunes of war would permit them to return home. 

Upon the 19th of April, military men holding commis- 
sions in the National Guard, began to inspect the situation 
with a special seriousness, and it was but natural that the 
metropolis of the state should lead in this new activity. The 
effect of the situation upon the local militia was a deep re- 
gret that their old regiment had been split in two, for it 

105 



might handicap them in their efforts to get into the volunteer 
service, as the comitrj regiments were all intact, and it was 
understood that the ISTational Guard regiments would be 
accepted into the volunteer service without any changes in 
their personnel, except what might be dictated by the results 
of the physical examinations. Captain Gardener, of the 
19th U. S. Infantry had made himself popular with the 
state militia in the performance of his duties while detailed 
by the United States government as instructor, and as he 
was now stationed in Detroit, it naturally came about that 
the units of the old Fourth Eegiment should attempt to re- 
form a regimental organization under his command. This 
could be accomplished by virtue of the provision in the con- 
stitution of the United States reser\'ing to the governor of 
a state, the right to appoint all officers in the volunteers 
coming from his jurisdiction. 

On April 21st, the governor established military head- 
quarters in Detroit, and the general staff immediately took 
station, for the metropolis afforded better facilities in the 
work of pro\dding the state's quota. The governor had not 
waited for the President's call for volunteers which issued 
on the 23rd, but on the 22nd, issued orders for the mobiliza- 
tion of the state troops at Island Lake in heavy marching 
order, not later than the 26th. 

On "Friday night, April 22nd, the Light Guard Battalion 
had assembled for drill, and just before dismissal the gov- 
ernor's order was read, and its popularity was immediately 
attested by cheers. After the order had been read. Acting 
Major Harrah made a short address : 

"I know that every man here wants to go to the front, 
but we jexpect that there are some who can't go," he said. 
""When we arrive at Island Lake, we will be put to the 
strictest kind of an examination as to our qualifications, and 
no doubt there will be some weeding out by the inspector- 

106 



general, because of the physical disqualifications of some of 
the men who are now members. 

"Before going, we have decided to do some of the weed- 
ing out ourselves, and all those who cannot go because of 
families, or because of some physical disability, will report 
to their company commanders tonight. We don't want it 
understood that if a man doesn't go he is a coward. If you 
cannot go for these reasons, apply to your company com- 
manders; and an honorable discharge will be given you from 
the IN'ational Guard. We will keep up our organization 
here, and you can be of assistance in helping to recruit men 
to send to the front." 

Constant activity at the armory filled the intervening 
time until the final hour for moving arrived, but meanwhile, 
local enthusiasm found expression in many channels. In 
the churches, special prayers were offered, and in one church 
a patriotic prayer was repeated hourly. National Guards- 
men were released from their civilian duties, and a soldier 
who had been convicted of a theft of forty-five dollars was 
instantly released, because his comrades testified that he was 
a good soldier. The city had instantly been transformed 
into a patriotic picture, and every man with the blue cloth 
of the army upon his back was given right of way wherever 
he moved. 

On the 23rd, Michigan learned the limitation placed by 
the national government upon her offer of men, and was not 
satisfied. 

The proposal that the Fourth Regiment be revived under 
the command of Capt. Gardener was not found to be so un- 
animously desired as at first appeared. The First Battalion 
had found another chance to oppose the Light Guard's de- 
sires, and it formulated the request that Capt. Vernou of 
the regular army, who had previously inspected the state 
troops, should be commissioned as colonel of the regiment, 

107 



but the old oppostion was destined to suffer defeat in this, 
for the governor favored Capt. Gardener, and when this be- 
came known to the companies in the First Battalion, they 
refused to accept service under him, and thus it came about 
that the Light Guard companies were the sole representa- 
tives of the city of Detroit in the foreign service that fol- 
lowed. 

For months back, the national government had been 
quietly strengthening both its offensive and defensive arms, 
and even before the joint resolution had shown the certainty 
of the coming combat, a great national rendezvous had been 
established at Chickamauga, and named after the great 
union commander. Gen. Thomas, who had turned the tide 
of war's fortune in favor of the federal forces on that great 
and bloody battlefield, and to this point, department com- 
manders, acting upon orders, began forwarding regiment 
after regiment of the regular army, so that when the war 
cloud finally burst, a very large proportion of the regular 
army was already established in the great camp. Capt. 
Gardener was with his regiment at Mobile, and upon the 
telegraphic approval of the secretary of war, on the 23rd, 
the governor immediately wired the captain to come to 
Island Lake, where he arrived on the 28th, having been de- 
layed by a railroad wreck. 

The scenes at the Light Guard Armory in 1861, were 
repeated upon the 21st of April, when there appeared many 
young men seeking enlistment in the organization's ranks, 
but Acting Major Llarrah was very slow to accept recruits 
until he felt a more pressing need. It was his hope, as well 
as that of every member of the organization, that they could 
go to the front with their o^vn four companies, under the 
command of their own officers, but there was a doubt 
whether Company M — which was not in the state service — 
could be entered with them at this time. 

108 



On the 24tli, every piece of camp equipment had been 
made ready, and all the preparations for departure had been 
completed, and then there came a lull which gave the boys 
a chance to make their farewells. 

The eve of departure found the Armory crowded by the 
men, and numbers of applicants for enlistment, and these 
latter were carefully examined before accepted. Upon the 
bulletin board appeared this instruction : 

''Carry these articles in blanket roll and haversack : Two 
flannel shirts (blue preferred), two suits underwear, four 
pairs socks, gloves, soap, towels, handkerchiefs, comb, tooth 
brush, tooth powder, wide, thick-soled shoes." 

It had been predicted by the newspapers that on the de- 
parture of troops, the greatest demonstration would center 
upon the Detroit Light Guard, and the prediction was fully 
proven. Orders had been issued for the assembly of the 
three active companies in the armory at 12 o'clock, and 
Company M assembled with them. This early assembly 
was for the purpose of attending an informal opening of the 
yet incomplete new armory. 

It was with hearts rejuvenated by the magic atmosphere 
of patriotism that the members of the Veteran Corps filed 
down the stairs of the old armory, with the companies fol- 
lowing, to march to the new armory. The Light Guard 
Band struck up "Yankee Doodle," and to its thrilling and 
lively strains, the old and the new warriors kept equal pace. 
It was the first actual movement of any body of troops in 
the city, and this initial demonstration found business at a 
stand-still. Crowds lined the route of march, and swayed 
by the spell of enthusiasm — that mad enthusiasm that can- 
not be described — each individual had regard for nothing 
and no one, save for the boys who were marching before 
them to war. It is not the duty of the historian to describe 
that tears stood in the eyes of some persons; that some could 

109 



not cheer because of the lumps in their throat; that a mother 
fainted at the full realization of her loss as she saw her hoj 
marching away in the full panoply of war, and that the lips 
of old men trembled for a like cause. 

The ceremony in the armory naturally began with an 
impressive invocation by Eev. E. H. Collins, and at the con- 
clusion, Detroit Post, G-. A. E., entered the hall with its 
band playing "Marching Through Georgia," and there en- 
sued a scene that bordered upon hysteria. When order was 
restored, that kindly christian minister, stranger to none in 
Detroit, the Eev. jSTehemiah Boynton, in passionate utter- 
ances, told the boys who were going to the front how the 
country depended upon them, and he was qualified to im- 
press his hearers, for he had enlisted in '61. A telegram 
was read from Mayor Maybury in jS^ew York, in which he 
wished the boys Godspeed, and Gen. Duffield telegraphed 
from "Washington : "Tell the boys my heart is with them, 
and I would give anything if I could be. I wish them God- 
speed, knowing that the bright record of the Light Guard 
in the past will be illumined and added to by its service in 
the future." Mr. Cash P. Taylor told the boys that he had 
two things to charge them with: "First, let your record 
equal that of the boys of '61 ; secondly, Eemember the 
Maine." The cheers that followed this, merged into the 
greeting of Gov. Pingree as he stepped forward and told 
the boys of the singleness of country, God and duty. He 
declared that there never was such a day as this since the 
Declaration of Independence was signed, and then with 
tears in his eyes, he told them that it was not fun, that they 
would find hardships and much serious duty, and he ex- 
horted them that, since so few could be accepted under the 
call that each man should consider well his home responsi- 
bilities, and if he found they preponderated, he would not be 
called a coward for following his convictions. Bishop Foley 

110 



spoke cheeringly, and told them to remember their duty. 
The hour had arrived to vindicate the practical soundness 
of the speeches that the Hon. Alfred Russell had frequently 
addressed to the members in years past. He may not have 
remembered just how he had told them upon every occasion 
that they should be careful to maintain a high state of 
efficiency; that no one ever knew when war would come; 
and that worse things than that could befall a nation, but he 
appropriately rounded out those past expressions by the 
simple statement that, Michigan expected and knew that they 
would do their duty. But one more feature was left, ere the 
boys were to file out and depart, some perhaps forever. The 
old veteran, Col. Lum, in feeble tones, due no doubt to the 
combination of suffering from old battlefield wounds and 
the patriotic excitement that the present scene conjured up 
again from the time when he had departed for active service 
at the head of a company bearing the same name, said, as he 
presented the colors to the present active corps, that he was 
confident they would honor it. Capt. Harrah's eyes were 
moist, and his hand unsteady as he grasped the flag, and 
turning to the companies said : "Men, will you treat these 
colors as the boys of '61 did theirs?" and there came a 
mighty response of repeated "We wilF's, and the hall echoed 
and re-echoed with cheers as the band struck up a lively 
marching time, and the men, in heavy marching order, fol- 
lowing the lead of the veterans, filed out and marched to 
their posts, where the balance of the regiment was waiting 
to take the train for Island Lake. 

The same journey to Island Lake had been made by many 
of the same men upon the occasion of brigade encampments, 
but there was a different atmosphere in the coaches this time; 
earnest conversation took the place of light hearted jokings, 
and when they detrained at 4 : 15 and marched to their quar- 
ters on the big field, it somehow seemed to look different to 

111 



them, and the evening muster and roll call displayed a line 
of serious faces. 

There was a shortage of general accommodations in camp, 
but more particularly in the matter of tents. The scarcity 
of them was so great that, in some cases, as many as seven 
and eight men had to bunk in the one shelter. The men 
were handed empty mattresses and their attention called to 
a stack of straw, and they were informed that if they wished 
to have a fairly comfortable night's sleep, they should hustle 
and make up their mattresses. The supper was pretty fair, 
and also the breakfast next morning. Early dawn found 
the men in shivering groups, crowded around bonfires which 
had been built because of the very low temperature the 
weather had reached during the night, and this was respon- 
sible for the first kick registered at the camp. 

The camp was named after the late Adjt.-Gen. Charles 
T. Eaton, but the popular name remained Island Lake. The 
first day in camp found the men speculating upon the char- 
acter and dates of future activity. It was thought that the 
Spanish forces in Cuba numbered about 50,000 near Ha- 
vana, and about 25,000 more in other parts of the island, and 
of course, every man suddenly blossomed out as a major- 
general, and could tell just how the whole business ought to 
be done. It had been stated pretty generally in the news- 
papers that the army of invasion would carry very little 
camp equipment, and that baggage of all kind would be 
reduced so that there would be few wagons needed for trans- 
portation work, and it was also announced that X3repared 
foods would be used, thus giving the idea that the move- 
ment of the army would be early and rapid. 

The two battalions from Detroit had been assigned to 
quarters on the right of line, and they were in a rather bet- 
ter condition than most of the others, in the matter of gen- 
eral equipment. 

112 



In the forenoon of the day after reaching camp, Maj. 
llarrah took his battalion out for drill, and by the time 
'^recall" was sounded, the men were glad enough to get back 
and rest in the cool shade of anything that stood in the way 
of the sun's rays. It is peculiar how in the country that, no 
matter how warm it has been during the day, nor how much 
warmer it will be on the morrow, the period of night inter- 
vening is cool to the point of discomfort. 

The daily routine had been prescribed, and a reign of 
strict discipline established. On this day, Brig.-Gen. Irish, 
who was in command of the encampment, called a meeting 
of commanding officers of regiments and independent bat- 
talions, and told them how, when he was colonel of a regi- 
ment, he had always wanted what he could never expect to 
get — the entire control of his regiment for a few days — and 
he informed these officers that very few orders would be 
issued, and that he wanted the commandants of regiments 
and independent battalions to take entire charge of their 
formations, and assume the same responsibility that would 
be expected of them on regular service, and they were to do 
whatever they thought best for the good of their commands. 
The result of this arrangement worked peculiarly to the 
advantage of the companies of the old Fourth Regiment, as 
with their independent battalion formation there was left 
no intermediary commanding officers. There was just 
simply a major having supreme command, instead of a 
colonel and majors. This was particularly satisfactory to the 
Light Guard, as it left Major Harrah in command, and the 
three Light Guard companies and the Monroe company, 
forming an association tightly held together by good fellows- 
ship, enabled Major Harrah to work his battalion with abso- 
lute harmony among his subordinates, and with very grati- 
fying results. 

Every soldier knows the routine prescribed for his daily 

118 



life while under the jurisdiction of a military commander, 
from the hated reveille ere the sun has fully driven away the 
night mists, until the last call at night, which every man 
stops to listen to, whether he feels in the mood to enjoy 
the invitation to rest, or whether he has enough of the owl 
about him to make it more agreeable to him to put in just a 
little more time in playing practical jokes. 

On the evening of the 27th, the governor received a mes- 
sage from the war department informing him that four regi- 
ments of infantry would be accepted from Michigan. On 
the 28th, word came from Washington that companies and 
regiments would be recruited up to the war strength of one 
hundred men to a company, and twelve companies to a 
regiment, but while some recruiting had been done by the 
Light Guard companies, yet that matter was being deferred 
until a colonel should be appointed to command the regi- 
ment. 

The nominal regimental headquarters presented a for- 
lorn appearance. The boys could see the regimental colors 
flying proudly in the breeze at the headquarters tents of the 
other regiments, but the whole headquarters row of the 
Fourth — bisected by the guard lines of each of the two 
battalions — looked like a deserted village, and it was with a 
great deal of interest, and perhaps anxiety, that the men 
looked forward to the arrival of Capt. Gardener. It was 
even yet thought that the two battalions might be reunited, 
as was evidenced by the conversations of the officers, who 
were speculating as to the appointments Col. Gardener 
would make upon assuming command of the regiment. It 
was the expression of both sides that he should divide the 
appointments between the two battalions, but the officers of 
the First Battalion positively objected to the appointment 
of Col. Latimer as lieutenant-colonel, for they were yet sore 

114 



over the way he had conducted the election at which the 
trouble had originated the year before. 

The non-commissioned officers were instructed by the 
captains to inspect the privates with a view to dropping those 
whom it was plainly evident could not stand the hardships of 
military service, and the recruiting that followed, made a 
great deal of work, which devolved principally upon the 
sergeants, in drilling the awkward squads. The awkward 
squad is the company's kindergarten, and no matter how 
brilliantly a man is equipped in other respects, if he is a 
stranger to military work, he must try to keep the flush out 
of his face, and set himself t-o understand those numerous 
little preliminaries necessary in the general military training 
which is to follow, and upon his ability to make rapid head- 
way rests the date of his escape from that hated cognomen 
of "Rookie," which is conferred by the old members upon 
those who aspire to become their equals in the art of being a 
soldier. 

Long before the Light Guard knew that it was to leave its 
home and respond to a call for volunteers, it had planned to 
dedicate the new armory on the 29th of April with an 
elaborate programme arranged by Sousa and his band, who 
were to give a magnificent military entertainment called 
"Trooping of the Colors," and the members in camp, feeling 
a great disappointment at not being able to be present in 
Detroit, sought to extend the celebration to their present 
position, and so they prepared an entertainment more or Icvss 
a duplicate of the one to be held in the armory, and with the 
assistance of the Fourth Regiment band, the boys felt more 
or less satisfied. 

The much-needed overcoats began to arrive at camp and 
were issued to the grateful soldiers. 

The boys indulged in various forms of sport to fill out 
their leisure time, and base ball became the popular time- 

115 



killer, altliougb tliere were those who liked to finger the 
cards in the quiet shade of their tent. 

On the 30th, the factional fight in the old Fourth cropped 
up again in a most decided form. A petition was presented 
to the governor, signed by the officers of the First Battalion, 
requesting that the companies composing same be trans- 
ferred to other regiments, as they objected to the appoint- 
ment of Capt. Gardener to be colonel. The governor ar- 
rived in camp with Capt. Gardener, and at once set to work 
to solve the problem presented by the contentions in the 
Fourth Regiment. Nineteen officers of the two battalions 
had expressed their satisfaction with Capt. Gardener, and 
the latter made the statement that it would be his aim to 
restore harmony by his appointments, and owing to his ac- 
quaintance with most of the officers, and having a high 
regard for their ability, he thought it would take a very 
short time to get the regiment in first-class shape, and he 
deplored any action that might separate the companies 
from Detroit. Of course, objections to commissioning 
Capt. Gardener came from the colonels of other regiments, 
because, by a provision in the army regulations, Capt. 
Gardener would become the ranking colonel, regardless of 
the date of his commission. The governor was a personal 
friend of Capt. Gardener and had perfect confidence in 
him, and it was his desire to have an officer from tlie regu- 
lar army to assume command of this regiment, for if a new 
man was sought for the position among the officers in the 
Michigan National Guard, there might be many heart- 
burnings and dissensions as a result. 

On Sunday, May 1st, great crowds of people visited the 
camp, and the boys of the Detroit Light Guard companies 
were busy all day entertaining their friends. They had 
policed their quarters carefully, as well as their own per- 
sons, so that tlieir friends were not shown the rough side of 

116 



life. It rained severely right after dress parade had begun, 
but the two Detroit battalions stuck it out, perhaps more as 
a matter of rivalry than for any other reason. 

Early active service was not looked for, as it was be- 
lieved that, owing to the fever terrors of the rainy season, 
an attempt would not be made to invade Cuba until the fall, 
for it was felt that Cuba could be taken whenever oiu* army 
got ready to go there. Instead, the men expected to be re- 
moved to national camps of instruction. It was also under- 
stood that it was the plan of the government to permit the 
navy to open the campaign by removing Spain's naval 
forces from the seas, and thus permit military expeditions 
to go forward without any fear of attack from Spanish 
ships of war, but speculation collapsed like a paper house 
several days later. 

Owing to the great distance at which America is situated 
ii'om those countries with whom it has large relations, the 
jiavy had all along been relied upon as a medium of com- 
munication and representation, and with that end in view, 
it did not suffer a relapse like the army at the close of the 
(^ivil War, but advanced point by point until it had come 
to embrace some of the finest warships afloat, and at the 
time hostilities were declared, its state of preparedness was 
much more complete than that of the army, and as has been 
said, this branch of the service was to stand the initial shock 
of the war. We had sent a great fleet to blockade certain 
portions of the Cuban coast, and the ships had been engaged 
more or less in capturing prizes, and knocking over freshly 
built earthworks here and there, and on April 27th it finally 
succeeded in killing a "mule" during the bombardment at 
Matanzas. 

Admiral Sampson was hot to immediately reduce Havana 
and thereby probably make a quick end of the war, but it 
was decided in Wasliington not to undertake any serious 

117 



naval action until a sufficient army had been mobilized, 
and could be used to follow up the success of the fleet. 

It was not surprising that the people should have had 
their attention fixed upon the activity of the navy in Cuban 
waters, but it was gradually borne to them that we had a 
squadron on the Asiatic station, and this was perhaps the 
first that many Americans knew that we had our ships sta- 
tioned all around the world. People had read small dis- 
patches in their newspapers in previous years of insurrec- 
tions in the Philippines, but just what or where those islands 
were, few could tell, so when it became noised about that 
the neutrality proclamations of European powers would 
force our Asiatic squadron out of Hong Kong harbor, it 
was not generally known what would happen to it, as it was 
then accoimted inferior in strength to that of Spain in those 
waters, but on April 29th, it became positively known that 
Commodore Dewey — in command of that squadron — was 
expected to arrive at Manila and attack the Spanish ships. 
The attention of all now centered upon this prospective en- 
gagement, as it was to be the first actual contact between the 
two powers. Sunday morning, May 1st, brought to the 
expectant multitudes a great variety of cablegraphic news. 
One report said that two American warships and the entire 
Spanish fleet had been destroyed. All communication with 
Manila was in the hands of the Spanish, and the news that 
reached the world regarding the engagement had the usual 
canary coloring, but we finally came to understand that 
there had been an American factory. Admiral Dewey, 
finding that he could not get possession of the cable with- 
out reducing Manila, severed it, and then despatched the 
McCulloch off to Hong Kong with dispatches for the navy 
department, and on the Yth of May, America was kneeling 
at the feet of a new national hero. 

When the news of the great victory reached Island Lake 

118 



there was the greatest enthusiasm manifested, and to a man, 
they felt it was good to be a soldier of a country that could 
do such wonderful things, and it made them anxious to get 
off to the front in actual service, where they, too, could do 
some damage to the foe from behind their guns. 

The men were undergoing more or less in the line of 
hardships. The unsettled weather of these spring days 
was not what they were accustomed to in the August camps. 
There was also a scarcity of water at times, and a novel way 
of cleaning dishes was resorted to, by using a mound of 
gravel and sand, in which the tins would be thrust and 
cleaned by friction. 

The state pays enlisted men $1.25 a day and an allow- 
ance of seventy-five cents per diem per man for rations. At 
the time of assembling the troops at Island Lake, the quar- 
termaster general had made an arrangement with a market 
concern in Grand Rapids to open up a branch on the camp 
ground, and he issued instructions that all supplies should 
be bought at that place. It was a good arrangement in 
point of convenience, but it was very soon discovered that 
the prices charged for provisions, were greatly in excess of 
market quotations and the prices of similar goods in De- 
troit, and naturally the company quartermasters of the 
Light Guard companies desisted from purchasing supplies 
from what had now become known as Gen. "White's store, 
as it was their business to save as much in the purchase of 
supplies as possible, and there was no reason why they 
should buy at exhorbitant prices. This action aroused the 
ire of Gen. White, and the incident is told of an interview 
he had with a captain of one of the Light Guard companies 
regarding the matter. Gen. "White sent for this captain, 
and upon his appearance, asked him why his quartermaster 
did not continue to buy supplies from the depot on the field, 
and upon being informed that the prices charged were ex- 

119 



cessive, Gen. White immediately ordered him to discharge 
the quartermaster and select another, to which the captain 
responded that if he was required to do that, he would hand 
in his o^vn resignation with the discharge papers of the 
quartermaster. At this, Gen. White backed down, and evi- 
dently decided it was best to let the Light Guard companies 
do as they pleased in this matter. The result of all this 
was that, when the companies were mustered into the U. S. 
service, there was quite a large rebate on ration allowances 
<3oming to them. 

Field drill was part of the daily routine, and on the after- 
noon of the 2nd, the four regiments were exercised in brig- 
ade movements, giving the men a foretaste of what they 
would get after reaching national camps of instruction. 

After the first day or two in camp, the spirit of the men 
became more normal, and with the change, came a feeling 
of restlessness caused by the sudden transition from the 
free life of a civilian to the little world filled with the des- 
potic restraints prescribed by the strict reign of military 
discipline, but there was an occasional rift in the blanket of 
restraint, when a fellow, with a few equally lucky com- 
rades, armed with a pass, could creep through and make 
their way to Brighton, where they would proceed to give 
vent to their pent up energies for fun making, and if they 
couldn't get back to camp before the figures on the passes 
made them valueless pieces of pasteboard, what mattered it 
— running the guard line would but round out the day's 
fim. 

On May 3rd, the United States officers arrived in camp 
for the purpose of examining and mustering volunteers, 
and much fearful anxiety began to arise among the officers 
and enlisted men, as some of the former might be debarred 
by their age, and there were some of the enlisted men who 
knew of a certain physical disability that might disqualify 

120 



them, and they adopted many ingenious ways of trying to 
keep them from the notice of the medical examiners, but 
while there were such men who would go to almost any 
extreme in order to be passed and mustered, there were 
those who actually flunked, but the latter was due prin- 
cipally to visits of wives, sweethearts and mothers. How- 
ever, there was not any flunking in the Light Guard Com- 
panies, barring one exception, and it was disappointing, 
because, when the anniversary celebration was held in 
!N"ovember the year before, this man had, as representative 
of the privates, made a pyrotechnical speech about patriot- 
ism, and our duty in connection with the Cuban situation, 
but upon hearing of the governor's proclamation that mar- 
ried men would not be accepted, he immediately took shel- 
ter behind it and escaped by entering the bonds of matri- 
mony. The boys grinned severely at themselves, as they 
had backed him against the older speakers that night, and 
they had all wildly cheered him. 

The governor declared, and the same sentiment prevailed 
with editors, that men should not unthinkingly enlist, and 
that it was not the occasion for a frantic disregard of home 
responsibilities. If our country had been threatened v/ith 
invasion, then of course the call of country should receive 
the supreme consideration, and so it was that, when their 
comrades marched away, there were some left, condemned 
to hear martial music and bugle calls, and know that it was 
not for them. The fact is, that in nearly all of these cases, 
it required more courage to stay at home than it did for 
many who went. 

On the morning of the 5th, the weather was rainy, but the 
battalion was taken upon a forced march to Brighton and 
back, just in time for noon mess, and the day closed cold, 
with a full moon. 

On this day, many of the commanding and staff and field 

121 



officers were examined, and among those disqualified was 
Col. Tyrrell, of the First Kegiment, and Maj. Wm. M. 
Harvev, surgeon of the old Fourth, and a long-time mem- 
ber of the Detroit Light Guard. This was a very bitter 
pill for the latter, but he gave the same dose to many 
would-be recruits appljang for membership in the Light 
Guard companies, for Maj. Harvey, being denied his old 
military sphere of activity, busied himself in the city in 
examining and selecting the best material with which to fill 
up the ranks of the Light Guard companies at Island Lake, 
and by reason of this service, the percentage of rejections in 
tliese companies was very small. Because of the disquali- 
fication of Col. T;N'rrell, of the First Kegiment, Capt. Garde- 
ner, who had received his commission as colonel, was placed 
in command of the regiment. 

The governor had assigned the Second Independent Bat- 
talion to the regiment, as instructions from the war depart- 
ment required twelve companies to a regiment, and the 
First had 'been made up of only eight heretofore. The 
companies of the First Battalion were, according to their 
request, assigned to the Second Eegiment, and this was the 
final parting of the way for these two opposing parties, and 
in this instance, as in those past, the First Battalion was 
doomed to disappointment. 

The 6th was pay day, and rather welcome to the men, 
but the spirit of gladness was not upon them, for the anxiety 
about the results of their physical examination had risen a 
few more degrees, as the time was approaching when they 
would have to pass that ordeal, the examining and muster- 
ing officers having begun their work with this regiment 
first. 

In the morning, the ofiicers of the Second Battalion made 
a record before the examining board that was not excelled, 
and hardly equalled by any other battalion of the I^ational 

122 



Guard. All the officers, except Lieut, Bersey, were present, 
and they all passed, and he passed the following day. 

Col. Gardener assumed command of the regiment on the 
Stli, and on the 6th, after the officers had passed the exam- 
ination, he made liis appointments, which included Capt. 
Harrah, of A Company, Detroit Light Guard, to be major 
of the second battalion of the regiment. In the afternoon 
the officers were called to headquarters tent, where Col. 
Tyrrell introduced Col, Gardener, and he in turn briefly 
explained to them the duty of officers in the regular army, 
and among other things said : "I hope that we will make 
a good record for ourselves, not by leading our men 
brutishly into battle, but by making the best of the circum- 
stances." All drills were suspended until the regiment 
should be mustered into volunteer service. 

When the news of the promotion of Capt. Harrah reached 
Detroit, congratulations were wired to him by quite a num- 
ber of the members of the Veteran Corps. The telegram 
read as follows : "The Detroit Light Guard is honored by 
your deserved promotion. Congratulations from H. M. 
buffield, Geo, L, Maltz, John B, Whelan, John A, Dick, 
K, W, Jacklin, John Heifron, H, F. Eberts, Sidney R. 
Dixon, John S, Bersey, M. G. Borgman, Chas, M, Roehm, 
Wm, M, Harvey, Cash P. Taylor, and all the rest of us," 
and to this, Maj. Harrah replied as follows : ''Gentlemen — 
Your flattering telegram of congratulations is received, I 
will prize it as I will few of my possessions. My great hope 
will be that I may be worthy of it in the future. With so 
many of the Light Guards to command in the field, I feel 
that I must make a good record for them, and myself, 

"1 trust it may not be long before we can all return and 
renew our good fellowship with you," 

The evening of the 7th found many a brave heart filled 
with sadness as a result of the examinations held that day. 

123 



The Light Guard companies lost very few of their number, 
and they, with others of the regiment, proceeded to jollify, 
and an impromptu l^anner was raised, bearing the inscrip- 
tion, "First Eegiment Michigan Volunteers." 

The specifications for enlisted men were : age, between 
eighteen and thirty-five years, good habits and character, 
able-bodied and free from disease. Because of the certain 
character of the work cut out for the troops, it was very 
important that physical examinations should be very thor- 
ough, but little did the men care about that; they were in 
camp for the sole purpose of entering the volunteer service, 
and pass they would, even to the point of trickery. 

A man appearing for examination was ordered to quickly 
remove his blouse, hat, shoe^, and stockings. His eyes were 
tested first, and if they failed, the poor fellov/ was hastily 
rejected. If the eyes passed the test, the man was faced 
from the surgeon and each ear covered in succession while 
compelled to repeat what was said at a distance of twelve 
feet. Then tlie teeth were scrutinized, and that done, the 
surgeon's eye ran over the man's physique, dwelling par- 
ticularly upon the bare feet, and then he was forwarded to 
other surgeons for lung and heart tests. 

The initial examination of a recruit deals particularly 
with his eyesight, his teeth, and his legs. From the earliest 
history of warfare, strong legged men were selected to form 
the l)est corps. It is very easy to understand that bodies of 
troops may have to march a considerable distance before 
reaching the battlefield, and in nearly every case where they 
are needed as reinforcements, must immediately be placed 
out on the firing line, or form for a charge, and if their legs 
be not of the best, they would make but sorry reinforce- 
ments. It also happens that a long forced march is neces- 
sary in order to occupy the best point of vantage, but if the 
men are weak on their legs when they arrive, the point of 



vantaj^e looses much. This is the reason why leg move- 
ments in the setting up exercises, while sometimes ludicrous 
to the spectator, are yet a very important feature. In the 
matter of teeth, it goes hard with a fellow if he finds him- 
self suddenly attacked Avith a spasm of pain in his jaw, and 
knows that, in all the long days of camp life, drilling, and 
marching, before him, he will not be able to iind relief, for 
up to the end of this last war we have had no dentists in our 
hospital service, and as regards the eyes, of course it is very 
obvious that, to be famed as '*the man behind the gun," 
the eye-sight must be of the best. These points were soon 
understood by the men in camp, and many were the schemes 
laid to fool the examining surgeons. For instance, one man 
in one of the Light Guard companies was turned down be- 
cause of his defective eye sight, and he managed to appear 
the second and third time, but alvv^ays to meet with the same 
rejection. He then found a chance to get near enough to 
the card of letters used in testing, and fixing in his memory 
the characters in the line which had proved his Waterloo, 
he made his fourth appearance, and very volubly, appar- 
ently read over the line, after which he was greeted with 
the joyous sound of the surgeon's "O. K." There is a story 
told of one of the boys who knew he would not be able to 
pass if he went up for examination, and so he made a deal 
with a stout fellow from the farm to go through the exam- 
ination under his name. It was pathetic to see hoAv the 
men, being rejected, would try their luck again and again 
by sneaking in with successive batches of recruits to be 
examined, and it was demonstrated that there were possible 
chances of such persistence being crowned with success. 
The 8th found patriotism running high among the men 
and the masses of civilians who had come to witness the 
ceremony of mustering the first of Michigan's troops. Tlie 
mustering officers began with Company A, and after going 

125 



over the rolls, the men were ordered to remove their hats, 
and with right hands uplifted, took the solemn oath which 
bound them to live and do according to Uncle Sam's army- 
regulations. Only three companies were mustered on this 
dav, but the work was continued the next day, and finally, 
on the 10th, the last company had been mustered. 

Company A, of the Detroit Light Guard, had become 
Company I, Company F was changed to Company L, and 
Company B became Company K in the new regiment, and 
some wag found that, by combining the Monroe's company's 
letter — M — the word "lick em" was suggested, and it was 
accordingly accepted as a good omen. Capt. Harrah's pro- 
motion having left a vacancy in what was now Company I, 
First Lieut. Duncan Henderson was elected to succeed. 
Companies having full quotas were mustered first, regard- 
less of seniority in the Isl ational Guard, and it so happened 
that Capt. Henderson, being junior line officer, became 
senior captain in the second battalion. The companies were 
officered as follows : Company I — Duncan Henderson, cap- 
tain; Walter G. Rogers, first lieutenant; William A. Camp- 
bell, second lieutenant. Company L — Charles S. Baxter, 
captain; John S. Bersey, first lieutenant; Valentine R. 
Evans, second lieutenant. Company K — Wm. H. Sink, 
captain ; Cassius C. Fisk, first lieutenant ; Addis G. Doyle, 
second lieutenant. 

On the 8th, Maj. Harrah was presented with a fine 
Kentucky-bred saddle horse, with blanket, saddle, bridle, 
spurs, sabre, and gaimtlets, by the members of the Light 
Guard companies. The gift was a surprise, and great appre- 
ciation was manifested by the major. 

The touching aftermath of the final distribution of the 
old Fourth Regiment companies was when, on the morning 
of the 9th, Schremser's old Fourth Regiment band was mus- 
tered out of service and sent home. Before leaving, the 

126 



band serenaded the two battalions, and while it was playing 
'*Auld Lang Syne" Edward Schremser, the leader, broke 
down, and with tears in his eyes, hid himself in his tent- 
He had been with the band for over ten years, and it was a 
strong tie to break. 

Late on the night of the 10th, the last company was mus- 
tered and on the morning of the 11th, the field officers were 
sworn in, and the regiment was now on waiting orders ready 
to move as soon as the necessary equipments would arrive. 

Col. Gardener's first general order was issued on the 
10th, concerning individual equipments, which were enum- 
erated as follows: overcoat, blouse, trousers, shoes, hat, 
shelter halves, duck blue flannel shirts, two changes under- 
wear, blanket, leggins, socks, rubber blanket, rifle, bayonet, 
belt, knapsack, haversack, meat can, knife and fork, spoon, 
and tin cup. 

On May 11th, order jSTo. 2 was issued, stating that the 
mustering officer ordered the regiment to be paraded at the 
earliest opportunity Avith every officer and enlisted man 
present in ranlcs, in order to be counted, and until such was 
done, no leaves of absence would be granted. 

In some manner a discussion arose as to what title the 
regiment should bear through the period of service in the 
volunteer army. It was finally settled that the First Regi- 
ment should be named the Thirty-first, and the others in 
sequence. This was done, because Michigan had supplied 
thirty regiments of infantry in the Civil War, and the old 
First Regiment, having now been mustered, would make 
the thirty-first regiment that Michigan had supplied for 
national service since the outbreak of that war. 

For the past two days it had rained almost continually, 
and the men sought voluntary confinement in their tents, 
and those who were lucky enough to have a pack of cards 
were enabled to help some of their comrades pass the time 

137 



away. On the 11th, the camp was visited by a violent wind 
storm, accompanied by hail, and it gave the men a good deal 
of work to repair the damage afterward. 

When the Light Guard companies had marched away to 
go to Island Lake, there had been none healthier and hap- 
pier than Harry Reid, of Company A, but just as he was 
looking forward to the time when he would be a full fledged 
volunteer soldier, a camp fever reduced him to an invalid, 
and finally, through death, cut off the young soldier from 
the realization of his hopes, but his comrades showed their 
respect and regard by assisting at the funeral. The regi- 
mental band attended, and six of the deceased's comrades 
acted as pallbearers, with veteran members and Company M 
as escort. 

A few company drills had been held, but on the 12th 
Col. Gardener paraded the regiment for the first time. He 
appointed Lieut. Frederick L. Abel to be regimental adju- 
tant. Lieut. Abel had a National Guard record, and was 
also at one time in command of one of the Light Guard 
companies, and his appointment was an additional honor to 
the Detroit Light Guard, 

There had been a great deal of indefiniteness regarding 
the first objective point for Michigan regiments, and at one 
time it was rumored that the first regiment would go to 
Manila. It was afterward believed that it would proceed 
to Chickamauga, as the surgeon general at Washington had 
ad^nsed that all the northern soldiers be allowed to get 
acclimatized to the southern climate of the United States 
before sending them to the extreme of a tropical territory. 
But now that the first regiment of Michigan troops had 
been mustered into the volunteer service, orders for its 
movement were anxiously awaited, and as it was kno^^m 
that the President's policy Avas a vigorous one, and that it 
was intended to prosecute the war with much energy, the 

128 




Cleaning Tin Dishes in a 
Gravel Pile at Island Lake. 




Monument to Fourth Michigan Ca 
at Chickamauga Park. 



officers and irieii were inclined to believe that the regiment 
would be rushed to some point of embarkation for the inva- 
sion of Cuba and Porto Rico, but as yet, the regiment was 
not fully equipped, and it was hardly in shape to move until 
it was. So, pending orders, the men now found themselves 
living the life of Uncle Sam's soldiers, and eating the ra- 
tions that he is in the habit of feeding them with. 

The men were made to feel that they were not lost sight 
of by the veterans, for, on the contrary, the companies were 
closely followed in all their doings by all the veteran mem- 
bers in Detroit, for they had a great pride in their young 
successors. There were frequent visits of representatives of 
the Veteran Corps, and it was a fine thing for the men to 
know that the home they had left in the city was being made 
the scene of many patriotic gatherings for the purpose of 
procuring funds to carry on the work which the Detroit 
Patriotic Association had organized to do among the fami- 
lies of those who had entered the volunteer service. Maj. 
Harrah, in a communication to Vice-President Taylor on 
the 12th, said that "now indeed do we need the help of the 
veterans, and I know they will take care of the organization. 
In the field we will endeavor to uphold the fame of the old 
organization, and a joyful reunion vdll be looked forward 
to by all of us here." 

While the quartermaster general of Michigan had sup- 
plied the men mth a good quality of clothing, and in fact 
sent them forth better prepared in that manner than the 
regiments from most every other state, yet in the matter of 
general equipments, the regiment was woefully short. 

Tt was known that Gen. Alger was inclined to favor his 
stat« in the distribution of troops, and he was very anxious 
to get some of Michigan's troops under way, but it was not 
until the 13th that any definite rumor came as to the date 
of moving, and the destination. The men were feverish to 

129 



get away, as the prospect of hard fighting made their daily 
camp routine but a tame affair that palled upon them. They 
wanted to see new stones and fences, and a general change 
of scene, no matter if that same scene was undergoing in- 
stantaneous changes through the agency of engines of war, 
and so this new rumor that seemed to have some definiteness, 
following as it did hard upon the appearance of several car- 
loads of supplies from the war department, brought much 
joy to every mother's son of them, and the public reading of 
the Articles of War but whetted their appetite for action. 

On the morning of the 14th, and according to regimental 
order No. 8, all state property, with the exception of cloth- 
ing and a stand of five rifles for each company, for use in 
guard duty, were turned in, and a new equipment issued, 
minus rifles. 

An order had come this day from the Secretary of War 
requiring the immediate movement of the first regiment to 
Chickamauga. Col. Gardener notified the department that 
he could not get ready to leave before Monday noon. 

Upon the heels of this order came a great disappointment 
to one of the officers — Lieut. Bersey — who received tele- 
graphic information of the very serious illness of his wife. 
The attending physician had declared that his absence from 
home would result in his wife's death, and the lieutenant 
was compelled to wire his resignation to the adjutant gen- 
eral of the army. He was an efficient officer, and well 
schooled in the army regulations, but as it turned out, good 
fortune permitted him to re-enter the service at a later 
time. The vacancy was filled by the promotion of Second 
Lieut. Valentine E. Evans to succeed, and First Sergt. E. A. 
Lawrence to be second Keutenant. 

By evening, the camp of the Thirty-first looked rather 
denuded, as all baggage and every article except what was 
needed for the night and the next day before leaving, was 

ISO 



packed up and made ready to be loaded on the cars. TTiose 
who were not on duty were busy writing farewell letters. 

It is no simple matter to move a regiment, and so early 
dawn of the 15th found the men hard at work packing up 
all the camp baggage that had not been placed in shape the 
day before, and at 10 :30 the tents were struck, and every- 
thing loaded on the train on schedule time. This was a 
good example for the remaining regiments, for it showed 
how such work was done under the army regulations, and 
superintended by a regular army officer. 

The camp ground was overrun by throngs of relatives and 
friends who had come to bid the men a last good-bye, and 
the individual partings presented scenes which a hasty pen 
cfinnot do justice to. An odd feature of this last day was 
the persistent work of life insurance agents. They would 
button-hole every man they could, no matter whether he 
wore a plain blue blouse or had his shoulders decorated 
with silver insignia, but the boys had no time for such 
croakers. 

For the moment, there seemed to be a general lack of in- 
terest displayed by the men of other regiments in their own 
affairs. The fact that the first regiment was going to leave 
for that indefinite and fanciful place called "the front," was 
enough to make their dress parade on the afternoon of this 
day a rather spiritless affair, and immediately after dismis- 
sal they hastened to crowd around the guard lines of the 
Thirty-first, intent to witness every feature of the departure. 
The regiment was to move in three sections, half an hour 
apart. The first section was to be in command of the colonel, 
and included the tentage, horses and equipments. Maj. 
Harrah was to command the second section, and the lieuten- 
ant colonel the third. 

Shortly after 5 o'clock the men began to get ready for de- 
parture. They stood and laid around in groups on the spot 

131 



where their tents had formerly stood, and the Kght-hearted 
spirits helped to while the time away. Singing was the 
most popular pastime, and after all the old songs had been 
sung and re-sung, with the ^'Soldier's Farewell," a great 
favorite, some wit improvised words to the tune of "John 
Brown," the portent of which was, "We'll hang old Weyler 
on a sour apple tree." 

It is peculiar how, just on the eve of departure, whether 
for a new camp, or for the actual front, that in the lull that 
immediately precedes a movement, the men will give ex- 
pression to their curious mixture of feelings by making little 
groups and singing all the songs they can remember, from 
anything sad to the most rollicking kind of jingles. 

Three days travel rations had been issued, and ten days 
field rations were in the hands of the regimental quarter- 
master. When the men were served their first rations, they 
were introduced to the afterward famous canned com beef. 
The canned baked beans were good, and there was some soft 
bread, but to most of the men, hard bread, or what was 
popularly called "hard tack," was a curiosity, and while 
they made haste to sample it, yet it was plainly to be seen 
that it was not at once relished. 

Darkness came on, and hour succeeded hour, and im- 
patience describes the general temperament of the men as 
tliey waited and waited for the order to board the train. 
They could hear taps sounded in other regiments, but they 
only laughed, for it was not for them; sleep would be a 
stranger to most of the men that night. Suddenly, in the 
darkness, the men of the Light Guard companies knew that 
there was an assembly of some of the troops within the regi- 
mental lines, and they wondered why they were not in- 
cluded, but very soon, after a few sharp commands, they 
saw marching past them the four companies of the first 
battalion, and they knew that at that hour, 9 :30 p. m., their 

132 



patience would not have to be called upon to sustain them 
much longer. Finally, an hour later came the order for the 
second battalion to fall in, and when they marched to the 
train and got aboard at 11 :10 they found to their chagrin 
that minute after minute passed until they lengthened out 
into more than an hour, ere the first jarring movement was 
felt as it conmiunicated its thrill to each waiting man. The 
delay had been due to the fact that the railroad company 
had not sent the right kind of sleepers which the governor 
wanted for the men, and he had insisted upon their being 
exchanged for better ones. 

At last the doors were closed, and the guards posted on 
the platforms, the wheels began to revolve, and the men 
crowded over each other at the windows to get a last glimpse 
of the spot where they had taken root and blossomed into 
soldiers of the volunteer army. Despite the fact that they 
had worked very hard that day, and were thoroughly tired 
out, there was still that desire for song; it was but the excite- 
ment that kept them enlivened, and when that wore off, the 
men gradually became more subdued. A man would be 
seen here and there sitting upright in his seat with his eyes 
staring hard before him, and his livelier comrades, because 
of their intuition as to what was going on in his mind, left 
him alone to his thoughts. 

At two o'clock the train reached West Detroit, where a 
crowd had been assembled since the evening, and although 
long waiting had thinned it out, those who remained gave 
the guards much trouble in endeavoring to see this and that 
man in the train, but there was small satisfaction for the 
enthusiasts, for what with the closely curtained windows, 
and the obdurate guard, all satisfaction was denied them. 
In twenty minutes the train had taken up its journey again, 
this time to take the sons of Michigan from off their native 
soil. 

133 



Running over the track on the D., L. & "N., the battalion 
arrived at Toledo at 4 :20 a. m., and then on to Lima, where 
the first brealcfast of travel rations was eaten. The journey 
was continued over the C, H. & D., and although very en- 
thusiastic receptions had been met with along the route, the 
one at Dayton surpassed all others, and it was great fun for 
the boys to exchange compliments, buttons, and various 
keepsakes, and much nonsense, with the crowds of pretty 
girls. The trip continued on, with card playing as the prin- 
cipal amusement between places, and Cincinnati was 
reached at 1 :45 in the afternoon. Here the regiment was 
greeted with the whistling of every locomotive in the yards, 
and of adjoining factories. Dinner was eaten here, and at 
3 :20 the second battalion crossed the Ohio river on the line 
of the Queen and Crescent route. With a double header 
speeding the train up and down grade through the fair land 
of Kentucky, the fellows were greeted with such beautiful 
hill scenery as few of them had witnessed before, and the 
hospitality of the people at every station, as they showered 
flowers and good things upon the boys, made them feel quite 
happy with their present lot. Station after station brought 
them fresh supplies of flowers, flags, ribbons, tobacco, hand- 
kerchiefs and numerous other things. 

Just before the train reached Lexington, the men of one 
of the Light Guard companies noticed an individujil on 
board who looked and acted in a manner which was thought 
suspicious, and immediately fixing upon the idea that he 
was a Spanish spy, they reported him to Major Harrah, who 
had the suspect unceremoniously detrained at Lexington, 
which was reached at 7 :30. After supper the train moved 
off again over a bridge of dizzy height, which one man, al- 
ways collecting material for his diary, found was six feet 
higher than the Majestic building back in Detroit. It 
seemed too bad that the trip through the prettiest part of the 



134 



country was during the night, and those who had expected to 
get a view of the Great Smoky Mountains found themselves 
much disappointed. 

About the time of reveille on the morning of Tuesday, 
the 17th, the men woke up, and after stretching themselves 
to get the tangles out of their muscles, they looked out the 
car windows and were greeted with a sight of the misty hill- 
land of southern Tennessee, and later on, as they neared 
Chattanooga, they got a glimpse of the far-famed Look Out 
Mountain and the equally famous Missionary Ridge. 

Chattanooga was reached at seven o'clock, and after wait- 
ing and switching around a good deal, the train pulled out at 
2 p. m., with Chickamauga Park as the destination, and 
when they got off the train there, one of the first things that 
greeted the eyes of the men near the depot, was a monu- 
ment erected in memory to a Michigan regiment which had 
years ago fought over that very ground. 

The Thirty-first was to be the first regiment of Gen. 
Arnold's brigade, and that placed it at a point about four 
miles from the railroad station. However, the road being as 
good as the average park road, the boys were not so very 
much fatigued at the end of their journey. The regulars, 
who had previously occupied the ground at the park, had 
alj been moved further south some days before the regiment 
arrived, and accordingly there was a shortage of transporta- 
tion facilities which made it a very late hour before the bag- 
gage was finally brought up. In fact, it was so late that the 
men did not attempt to put up their tents, but rolled up in 
their blankets and slept on the ground. "When reveille 
sounded the next morning, the men woke up to experience a 
r.ew environment. The tall, thickly settled trees, held up 
the first feeble rays of the morning sun, and as the men 
struggled to their feet and put on what clothing they had 
removed, the mist-enshrouded wood seemed to be peopled 

135 



with phantom figures going through strange actions. As 
the atmosphere slowly cleared the men began to walk around 
and inspect, as well as they could, the character of the coun- 
try they had come to, and those who were well read in the 
history of the Civil War, and were of an appreciative turn of 
mind, talked together of this famous battlefield on which 
they now found themselves encamped, arrayed like the 
fathers of many of them, but this time not to fight against 
their southern brothers, but to join forces and fight under 
one flag. 

These speculations arc not mere idle sentiments, for if a 
man has a soul that is worth the saving, such things come 
but natural to him, and he is the better man for thinking 
such thoughts, and out of such has ripened the strongest 
federation of states in the history of the world. 

While all this has been generally descriptive of the regi- 
ment in general, it is also intended to be specific in portray- 
ing the life and thoughts of the members of the three Light 
Guard companies, and now that they had reached their 
first goal, they naturally wondered how the fourth company 
at home would be treated in its endeavors to make a service 
record for itself, and peculiar to a certain law, upon which 
the finger cannot be placed, it so happened that old A, B 
and F, being first, became last, and so, ere entering upon a 
record of the events v/hich made up the life of the three com- 
panies in the Thirty-first during the long period of their 
service, it is well to revert back again to Detroit scenes and 
follow M Company in its career as a unit in the Fifth Army 
Corp. 



136 



CHAPTER VI. 

Company M — Efforts to Enlist— Success— At Island Lake — Camp 
Alger — Orders for Cuba — At Fortress Monroe — On Board U. 
S. S. Yale. 

When the order was issued for the assembling of the 
Kational Guard at Island Lake, and it became fixed in the 
minds of military men that the United States was going to 
make use of a large volunteer army, there was a great effort 
made by all independent military organizations to get into 
the service, as well as the National Guard organizations, and 
all members of the Detroit Light Guard deplored more than 
ever that Company M had not been able to find a place in 
the National Guard. 

It was during the few days previous to instructions from 
the war department specifying the strength of regiments 
that Company M, assisted by the efforts of the officers of 
other companies and the Veteran Corps, schemed and 
planned to find an opening to get into the service. 

Maj. E,. H. Sillman, of New York, who was assistant in- 
spector-general on Gov. Rich's staff', and who held the same 
office under Brig.-Gen. Hawley and Brig.-Gen. Lyon until 
the previous summer at camp, when he resigned to accept 
the appointment of military instructor in a New York col- 
lege, had received authority from the war department to 
organize a battalion and he requested Co. M. to enter the 
command. This plan was agreeable to the company, as 
almost any expedient would have satisfied them if it would 
only give them a chance to enlist, but they preferred to go 
out as a National Guard company from Michigan if pos- 
sible, and as there came a rumor of a possibility of one or 

137 



two companies failing to pass muster at Island Lake, Com- 
pany M decided to defer action of any kind for a few days 
until it should be definitely found impossible to go as they 
desired, but meanwhile, the ofiicers in command began re- 
cruiting and weeding out those who might not be able to 
pass the physical examination. 

It was right after this company had consolidated with 
the Light Guard that First Lieutenant Duncan Henderson 
of Company A was elected captain of Company M, and as 
command of the latter company would not interfere with 
his duties in the former, he continued to hold the captaincy 
of Company M, even though he had gone to Island Lake 
in the capacity of a i^ational Guard officer. He retained the 
captaincy of Company M, as he fully believed it would get 
into service, and he had pledged himself to the members 
to remain with them as their captain, so that the work of 
recruiting and drilling the company was carried on by First 
Lieutenant F. W. Cowley and Second Lieutenant Geo. C. 
Waldo. The great number of recruits that applied for en- 
rollment, enabled a very choice selection to be made, and 
with the assistance of Maj. Harvey, surgeon of the old 
Fourth, the standard of physical ability attained was so 
high as to enable it to eventually go through the campaign 
of the Fifth Army Corps, with all its attendant fever hor- 
rors, without the loss of a single man. This company was 
perhaps not sufficiently advertised, nor sufficiently under- 
stood by those responsible for mustering the volunteers until 
it was found, later, that the strength of the regiments would 
have to be increased. Instantaneous with the publication 
of the order from the war department, the company exerted 
every influence to bear upon the governor to accept it as 
one of the extra companies needed. 

On May 7th, Lieut. Henderson of Company A was 
elected captain of the same company, to succeed Capt. 

138 



llaiTiih, promoted to major, and Capt. Henderson was now 
forced to make liis choice of commands. What he should 
have done was, to have immediately resigned the captaincy 
of Company M to permit the officers of that company who 
had been working so hard to get it into fit shape for possible 
service, to reap alone the reward of their own labors, but it 
is a little bit of inside history that Capt. Henderson never 
resigned the captaincy of Company M until long after its 
return to Detroit in the fall. However, he decided to re- 
main in command of Company A. 

Col. Tyrrell, who had failed to pass the medical examina- 
tion, and was detailed by the governor to inspect companies 
applying for entry because of the vacancies caused by the 
increase of strength, came to Detroit to inspect the com- 
pany, and before returning to Island Lake, he stated that 
the l^ational Guard was short about eight companies, and 
that he would make a favorable report upon the condition of 
Company M. This was on the 9th of May, and right after 
a new batch of recruits had been accepted. 

Major Harvey's tests were very comprehensive, and he 
made a great record for the company, and incidentally for 
himself as an examining surgeon, by the character of the 
results of the examinations he made. 

Finally, on the 11th, the company was found to have 
full ranks and recruiting was stopped, and it was on this 
day that it made its first public appearance since it had 
joined in the parade of the other active companies upon the 
informal dedication of the new armory building. The 
occasion was the interment of the remains of Private Harry 
C. Reid, of Company A. 

At last came the glad tidings that Company M had been 
accepted and assigned to a place in the Thirty-third Regi- 
ment, which was just beginning to pass under the hands of 
the mustering officers. 

1S9 



A certain few of the veteran members had been quietly 
ad\dsing and assisting the officers of the company for some 
time past, and upon the advice from this quarter, the com- 
pany elected First Lieutenant Cowley to be captain, regard- 
less of the fact that Capt. Henderson had not resigned, and 
Second Lieutenant George C. Waldo to be first lieutenant, 
for it was feared that if the company went to Island Lake 
without a captain that some outside influence might be ex- 
erted to place some disgruntled National Guard officer in 
command. 

Comrades Eberts and Taylor addressed the members of 
the company while on drill upon the day previous to their 
departure, and gave them some very pertinent advice. 

At noon on the 16th, the company assembled in the old 
armory where a number of citizens and members of the 
Veteran Corps had gathered to give the boys a good send- 
off. Mayor Maybury congratulated them on their company 
being the first separate company in the state to be called 
to the front. He said : ''I know, boys, that whether your 
trip ends at Island Lake or at Spain, you will do valiantly 
and well for the honor of the old Light Guard." Rev. Mr. 
Service, of TrumbuU Avenue Presbyterian Church, begged 
the boys to remember that they were fighting at the call of 
human suffering. He said it was his mission to work for 
humanity, and their's to fight for it. Judge Whelan made 
a few well chosen remarks, and wa3 followed by other Vet- 
eran members. 

At 1:15 p. m. the company formed for the march to the 
depot, mth the Veteran Corps as an escort. It was not a 
brilliant occasion. There was a dearth of waving flags and 
breeze blown bunting; no thundering of cheers or bands of 
music. Half of the boys were vtdthout uniforms, and many 
without guns, but their physique was fine to look upon, and 
they held themselves proudly erect as they stepped forth to 

140 



enter a new profession, to the time beat out by a single 
drummer with his snare drum. How could the people of 
Detroit know then that this company was to be the sole 
representative of the city in the actual work of securing a 
victory in Cuba. 

On the train going to Island l^ake, Robert M. Kerr was 
elected second lieutenant. 

On the morning of the 20th, the company was mustered 
into the Thirty-third Regiment. This regiment was com- 
manded by Col. Boynton, of Port Huron. There was a 
shortage of uniforms, but work was being pushed to com- 
plete the supply. 

The regiment now having become a part of the Volunteer 
army, it was immediately placed under the United States 
Army Regulations, and field rations issued for subsistence. 

The Thirty-first and Thirty-second Regiments had been 
moved south, and it was the hope of Col. Boynton that his 
regiment might go there also. 

On the 23rd the war department had issued orders for 
the Thirty-third to proceed to Chickamauga, but a delega- 
tion of Michigan Senators and Representatives called at the 
war department and persuaded Secretary Alger to change 
the order, and so the destination of the Thirty-third was 
changed to Washington and the order directing the move- 
ment was received at two o'clock in the afternoon. 

On the 25th a very interesting event took place. Maj. 
Latimer succeeded Maj. "Winslow of Ironwood in the Thirty- 
fourth Regiment, and this marked another triumph for the 
Detroit Light Guard over their old opponents, for with Maj. 
Harrah in the Thirty-first, Maj. Webb in the Thirty-third 
and Maj. Latimer in the Thirty-fourth and O'Brien Atkin- 
son later commissioned major of the Thirty-fifth, the Light 
Guard had a final representation of four field officers in the 
service, as against one from the old First Battalion in the 

141 



Thirty-second. The significant character of these appoint- 
ments was that all four of these officers were not holders of 
commissions of any kind at that time, with the exception 
of Maj. Harrah who was captain — although acting major 
of the Second Battalion — while Maj. Reynolds was already 
in possession of a commission in that rank as commander of 
the old First Independent Battalion, also in the old Fourth, 
and the manner in which the governor made the three ap- 
pointments indicated that he selected the best material to be 
found, as it was well known that he was anxious to have the 
regiments leave with the best officers to be obtained. 
Although Maj. Webb was not a member of the Detroit 
Light Guard, yet he had been the Light Guard's candidate 
in the last election held in the Fourth Regiment, and he and 
the company from his home town — Monroe — ^were very 
closely affiliated with the Light Guard companies. 

The reader, in going over the pages of this volume, may 
not appreciate the various little events with the same in- 
tensity as they were regarded at the time of their occurrence. 
It has been stated that the Thirty-third Regiment had ob- 
jected to going to Chickamauga, and had been able to have 
the order changed, but Col. Boynton took no part in the 
matter, as he wished to simply serve his government as a 
good soldier, and preferred to act upon orders as they came, 
and although he objected to Washington as the destination 
because he did not believe it was conducive to good discip- 
line to have a regiment quartered near a large city, yet he 
forebore to make any remarks. Apropos of the statement 
preceding this, it should be written here that the foregoing 
was elaborately written up to occupy about haK a page of a 
newspaper column at the date of its occurrence, and so the 
reader is charged to transfigure himself into the warm- 
hearted and enthusiastic patriot he was at the time when he 
confined his reading of newspapers to those items which told 

143 



of anything from the smallest item of camp news to the 
kaleidoscopic reports of the movements of the troops and the 
navies of the two nations. 

Col. Boynton's private contentions evidenced good judg- 
ment, yet the finger of fate rewarded him for his silence, 
for had the regiment been moved to some other point such 
as he had in mind, there would have been no chance of its 
being a unit in the Fifth Army Corps, 

By nightfall on the 25th discipline had become a some- 
what ragged element among the men, who, believing it to 
be the last night in camp, proceeded to make a gala time of 
it. While the ofiicers were over at the headquarters of the 
Thirty-fourth enjoying splendid hospitality, the men of 
the two regiments built immense bonfires, and the noise of 
their demonstrations of enthusiasm mingled with the joint 
renditions of all the popular airs and battle songs known to 
the two bands. It was very well enough, but had the men 
been informed that the sleeping coaches in which they were 
to travel were no nearer camp than Cincinnati, the celebra- 
tion would have fizzled out like a blank sky-rocket. 

May 26th dawned as moving day, and immediately after 
breakfast the men began packing up all baggage, until by 
noon, there was hardly a comfort or convenience of any kind 
left outside of the boxes and chests, but the day was to bear a 
black record. Continuous disappointment due to contradic- 
tory telegrams and bewildering orders, grated on the good 
nature and patience of the men. If they could only know 
who to swear at, it might be easier to bear, but no scapegoat 
could be found, and they sought abstraction in a scramble 
for something to eat. 

Finally, at six o'clock in the evening, positive telegraphic 
advice was received stating that the sleepers had started 
from Cincinnati and would be in Toledo at midnight, and 
at Island Lake some time in the early morning, but the boys 
refused to be credulous and they tried to find someone to bet 

143 



with that they would not get away for a week. The boys 
felt sore, too, because their baggage and tentage had all 
been loaded on freight cars, and they had t-o hustle pretty 
hard to find a sheltered place to sleep in, but through the 
hospitality of other troops they made out fairly well and 
they were cheered by the fact that they had discovered that 
the Ann Arbor railroad people were the ones to swear at, 
and they proceeded to lift a dismal load from off their good 
spirits through the virtues of their favorite "French" ex- 
pressions. 

On the 27th the coaches began to make their appearance 
in sections, but as they had not all arrived before nightfall, 
the regiment was again reduced to a condition of hard luck 
for the night. 

It ha\dng so happened that the Thirty-first had left at 
midnight and the Thirty-second at dusk, the prophets fig- 
ured that the Thirty-third and Thirty-fourth would leave 
respectively at mid-day and sunrise, and the prophecy be- 
came a reality when the first section of the train pulled out 
of Camp Eaton at 1 p. m. on the 28th. 

Dinner was eaten at Ann Arbor, and passing through 
Toledo at 4 p. m., the regiment arrived at Bucyrus where 
it was met with quite a demonstration. The citizens had 
made great preparations, and while the boys drank milk 
and coffee and ate food, including pie and cake, they were 
entertained by a band which had been assembled to add 
pleasure to their short stop. The journey continued through 
Ohio and they were greeted at each station with every steam 
whistle in full commission, playing the basso to the higher 
notes of the cheers of the crowds. The Ohio Kiver was 
crossed during the night, and Point Pleasant, W. Va., was 
the first station in southern country at which the boys were 
greeted. 

Charleston was reached at seven and a very good break- 




Company at liayonet Drill. 
Sunday Morning Inspection. 



fast was served to the soldiers, including warm biscuits. 
This was the first regiment of troops to pass over this route 
and the demonstrations of the patriotic citizens, coupled 
with that far-famed characteristic of hospitality of the 
southern people, made the trip a most pleasant one for the 
boys. 

Hinton was reached at noon and the men were permitted 
to leave the train to eat dinner and exercise. Company M 
attempted an excursion, but the grades afforded a little too 
much exercise and the men were glad to get back into their 
seats in the coaches. 

The Virginia line was crossed at 3 p. m., and about the 
time of reveille on the morning of the 30th, the regiment 
reached Falls Church, and after breakfast marched about 
four miles to Camp Alger where the regiment went into 
camp and established headquarters at 9 o'clock, in the im- 
mediate neighborhood of the Second Tennessee. The re- 
mainder of the day was devoted to putting up tents and 
getting everything into proper shape. 

The next day foimd numerous Michigan people visiting 
the camp, among whom were Congressmen Samuel A. 
Smith, Horace G. Snover, Gen. A. L. Spaulding, K. O. 
Crump, D. L. Hamilton and wife, and Sate Senator Blakes- 
lee and wife. They were right glad to see the Michigan 
boys, and had come principally for the purpose of learning 
whether they were properly cared for. It was declared by 
all visitors that, among the regiments so far in camp, the 
Thirty-third made the best appearance, for there had been 
no expense saved on the part of the state quartermaster-gen- 
eral in providing Michigan's contingent with the best to be 
had in the matter of uniforms. There were a few men on 
the sick list, but, all in all, they were in first-class physical 
condition. However, Gen. Spaulding was fearful about the 
water supply, and upon his return to Washington called the 

145 



attention of Secretary Alger to the fact that there was not 
an adequate water supply, and the affable secretary pinned 
the information to the end of a piece of red tape. 

On June 1st the regular routine of camp life went into 
effect, starting with the setting up exercises and hospital 
field drill. 

The men of the regiment had been put to work to clear 
off the ground just across the road to be used as a drill field 
and just after they had put on the finishing touches, the 
Ninth Massachusetts marched up the dusty road at noon, 
and turning into the field halted and set to work to pitch 
their tents, whUe the Michigan boys looked over from the 
other side of the road and swore. 

Congressman Corliss had come out to camp to see how 
the regiment was situated and was given a rousing reception 
by the men from Detroit, and as he walked down the line 
with Capt. Cowley, the men of Company M cheered him 
to the echo, for they knew that he was their friend and it 
was good to have a friend at court, and it was through his 
efforts that the regular field rations were made to include 
fresh meat and vegetables that day. 

By this time the water supply had become an important 
problem. It is not until a man finds himself suddenly 
transported from the civilization of a water system to the 
primitive sources of supply in the country that he begins to 
learn how much he really likes water. The source of sup- 
ply was a spring about two miles distant from the camp, 
and the water had to be carried in pails, or any handy or un- 
handy vessel that might be found at hand. The water detail 
consisted of eight men from a company and started to work 
at four o'clock each morning so that there would be a supply 
for breakfast. 

The water was of good quality at the spring, but camp 
cooks are not known to keep tins and buckets in the cleanli- 

146 



est condition, and what with the impurities that might min- 
gle with the water when deposited in these vessels, and the 
accumulation of other impurities during the long journey 
back over the dusty road, constantly agitated by baggage 
wagons and officers' horses, it can be imagined what condi- 
tion it would be in when finally served for use. 

Gen. Spaulding was an old soldier, and as has been stated, 
took up this matter energetically in company with his 
fellow congressmen, and after repeated efforts to get the 
ball of red tape to unwind, drilling outfits began to make 
their appearance in the camps of different regiments for 
the purpose of boring for water. 

When Congressman Corliss asked Col. Boynton and Maj. 
Webb why they had not made a complaint about the condi- 
tions, the answer was "We are soldiers, and did not come 
here to kick, but to obey orders." Congressman Sheldon 
began to take a hand in the matter, and Gen. Alger was so 
impressed with the immediate need of remedy that he sent 
his personal aide, Maj. Geo. H. Hopkins, to learn just ex- 
actly what was needed, and when Maj.-Gen. Graham, who 
was to command the camp, arrived on the 2nd, he told Col. 
Boynton that if he was not satisfied with the place where 
the regiment was then stationed, he could remove it to some 
other point near by. 

A newspaper called The Evening News back in Detroit 
came in for some grateful blessings from the boys who were 
indisposed just enough to prevent them from being either 
on duty, or in the hospital, when its correspondent, Mr. 
Dennis Donahue, of Light Guard membership, distributed 
a shipment of cots received from the paper. There were no 
cots included in the general equipment of the regiment, and 
these poor fellows, partially sickened by the bad water, had 
been compelled to find what comfort they could in lying on 
the hard ground by spreading their blankets under them, 

147 



and it was a good thing that the cots came on the 2nd for it 
would have fared very badly with these same sick men if 
they had had to remain upon the ground when the next 
day's storm broke. The boys had been anxious enough to 
get away from Camp Eaton, but they now looked back upon 
it as a place something like what heaven might be, as they 
tramped through the muddy clay and tried to build bunks 
off the ground from the rustic material at hand so that they 
might escape the down-pouring floods. 

On the 3rd the first dress parade was held, and after it was 
over some of the men in Company M, in foraging, came 
across a strawberry patch and remembered Gov. Pingree's 
advice about foraging. It was certainly an incongruous 
scene to see the fellows, with the rough appearance given 
by their wet and muddy uniforms, sitting up at mess amidst 
uncouth surroundings eating strawberries and cream. 

On the 4th the first regimental inspection was held by the 
colonel, and the next day being Sunday there were no drills, 
but services were held by the chaplain, with a fair attend- 
ance, and this was the last service held by the regiment on 
American soil. 

Owing to the rapidity with which new wells were bored, 
and the supply of pure water enlarged, and also because the 
men by this time had learned better how to take care of 
themselves under the existing conditions, there became less 
sickness. 

The regiment had another good friend in Washington in 
Senator McMillan, and it was probably due to his influence 
that the regiment was very shortly complete in its equip- 
ment. 

On the 27th of May the name of Col. Henry M. Duf- 
field had been sent to congress for confirmation as a briga- 
dier-general, and after his appointment there was more or 
less speculation as to his assignment but it quite naturally 

148 



came about that he should be placed in command of a brig- 
ade containing as many Michigan regiments as possible, and 
thus the Thirty-third and Thirty-fourth Michigan Regi- 
ments were brigaded with the Ninth Massachusetts. 

Being so close to Washington, it was natural that the men 
should like to visit the city, and as many as could get passes 
took advantage of the occasion. 

On June 6th the men of Company M were taken under 
command of a commissioned officer to a creek for bathing 
purposes, as it was feared that if individual passes were is- 
sued for the purpose some of the men might forget where 
they had started for. On the way the men were reminded 
of the historic character of the country when they came to 
a little old mill, which had been the property of Robert E. 
Lee. 

On the 7th Col. Boynton and staff and the twelve cap- 
tains, under the escort of Congressmen Spaulding and 
Snover, visited the White House and were introduced to 
President McKinley. The President left the cabinet ses- 
sion for' the purpose of receiving his visitors, and greeting 
them with great cordiality, told Col. Boynton that "You 
have an exceptionally fine appearing staff, and if your men 
are equally well qualified for fighting, I shall expect great 
things from the Thirty-third Michigan when they get into 
action," to which Col. Boynton replied with soldierly 
modesty that they could always be depended upon to per- 
form their duty. Their respects were then paid to Gen. 
Alger at the War Department, and upon the party reaching 
the capitol building they were given a warm reception by 
the "gentlemen from Michigan." 

On June 8th the Thirty-fourth Michigan arrived in the 
afternoon and were glad to renew the acquaintance with the 
Thirty-third begun at Camp Eaton. The band and one 

149 



battalion from the Thirty-third took the four mile march 
to the railroad station to welcome the Thirty-fourth. 

On the 9th the men were given a surprise after setting up 
exercises in the morning. One thousand new model Spring- 
field rifles were issued, together with army shoes, and two 
days later the same issues were received by the Thirty- 
fourth. These two regiments were then in condition to go 
into service on twelve hours' notice. 

On the morning of June 10th was recorded the first 
response from Company M to the "sick call." There were 
cases of sickness from every other company of the regiment, 
but the specially hardy physique of Company M's mem- 
bers caused their immunity from the attacks of ordinary 
camp ailments, and the cases reported at this time proved to 
be mild enough to keep them out of the hospital. 

The arrival of the Thirty-fourth iu the neighborhood of 
the Thirty-third caused a greater consumption of water, as 
some haK dozen other regiments used the one spring for 
their source of supply, but some relief came in the shape of 
wagons driven through the camp from which cider was 
peddled, and the boys who had any change in their clothes 
always made a rush to avail themselves of a quenching drink 
of the apple juice. 

On the 11th the regular weekly regimental inspection 
took place, and the next day was one of general rest for the 
men. They were thankful that Uncle Sam had enough 
regard for Sunday to not insist upon their doing anything 
but necessary duty, and as the men were given the freedom 
of camp within the provost line, they strolled around and en- 
joyed a peaceful day and tried to find refuge from the one 
hundred and two degi'ees of heat which was trying to make 
them uncomfortable. A number of boxes containing good 
things to eat arrived on this day from folks at home, and tent 
feasts became a fad. 

150 



On the 12th two more men reported at sick call from 
Company M, but their cases only required more or less super- 
ficial treatment. 

The arrival of Pennsylvania and Illinois troops on this 
day brought the total number in camp up to thirty thou- 
sand, and of course each regiment wanted to be sure that it 
would be sent either to Cuba or Porto Rico, or any place 
where there was some fighting to be done, since they had 
learned their new trade of soldiering. Col. Boynton very 
naively sized up the situation in his regiment by the state- 
ment, "I would hate to see any of my boys killed, but I know 
their anxiety to get to the front, and I really long, myself, 
for the smell of powder." 

Gen. Duffield made his first appearance at camp on June 
14th, and immediately assumed command of the Third 
Brigade of the First Division of the Second Army Corp, 
comprising the regiments mentioned before, and finding 
that the reports of poor camp facilities and other evil con- 
ditions which the troops were subjected to, had not been 
overstated, he, in company with the three colonels of his 
brigade made a wide reconnaissance for the purpose of 
finding a better location, but coming events were to save 
the trouble of moving to another spot. 

The medical department had set actively to work to take 
the best care possible of the volunteers in camp, and on the 
14th the members of the Thirty-third were vaccinated by 
companies, the work consuming most of the day, and it was 
on this date that the regimental hospital was abandoned 
and all cases of sickness sent to the division hospital. 

The regiment was not kept to the hard grind of daily 
routine, and leaves of absence were issued in blocks of six- 
teen, and every man who could afford the trip to Washing- 
ton availed himself of the privilege. 

June I7th was the anniversary of Bunker Hill, and the 

151 



Massachusetts regiments in camp arranged to fittingly cele- 
brate the day, and as the Ninth Massachusetts was brigaded 
with the two Michigan regiments, the entire brigade was 
put under holiday orders. 

There had been considerable kicking among the boys at 
the dearth of pocket money, as they had not received pay 
since leaving Island Lake and they had various uses for 
money just at this time, so when, on the following morning, 
the rumor spread that the paymaster would arrive, there 
was great rejoicing. The pay issued was to cover the period 
between June 1st and 18th — the date of paying — and while 
it did not amount to much per each individual, yet the little 
sum looked much larger than it would under other circum- 
stances. 

Capt. Cowley had been ordered to proceed to Detroit 
with a detail of three sergeants to secure enough recruits to 
bring the ranks up to the maximiun of the war footing, and 
on the 19th Sergt. Cummings arrived in camp with as fine 
a lot of men as were ever accepted into service. Capt. 
Cowley had remained a day longer in Detroit with his fam- 
ily, with the result that he was unable to rejoin his regiment 
until several days after the engagement at Santiago. This 
left Second Lieutenant Kerr in command of the company, 
as First Lieutenant Waldo had been appointed by Gen. 
Duffield to serve on his staff as an aide. 

The first army of invasion had been formed by concen- 
trating the regulars at Tampa, where, in the fore part of 
May a corps was formed and designated the Fifth Army 
Corps, and before the army officers got through making a 
guess as to who would receive the assignment Brig.-Gen. 
Wm. R. Shaf ter was promoted to the rank of major-general 
of volunteers and placed in command of the corps. 

It seemed at this time that Havana was the favorite point 
of attack, and after the first proposition to send fifty thou- 

152 




Company M, Thirty-third M. V. I., 
Breaking Camp at Camp Alger. 

Company M's Wagon Train at Camp Algt 



sand men to a point near that place had been taken up and 
then dropped, Gen. Shafter received instructions on May 
9th to land at Mariel, under the protection of the navy, and 
seize enough ground to permit of the deploying of an army. 
This movement also had Havana as its objective, and re-en- 
forcements were to follow as fast as transportation facilities 
could carry them. Arrangements had been made for the 
expedition to take sixty days' food allowance for men and 
animals, and to be followed by four months additional sup- 
plies, but such an enormous movement involved activity 
that was new to our department of the army, and for other 
reasons known only to the government, Gen. Shafter re- 
ceived countermanding orders and soon afterwards the idea 
of attacking Havana seems to have died out. There came 
up to take its place an order for Gen. Shafter to take a large 
expedition for a "reconnaissance in force" on the south 
coast of Santiago Province, and get into communication 
with the Cuban forces under Gen. Gomez, who had already 
been met by Lieut. Rowan, of the Bureau of Military Infor- 
mation. Of course, armed filibustering expeditions had 
been going on, and several with the direct assistance of 
details from the regular army. 

These were the days of dull suspense, when the people at 
home, as well as the soldiers in camp, eagerly pounced upon 
every piece of news that might give some indication as to 
just what the government was going to do in the way of 
immediate aggressiveness. 

The numerous fine ships of the navy kept circling around 
the island and scouting through channels, day after day, on 
the lookout for a Spanish fleet which grew to be a very mys- 
terious quantity, and while Admiral Sampson permitted a 
break in the monotonous cruising to occur in front of San 
Juan, there was nothing accomplished. In the waters around 
Cuba there were various happenings, such as the cutting of 

153 



cables under fire, and the ambnshing of our small patrol 
boats, but up in the states there began to grow a kind of an 
ennui which augured bad for the administration, but the 
government was sure that First Bull Run would not find a 
repetition in this war. 

rinally on the 19th of May, the Admiral of the will-o'- 
the-wisp Spanish fleet having taken stock of his coal, ran his 
ships into the harbor of Santiago, instead of Havana as he 
had intended. 

Out of the confusion of orders and counter-orders, and 
the perplexity caused by the lack of any trace of the Span- 
ish admiral's whereabouts, Admiral Schley set sail from 
Key West on the very morning that the Spaniards had en- 
tered Santiago harbor, and started to cruise the southern 
coast as far as Cienfuegos, and then while he spent several 
days in satisfying his suspicions of the presence of the Span- 
ish fleet at Santiago, Admiral Sampson reached Key West, 
only to find that the army had accomplished the location of 
the Spanish fleet, for upon the day that it sailed into San- 
tiago harbor, and its arrival wired to Havana, an agent of 
our secret service had forwarded the news on to Washing- 
ton through Gen. Greeley, the chief signal officer. 

Now that this quantity of antagonistic force had been 
cornered, the army was in a position to make its first onward 
move, and for greater security, the great fleet of American 
warships was stretched across the front of Santiago harbor, 
and the further expedient was adopted and heroically exe- 
cuted by Lieut. Hobson and a volunteer crew of six of dis- 
abling the collier Merrimac in the opening of the harbor to 
stop it up. 

The second call for seventy-five thousand volunteers had 
increased the size of the army, including regulars, to a force 
of two hundred and eighty thousand, and if the prediction 
had been made at that time that not more than one-fifth of 

154 



this number would get into foreign service the prophet 
would have been laughed at as a mad-man, but such proved 
to be the case nevertheless. 

A great fleet of transports had been gradually gathering 
at Tampa, which was the port of embarkation, and finally 
after many vexatious delays and numerous false starts, the 
Fifth Army Corps, composed almost entirely of regulars, 
got away on the 14th and after an easy voyage appeared off 
the land that was soon to be the last resting place of many 
of the brave men who strained their eyes to catch the first 
sight of the new country to which they had come on a sol- 
dier's business, a country in which, upon every hill stood 
a block house fringed with barbed wire, every dense tree a 
sharp-shooter's roost, and every daily shower a sure ally of 
the deadly invisible Mauser rifles. 

Now all this did not occur so long ago that the reader 
must be retold the whole account of the debarkation, and 
the activity of soldiers, firearms, and fever germs, in order 
to place before them the great setting in which the one com- 
pany of the Detroit Light Guard found its place, and helped 
to glorify the whole. Just before these deadly forces com- 
bined to make a devastating sweep of humans, away back 
in Camp Alger there was a spirit of anxiety among the boys 
from Michigan, lest they should have no part in the coming 
crash of arms, and the manner of their calling made the 
news a surprise to them. 

Gen. Graham had issued orders that every brigade in the 
Second Corps should make a practice march to the Potomac 
River where the men could bathe and go into camp over 
night, returning the next day to their positions in camp. It 
was on the 19th that the two Michigan regiments got away 
in heavy marching order and made a forced march of twenty 
miles to the Potomac, arriving on the banks of the river 
about 8 p. m. Rations had been cooked and eaten, and the 

155 



bivouac established for the night, but a dispatch bearer rode 
in at 1 o'clock that night with an order from Gen. Duffield 
recalling the two regiments, and a hasty march was made 
back to camp, which was reached at 4 p. m, on Monday, 
June 20th. The occasion had called for the use of a great 
deal of energy, and it was surprising that so very few were 
compelled to drop out of the column because of physical 
exhaustion. 

After camp was reached, and the men became informed 
that Gen. Duffield's brigade was to go to Cuba among the 
re-enforcements that were to be sent to Gen. Shafter, their 
joy and cheers knew no bounds, and the preparations begun 
immediately, were carried on to an early completion with a 
zest that augured ill for the foe they were going to help 
lick. 

The order governing the movement of Gen. Duffield's 
brigade is here given. 

Adjutant General's Department, Washington, 

June 21st, 1898. 
Ma j. -Gen. Graham, Ealls Church, Va. : 

With the approval of the Secretary of War, you will de- 
tail Brig. Gen. Duffield and one regiment, and one battalion 
of another regiment of his command to proceed tomorrow 
(this) morning by rail to Newport ISTews, Va., with ten days' 
traveling rations. On his arrival at Newport News, Va., 
Gen. Duffield will go on board of one of the auxiliary cruis- 
ers now waiting to transport his command to Santiago, Cuba. 
Upon arrival at that place they will be reported to Maj.- 
Gen. Shafter, commanding the United States forces there. 
The troops will carry complete camp equipage and full sup- 
plies of ammunition for field ser\dce. It is understood not 
to exceed six horses can be taken on board the ship. 

By command of Major-Gen. Miles, 
H. C. CORBIN, Adjutant-General. 



156 




Target Practice on Board Transport Yale. 
Transport Yale off Fortress Monroe. 



At noon of the 22nd, after the forenoon had been spent 
by the regiment in packing baggage and transporting it by 
Avagon trains to the railroad, and after tlie orders for rations 
had become simplified, a long blue column headed off the 
camp ground for Dunn Loring, with Gen. Duffield and his 
staff in the van, accompanied by Maj.-Gen. Graham, who de- 
sired to escort the command. It was a dusty road, but the 
boys were kicking it off their shoes for the last time, yet 
there came a time not long afterward when they would have 
given anything if they could only have had the good old 
dust back again to walk in. 

The departure of the two Michigan regiments had been 
cheered by the envious troops from other states, but it 
seemed that this selection made by the War Department 
should be a perfectly natural result of the comparison be- 
tween these two regiments and the others, and which had 
been noted by all visitors alike from the first appearance of 
the Thirty-third at Camp Alger, but not only was the per- 
sonnel of the ranks responsible, but the President himself 
liad already complimented Col. Boynton on the appearance 
of his staff, and Gen. Duffield's service in the late war — 
particularly when on the staff of Gen. Thomas, when that 
general made Chickamauga famous — ^was assurance that a 
brigade commander of highest ability was to be added to the 
Fifth Army Corp. 

Alexandria was reached at 4 :30, and the regiment imme- 
diately detrained and marched down to the docks where 
the bay steamer "Washington" was lying in wait. The men 
were at once put to loading ammunition and baggage on 
board. 

Gen. Alger had come down from Washington to bid Gen. 
Duffield and the Michigan boys a farewell. It was at the 
time of day when busy life becomes gradually suspended, 
and the sun shakes hands with the horizon. The gang plank 

157 



had been drawn in, and upon the three decks of the great 
vessel- a mass of happy, yelling Michigan soldiers leaned 
over the rail. Suddenly, on the middle deck, an officer 
lifted his hand and the noise quieted, but a few of the un- 
subduable started the cry of "Speech! Speech!" until it 
became a yell which Gen. Alger could not disregard. The 
general removed his hat and immediately there fell a hush 
upon the great crowd as he said : "Soldiers, I have done my 
talking. It is your turn now." It was a witticism which 
reached the appreciation of most of the boys, and they gave 
a hearty good three cheers and "Tiger" for the Secretary of 
War. 

The last article carried on ship was a box of ammunition, 
and the last man to board, was Gen. Duffield, and before the 
yells of the soldiers in honor of Gen. Alger had died down, 
the boat slowly moved out and headed down the Potomac, 
whose banks were no strangers to ships of war and boats of 
soldiers, and with the flag flying from the fore peak in token 
of its business, the steamer made a good run and arrived at 
Old Point Comfort about two hours after reveille the next 
morning. Here the men were glad to disembark from their 
cramped quarters and stretch themselves on the march to 
Fortress Monroe where they went into camp on the parade 
ground. The men rested up, and at two o'clock went on 
board the U. S. S. "Yale," and at half past five she weighed 
anchor and set sail for that place which might have stag- 
gered Sheridan's fluent vocabulary, had he belonged to a 
later generation. 




V. S. S. "Texas," from Aboard Transport. 
Transports off the Coast at Siboney. 



CHAPTER VII. 

Arrival at Siboney, Cuba— The Fight at Aguadores — Camp Webb — 
Sardinaris — Return on the "Harvard" — At Montauk Point, L. 
I. — Home Again. 

Company M had a very favorable location on the forward 
port deck, and they were now introduced to canned toma- 
toes, and canned beef, which with hard tack and coffee, 
composed the travel rations. There was no kick as to the 
quantity, but there was an objection to the quality. It is no 
use trying to tell how these canned goods won a record for 
themselves as a repulsive diet, a diet which furnished prac- 
tically no nutrition to human beings who were expected to 
perform duties requiring the hardiest kind of physical endur- 
ance. There probably was some unreasonable objection, 
but honest men will tell you that they now look back with 
horror to the time when they knew the mess call was due to 
sound. The coffee was served hot, but it was the only thing 
of warmth introduced into the stomach. 

Guard was mounted every day at 10 o'clock, and target 
practice by the crews of the ship's guns, and the men of the 
regiment vsdth their small arms, was indulged in, the prac- 
tice of the latter being confined to volley firing. 

At dawn of the 25th, several small islands were sighted 
and passed, and about 8 o'clock, during the tvsdlight, the 
eastern end of the coast of Cuba was made out, and follow- 
ing the course through the Windward Passage, the good 
ship "Yale" hove to off the coast near Santiago at haK past Y 
in the morning after sighting the U. S. S."New York," and 
awaited orders for the disposition of the regiment and assist- 
ance from the admiral in landing. 



The "Yale" was the first ship to arrive from the States with 
reinforcements, and Gen. Shaffer's headquarters being still 
on board the "Seguranca," Gen. Duffield immediately re- 
ported to him, and debarkation of the troops immediately 
followed. It was a curious experience to the men to drop 
into the cutters and whale boats which were coupled together 
in trains of four or five, towed by steam launches from the 
navy, and they found it was no easy matter to get ashore 
through the surf, each weighed down with a hundred rounds 
of ammunition. The operation was completed at two o'clock 
in the afternoon, but it was not until the next morning that 
the rations w^ere unloaded. 

Here at Siboney the boys from Michigan began to rub 
elbows with the regulars, although by this time the greater 
part of the army had been pushed out from Siboney into 
advanced positions. A few days before, the patriots in the 
States had been thrilled "with accounts of the impetuous and 
daring onslaught of our troops in the skirmish at LaGuasima, 
and by June 30th, when Gen. Shaffer came ashore and estab- 
lished his headquarters in Siboney, the picket lines had been 
pushed out until they were closer to the points of attack than 
they were to headquarters. 

We all understand now why the army was not pushed for- 
ward to the attack before it did. It was only made known 
to the civilians up in the North after the fight, how the coun- 
try which our soldiers had to march over in the direction of 
Santiago was devoid of all roads, and scarcely anything that 
looked like a trail. The topography of the country had to 
be learned, supplies and ammunition had to be landed and 
advanced to various forward positions where they were 
needed, but even this was not all accomplished in time, for 
it very soon became evident that the terrors of the wet sea- 
son which had set in WT^th its ranks of deadly fever germs, 
would do more to decimate the army than all the Mauser 

160 



Company M, Thirty-third M. 
going ashore at Siboney 
June 30th, 3S9S. 



f 

I 




Mouth of the Harbor at Santiago. 

Zll^°n^^ ^°^^' ^' Sardinaris 
where Corporal Nottingham 
was Rescued from Drowning 



rifles the enemy could bring to bear, and on the afternoon 
of the last day of June, it was the feeling of every general 
present at the council of war which had been summoned, 
that our success laid only in making a dash, and Lawton, 
coming forth from that meeting with the promise that he 
would take Caney in two hours, hurried oft" to move his divi- 
sion to its position on the extreme right, while Gen. Duffield 
was assigned the duty of protecting the left wing. Gen. 
Duffield was to relieve Gen. Bates in command at Siboney, 
as the latter was to assist Gen. Lawton, while Gen. Duffield's 
active operation was to confuse the enemy at Aguadores. 

Gen. Shaf ter had requested Admiral Sampson to bombard 
the works at Aguadores in co-operation with Gen. Duffield, 
and if possible, render that place untenable, so that Gen. 
Duffield's command might cross the river and actively en- 
gage the enemy and divert them from coming in contact 
with the left wing of the main force. In fact, what was ex- 
actly expected of Gen. Duffield's movement, being, as it 
was, in the nature of a feint, was to detain the Spanish 
troops in the vicinity of Aguadores, but he had been in- 
structed not to sacrifice any of his men. It was a position in 
which little fame was likely to be gained, but when we study 
the comment that Gen. Shafter made some time later, that 
"This movement was well executed," and piece it out vdth 
our knowledge of the tale of casualties extending from 
Caney to San Juan Hill, we can understand that this little 
expedition along the coast diverted enough muzzles from 
the direction of Gen. Kent's forces, to make the work of the 
hospital corps less than it would otherwise have been. 

Upon request from the men of Company M, Gen. Duffield 
permitted Lieut. Waldo to take command of the company, 
owing to the absence of Capt. Cowley who had missed com- 
ing with the regiment, and who did not arrive until several 
days later. 

161 



At midnight on the thirtieth of June, the men of the 
Thirty-third were waiting impatiently for their rations 
which they would need for the expedition that they had 
learned had fallen to their lot. The situation filled them 
with a peculiar excitement. They felt impressed by the 
knowledge that after their period of dull waiting and brave 
talk during those long camp days up in the North, they were 
at last going to receive that oft-mentioned "baptism of fire," 
and when they were ordered to board the train of flat cars on 
the little narrow guage road that ran down the coast and up 
to Santiago, they were glad that they were there, and they 
paid no attention to the hardness of their cramped positions. 

The first and second battalion had started at 3 :30 in the 
morning, and the train having returned for the third bat- 
talion, went booming along to the tune of the pounding surf, 
and reunited with the first two battalions. 

Meanwhile, Gen. DufiSeld had reconnoitered the position 
as well as possible with the assistance of the captain of a 
Cuban out-post, and his staff also made examinations of the 
surrounding ground. 

It is undoubtedly best to give at this point, a portion of 
Gen. Duffield's official report of that action : 

"The river Aguadores, not far above this point, joins the 
San Juan river, which at the bridge is from six to seven hun- 
dred feet wide and not f ordable. Its banks on both sides are 
quite high and precipitous. The enemy, which I estimated, 
from a detail I saw forming on the parade ground of the fort 
when I was examining the locality, to be about five hundred 
strong, were posted in the rifle pits along the bank of the 
river on both sides of the railroad, and in the block house 
and the fort. These intrenchments were so strongly made 
that the shots from the Gloucester failed to dismantle or 
seriously injure them, and they were so placed that they 
protected the troops in them from any fire from seaward. 




Bert Gasco ("Mascot") who went through 
the Campaign with Company M. 




Company M en route to Aguadoros, 
on the morning of July 1st, 1SS)S, 
•with the two "Mascots." 



The ground like that about Santiago, was covered with 
heavy underbrush and so thick that it was impossible for 
troops to move even in column of fours. 

"When this examination was completed, the remainder 
of my force had come up about 9 :80 a. m., making a force of 
about nine hundred men. I directed Col. Boynton to send 
forward a line of skirmishers, supporting them with a bat- 
talion. The skirmishers went forward under command of 
Lieut. McDonald, and the battalion in command of Lieut.- 
Col. Schmidt, on each side of the railroad and advanced 
toward the river. The remainder of the regiment was put in 
position in the woods on each side of the track about a hun- 
dred yards west of the water tank. In crossing the railroad 
cut to take its position, L Company suffered a loss of two 
Idlled and three wounded. I had established signal com- 
munication with the Gloucester, which prepared for their 
advance by rapid firing, which did not, however, prevent a 
vigorous and effective reply by the enemy to the fire of our 
skirmishers. Our troops, who were at great disadvantage 
because of their Springfield rifles and smoky powder, at 
once discovered their location to the enemy, while the latter 
were armed with Mausers and smokeless powder. 

"The enemy's artillery directly commanded the approach 
to the river by the railroad cut and trestles, one gun being 
placed oppasite and in line with them. The Aguadores end 
of the bridge had been blown up for fifty feet or more, and 
I had no boats or other mode of crossing. Capt. Alger, of 
my staff, volunteered to lead a party of men and swim across, 
but in my judgment this was impracticable. I therefore 
directed Col. Boynton to have Lieut.-Col. Schmidt push his 
battalion forward to the position shown on the accompanying 
map, and open fire vigorously. This he did promptly. The 
enemy's artillery began shelling the railroad tracks and the 
woods while our troops were getting in position and during 

168 



the entire engagement ^vith the exception of a few short in- 
ter\-als when interrupted by the fire from the Gloucester. 
At 12 :05 p. m. my skii-mishers reported that the enemy 
were receiving reinforcements. 

The report is interrupted at this point in order to intro- 
duce the wig-wag conversation carried on between General 
Duffield and the flag-ship *'Xew York." This conversation 
is particularly interesting because it exhibits the note of 
perversity which characterized the attitude of the naval 
force in all its relations with the army. 

Admiral Sampson : "Are you waiting for us to begin?" 

Col. Boynk)n: "General Duffield is ahead with the 
scouts." 

Admiral Sampson : "When do you want us to com- 
mence firing?" 

General Duffield : "When the rest of the command ar- 
rives. I will then signal you." 

General Duffield to flag-ship "]S"ew York", 9 :15 A. M. : 
"WiU be ready soon. When I signal to begin firing, direct 
attention first to rifle pits; next to fort and block house, 
unless you can do both at once." 

General Duffield, 11 :05 A. M. : "Scouts report no dam- 
age to rifle pits. Can you reach them?" 

Flag-ship : "There are no Spaniards in the rifle pits." 

General Duffield, 11 :05 A. M. : "Have no means of 
crossing river; only ordered to demonstrate." 

Flag-ship, 12 :05 P. M. : "What news?" 

General Duffield : "Ee-enforcements to enemy re- 
ported." 

Flag-ship : "Tell me where they are and we will scatter 
them. There is no man in the rifle pits." 

General Duffield, 12 :30 P. M. : "They are reported 
marching into old fort." 

Flag-ship, 12 :35 P. M. : "The Gloucester will take care 
of them. There is not a man in that fort." 

164 



(At the moment this was being wig-wagged, a shell from 
the enemy wounded two of the 33rd M. V. I.) 

From small ship not flag-ship, 12 :54 P. M. : "Have 
orders to communicate and fire when you so desire." 

General Duffield, 1 :45 P. M. : "Cease firing. May be 
ordered to renew attack tomorrow with re-enforcements. 
Use your own judgment as to withdrawal of ships." 

"The demonstration was continued until about 3 p. m., 
when Lieut. -Col. Schmidt's battalion was withdrawn and 
rejoined the second and third battalions of the regiment. 
The Cuban outpost resumed their position and the train 
which was used in the morning then took back to Siboney, 
which was entirely unguarded, the second and third bat- 
talions and most of the wounded. It returned soon after 
for the first battalion and the balance of the wounded. The 
entire regiment was in Siboney by 6 p. m. The casualties 
were two enlisted men killed and six wounded. 

"The behavior of the troops was most commendable. Al- 
though it was their first experience under fire, and the 
enemy's artillery opened fire very suddenly and effectively, 
no one faltered or turned backward." 

The night of July 1st closed down upon an exhausted 
but cheerful army. Things had been done that day which 
had added an untold shining luster to American arms, but 
while the soldiers were suffering various forms of hysteria, 
from sheer joy of success, to the more baneful cause of sun- 
stroke, or a queer little round hole, the gallant officers who 
had been in the van, were assembled discussing whether the 
dearly bought success should be given up or held, but no ! 
where the flag had been planted at the close of that day, there 
it would stay until it went still further, and so the Thirty- 
third's work was not finished at Aguadores, but, according 
to an order issued by Gen. Shafter to Gen. Dufiield on July 
1st to continue the demonstration on the next day, the third 

165 



battalion, under commajid of Maj. Webb, broke camp at 
Siboney at eleven o'clock at night, and made a forced march 
down the rough course of the railroad to the position they 
had become acquainted with during the day. Company M 
was detailed as advance guard, but the post was reached 
without incident. 

On the day previous, the men had witnessed a dramatic 
incident that is prominent in the record of naval activity 
near Santiago, when Admiral Sampson, believing that his 
co-operation with the Thirty-third was completed, ordered 
the ships to cease firing, and Lieut. Blue, who had made 
himself conspicuous by reason of his daring performances, 
signaled from his little ship the "Suwanee," for permission 
to knock down the Spanish flag on one of the forts. The 
boys watched the shots, which the admiral had permitted, 
and when the third and last tore the flag away, pole and all, 
their cheers mingled with those of the crews, but the sight 
they were to witness two days later far outranked this. 

The Spaniards had rather expected the American forces 
to land at Aguadores, so they had increased their defenses 
and thrown up trenches and masked batteries, and when the 
business of war began the next morning, the men of the 
third battalion found things lively enough to more than 
satisfy their taste for soldiering. The bursting shells were 
responsible for the list of casualties, and the boys found it 
very difficult to track the sharp shooters who were making 
their presence known continually by the little "zip zip" of 
their bullets. 

The battalion remained here in a very dangerous position 
until noon. The ground was very hilly, rising up from the 
railroad track, and despite the chaparral and rough brush, 
the position could be easily approached from Santiago and 
captured. In order to prevent a surprise, and as a measure 

166 



of retaliation, a detail of the best marksmen were posted at 
points of vantage. 

There was no particular reason for the battalion remain- 
ing longer in the advanced position, so it was ordered to 
retire to a place called Juraguasito, where Companies I and 
L were detached, and continued on to Siboney, leaving 
Companies M and K to go into camp. Trenches were built, 
and the post named Camp Webb, after the major command- 
ing. 

The night of the second day found the men of these two 
companies resting from their hard work in the construction 
of the rifle pits, and they lay about, talking in whispers of 
the stirring events they had just passed through. They 
mourned the death and the crippling of their comrades; 
they told each other what kind of a noise a piece of shell 
whistling past their ears made, then they got to talking of 
mother and the others and home, and finally rolled over 
and hunted a comfortable position in which to sleep another 
night on foreign shores. 

Whether or not there be any virtue in a mascot, certain it 
is that soldiers are almost all superstitious upon that point. 
When Company M left Detroit to be mustered into service, 
the members smuggled along with them two lively young 
boys, but when the company reached Camp Alger, one of 
the pair transferred his charms to another organization, but 
little Bert Gasco remained to cast his protective spells around 
the members of Company M. When the company landed 
at Siboney, one of the first human beings to greet it was a 
little black boy whose age was represented by the supersti- 
tious combination of one and three. He wanted to go with 
the members of Company M, and told an interesting tale of 
himself. He was of South American parentage, but had 
been born in Jamaica, where his mother was a serving 
woman in the household of an English family. Stephen 

167 



Crane, the novelist and war correspondent, had picked him 
up at Jamaica and brought him over to Cuba to act as his 
interpreter, as the little black boy was quite a linguist, but 
he had done something to bring himself into disgrace with 
his new master and he was waiting on shore that afternoon 
for a chance to attach himself to some of the new troops. 
His name was Cecil Benjamin Williams, and being alto- 
gether a cut-e little darkey, the bovs decided that it might 
be well to have mascots of opposite color, as the combina- 
tion might increase the potency of their charm. It wasn't 
exactly to the taste of little Bert, and their rivalry found 
them about two feet apart on one of the flat cars bearing 
Company M to the front on the early morning of July 1st. 
Bert returned with the Company, but an order prohibiting 
the transportation to the United States of foreigners in the 
company of troops caused the little black boy to suddenly 
disappear just before the company was to come north. The 
boys jokingly beKeve that their immunity from injuries and 
fatalities, was due to the happy combination of their mas- 
cots. 

The position of Camp Webb was held for the pm-pose of 
preventing a flank movement by the Spanish, and the strict- 
est vigilance was maintained by the outposts. The men of 
both companies were required to remain awake during the 
night, and both companies alternately took twenty-four 
hours charge of the outpost work. On the outposts, every 
man able to muster was made use of and posted in pairs, 
relieving each other every six hours. 

On the 2nd day of July the entire United States forces 
had moved into advanced positions encircling the land side 
of the city, with the right covering the approaches from the 
north, and the left resting at a point almost due east from 
the southern limit of the city. This disposition of the forces 
left tlie base and the avenues of communication in a rather 

168 




Trenches at Camp Webb, Cuba. 
Built and Occupied 
by Companies M and K. 
Thirty-third M. V. I. 



defenseless condition, for the railroad which ran from San- 
tiago to Siboney followed a course between high sheltering 
hills along the line of the harbor until it reached Aguadores, 
and then crossing the river continued under cover of the 
hills along the coast. It was feared that the Spanish could 
pour quite a force along this route and capture the base and 
cut off communication and supplies from the United States 
forces at the front. Maj. Latimer, of the Thirty-fourth 
Michigan, with six hundred men, was detailed to take a posi- 
tion off to the south of the left wing, and combat any at- 
tempts of the Spanish from that quarter, and keep the road 
open. A little further east of Maj. Latimer's position, and 
close to the line of the railroad was the point occupied by 
Companies M and K of the Thirty-third, and these positions 
were maintained, even after the Spanish began to make 
concessions looking towards a capitulation, as it was feared 
that the concessions might merely be a mask to cover a flank 
movement as stated. 

On the next day, which we now celebrate as the eve of 
our great national holiday, the boys were treated to a sight 
which few of the army were permitted to see, and while in 
their position the whole of that great sea fight was not 
visible to their eager eyes because of the westerly direction 
of it, and the fact that the Morro shut off a complete view, 
yet a good portion of it was plainly visible to the naked eye, 
and as they saw the havoc our seamen gunners wrought, the 
boys whooped it up as they had never whooped in all their 
lives before, and as day after day brought to them a more 
complete array of details, which they could readily piece 
with what they had seen, their food for gossip was more 
palatable to their minds, than were the rations with which 
they punished their stomachs. 

From the moment that the first Spanish ship stuck her 
nose out of the harbor on that memorable 3rd of July, the 

169 



problem which our army was confronted with began its slow 
fading awaj, just as the images on a developed film will gra- 
dually disappear when struck by a ray of light entering 
the dark room before the film has been "fi:xed." Gen. 
Shafter felt that it Avas the duty of Admiral Sampson to 
force his ships past the Avrecks of the Merrimac and Mer- 
cedes, and by taking station off the harbor front of the town, 
the general insisted that the situation would soon end by the 
surrender of the Spaniards, but this the admiral refused to 
do. 

Our forces had entirely encircled the land side of the city, 
but Gen. Shafter was not willing to push on to an attack 
until his efforts to compel a peaceful surrender had been ex- 
hausted. There would have been a fearful carnage, for he 
knew that our men would not flinch in the face of murderous 
rapid fire guns and small arms aimed at them from behind 
stone walls, any more than they had dreamed of hesitating 
in the wild charges on the 1st of July. Perhaps if we had 
had enough siege guns there, the business of capturing the 
place might have gone on at once. 

It is not necessary to relate here how the negotiations for 
surrender dragged along, and how each day found less work 
for the first sergeants, and more for the hospital stewards. 

The days stretched out with their dull records of new 
cases of fever. The sun hung like a fiery yellow furnace, 
radiating its intolerable rays of heat earthward. The rains 
would come from a suddenly darkened sky, and after drench- 
ing the ground and everything upon it, would just as sud- 
denly stop, and the skies would serenely smile at the poor 
fellows as they now welcomed the sun's heat, for it does not 
take a soldier very long to become a veteran in such a place, 
and he carries with him a recollection of the wise admonition 
to dry his clothes upon him, unless he would prefer to get 
laid by the heels with the vile fever. Here the men had no 

170 




A Portion of the 

Fortifications at Asruadores: 

a Spanish Flas was Knocked Dowi 

from the Tt>\ver liy Lieut. Blue 

of the ••Suwanee.-- with his 

famous "Three t>hots." 




Company M's Sharpshooters 

on "Outlook Rock," at Camp Webb, Cuba. 



shelter, not even their pup tents, and they were at the mercy 
of the sun and rain. It so happened that the rain fell upon 
two nights during the stay at Camp Webb, and the boys had 
the tightest fitting uniforms they had ever been able to get, 
until the sun rose up and dried them. 

The man who has an appreciation of the beauty of na- 
ture's exhibitions, probably did not kick so hard during the 
night storms, as the wonderful displays of electricity in the 
heavens awed him, and the thunder reminded him of the 
naval battle he could not get out of his mind. The landscape 
was finer to look upon than to come in touch with. Some of 
the neighboring peaks lifted their green mantles eight thou- 
sand feet above the sea, and the faint clouds dyed with sun- 
light, made floating pictures upon the background. It was 
the same scene that had attracted the eye of Columbus some 
five centuries before, but the grandeur of the country ap- 
j)ealed only to the e^'e. If a fellow did not like mosquitoes 
back up home, he certainly could not tolerate the Cuban 
variety nor the sand-flies, but it is believed the boys would 
have tolerated these pests with cheerfulness, if they could 
only have felt sure that there were none of those nasty look- 
ing spiders hanging around to give them the fever bite. The 
one variety most dreaded was the tarantula, but they had to 
keep an eye open for the scorpions and centipedes, for they 
could work a good deal of mischief. 

The most curious specimen of animal life on the island is 
the land crab. They make their appearance in great num- 
bers during the rainy season. Some of them are very large 
and extremely repulsive in appearance, and when they made 
their first appearance before the boys of Michigan, they 
inspired them with a shocking dread of ever coming in con- 
tact with the vicious looking things, and whenever a fellow 
heard the peculiar noise they make in striking against each 
other when traveling, he would immediately cut for another 

171 



neighborhood. And so this life continued from day to day. 
Their lot was no worse than that of the majority of the men, 
and perhaps their location was a little better than the aver- 
age. The poor fellows over in the trenches further north 
might hear the roar of the sea and yearn to take a plunge, 
but it was only the men in these two companies who were 
fortunate enough to be able to take the sea baths, although 
there was considerable danger attached to the operation. 

The final arrangement of the terms of capitulation on the 
15th, carried no other relief except as regarded the military 
situation. 

It was not, however, until some days after the surrender 
was completed that the news reached Camp Webb, and on 
the 19th, Companies M and K rejoined the regiment at 
Siboney. 

Now that the serious business was over, for which men 
had been willing to sacrifice their lives, and relatives and 
friends at home would have mourned the sacrifice in the 
name of patriotism, the frightful ravages of fever began to 
be the one prominent topic. The people up in the States un- 
reasonably denounced the head of every department, and the 
administration was fearfully blamed. The fact is, the people 
did not know what they were talking about, except that they 
were not misinformed as to the condition of the men's 
health. They forgot that this was part of the campaign that 
they had only a short time earlier urged upon the administra- 
tion. The fever was bad, and the army officers did not have 
to be told so by civilians up ]N'orth, for they themselves came 
within its clutches. The best thing that could possibly be 
done to relieve the situation until the transports could begin 
moving the men, was to change the location of camps to the 
highest ground in the neighborhood consistent with general 
convenience. The fact was, that each regiment was quaran- , 
tined in some particular spot which might be free from the 

173 



fever germs, and Siboney was used exclusively for all hos- 
pital cases. 

Company M's sojourn at Siboney Avas very brief, for it 
had become known as a veritable pest hole. Maj.-Gen. 
Young, who relieved Gen. Duffield in command of the post 
on July 3rd so that the latter might proceed to the front as 
soon as the remainder of his brigade arrived, was taken ill 
with the fever, and left on the next day for the United 
States, turning the command over to Gen. Duffield again. 
Each day's tally of fever cases showed a rapid increase in 
number. On the 8th, Gen. Duffield was taken ill, but re- 
mained on duty until the afternoon of the 10th when the 
surgeon in charge pronounced it a case of yellow fever and 
the general was removed to the fever hospital, leaving the 
command of the post with Col. Boynton of the Thirty-third. 
Col. Boynton, by orders from Gen. Duffield given under 
authority from Gen. Shafter, proceeded in company with 
Surgeon La Garde to condemn and set fire to all buildings 
that might harbor germs of the disease, and when Gen. 
Miles arrived on the following day, he found this work of 
purification by torch being carried out in a thorough man- 
ner and at once expressed his approval of the course 
pursued. 

Now that Santiago, which had been the sole objective of 
the campaign of the Fifth Army Corps, had been won into 
its possession, and all the Spanish forces in the eastern part 
of the island having surrendered, there was nothing for our 
soldiers to do, but it was recognized that we must maintain 
an investing force, and thus have Havana and the western 
provinces between our little army of occupation and our 
home base of operations, and so, having re-established San- 
tiago as the seat of a new assumption of government, we 
turned our eyes eastward in the direction of Spain's other 
possessions, and Gen. Miles, authorized to proceed with an 

173 



army and occupy the island of Porto Rico, took with him a 
small advance guard made up of some three thousand of the 
healthier of the troops at Santiago. Before he sailed on the 
21st, he cabled to Washington that there was not a single 
regiment of regulars or volimteers with Gen. Shaf ter's com- 
mand that was not infected with yellow fever, from one case 
in the Eighth Ohio — just arrived — to thirty-six in the 
Thirty-third Michigan. 

The Thirty-third was moved down into familiar country 
again and encamped at Sardinaris, about five miles nearer 
Aguadores than Camp Webb. Here the long weary days 
of waiting dragged down man after man until there was 
hardly one left who had not the fever gnawing away his 
strength and advertising its presence by the discolored skin. 
They had one relief that the men of other regiments did not 
enjoy, as has been said before, in that they were able to take 
the sea baths, but to a weakened man the sport was a dan- 
gerous one. 

The rough coral character of the shore made a poor beach, 
and it is rather wonderful that no more than one accident 
occurred to the men. This is the record of the thrilling at- 
tempt of the rescue of Corporal ISTottingham of Company 
K. He was on the rocks, when a huge wave carried him out 
before the startled eyes of a crowd of his comrades. Private 
Henry Michaels hastily grasped a coil of copper wire, and 
with one end fastened around his waist, plunged in after the 
drowning man. The tangling wire retarded his movements, 
and meantime, the drowning man was being carried further 
out by the waves. The brave Michaels struggled hard to get 
loose, when Sergt. Stewart of Port Huron jumped in, and 
aiding Michaels, they reached the drowning man and 
started with him for shore. It was a dangerous point they 
were heading for; the waves were breaking with terrific 
force against the rocks, but as they neared the shore, Capt. 

174 




Cecil Benjamin Williams i Mast )t ) 
in Company M's Camp at Sibi>nt.\, Cub; 



V* 






fevfN^ 






2S^^ 


■^ 


. .t 


^v^^m^ 




/ 




■iM^L 


/^ 




- . -gP^. ^B^ 


v^//^* 


\ 






i^ 


^f^H^HK^I^^^^Br^ ^ 


n^ 


^bI 


^!NBVi|i^nHI 


l^iPmii 


¥^^^ 


^fe-—- 


'^^^^ 


H' 




^ — 



Headquarters of Company M 

at Sardinaris. Cuba; 

First I^ieut. Geo. C. Waldo Command 



Wheeler of Company K and a number of the members of 
Company M crept to the edge, and clinging to the rocks, 
despite the waves that dashed over them, succeeded in main- 
taining their hold, and just as the trio came in on the crest 
of a wave, up went the hands of the many comrades and lifted 
the exhausted men over the rocks. Michaels and Stewart 
escaped uninjured, but Nottingham received a gash on his 
head and cheek. He was sent on to the hospital at Siboney, 
suffering with fever, and on August 5th, his death was 
reported. 

Things got so bad that the army officers talked of seizing 
the ships in the harbor and moving their men northward, 
orders or no orders. Protests at the delay in moving the 
troops north came from even the veteran soldiers, now called 
major-generals and brigadier-generals. It was hard for offi- 
cers to see the sufferings of their men, and to see the brave 
lives slowly passing out of existence and capitulating to a 
mighty and mysterious enemy more intangible than the 
smokeless Mausers. 

Our casualties before Santiago during the days of June 
30th and July 1st, 2nd, and 3rd were twenty-three officers 
and two hundred and eight men killed, eighty officers and 
twelve hundred and three men wounded, and eighty-one 
missing, and this total was rapidly increasing every day. 

All branches of the War Department were working hard 
to get great camps prepared for the reception of the troops 
when they should come northward, and transports were 
being fitted out with medical supplies and other necessary 
articles for the comfort of the men, in the returning of the 
Fifth Army Corps from the great pest hole, but meanwhile, 
it would not do to remove our forces until we could have 
regiments of immunes to take their place, as it was necessary 
to have troops to hold the territory and preserve law and 
order, and there was also a large number of Spanish prison- 

175 



ers to be taken care of, so that, as we look at it now-a-days, we 
cannot truly say that those in authority were responsible for 
what was really a great tragedy. 

The Ladies' Aid Corps of the Light Guard had found it 
difficidt to forward supplies to Company M, although a lot 
of bandages did reach them, but the heat was so great that 
the men could not wear them with comfort. As soon as the 
government had arranged for establishing postal facilities, 
the corps immediately purchased a money order — the first 
to be issued at the Detroit office for a point in Cuba — ^for 
forty-five dollars, but when Capt. Cowley received it, he 
found that the postal facilities there did not include cashing 
of money orders, and perhaps it was just as well, as money 
could not have been spent to much advantage just at that 
time and place, and it certainly had more purchasing power 
in the United States, and as he was unable to cash the order 
before reaching Montauk Point, it proved to be indeed a 
God-send in the end. 

It is claimed that Aguadores was like Siboney; two of the 
worst pest holes on the island, and it was not surprising that 
the Michigan boys, having operated and been stationed at 
both places, became early victims. 

Each day in the early part of August, anxious parents 
and relatives would eagerly unfold their newspapers and 
scan the black letters of the mortality list in the Michigan 
regiments, and just as anxiously read the names in smaller 
type of "convalescents" coming north. 

By the 3rd of August, the transports bearing convales- 
cents, in quarantine at Egmont, Fla., had on board Gen. 
Duffield and Col. Boynton, Maj. Webb and twenty-two 
privates of the Thirty-third. 

Those who had to remain, were subjected to the hardest 
kind of life. Bad rations was the principal hardship. The 
man who has not had to subsist on bad canned beef, and tried 

176 




A Comiiany Quartermaster's Shack. 
A Camp View in Cuba. 
A Quiet Siesta. 



to push it down with pieces of hard tack, and failing in that, 
tries to get the improperly prepared coffee to perform the 
same duty, and the same thing three times a day, will never 
know what the words ^'bad rations" mean. 

They also suffered in the matter of clothing. When the 
regiment left Camp Alger for Santiago, they were dressed in 
the regulation heavy blue uniforms, too warm even for the 
vicinity of Washington, and entirely unfit for service in 
Cuba. The men were promised new and lighter clothing 
upon their arrival in Cuba, but immediately upon landing, 
they were rushed into the precipitate general advance and 
had no time to change their clothing, and when they got 
back to Siboney, a great deal of their clothing had been 
burned up in the general purification of the place, so that 
while they were encamped at Sardinaris, there was not a 
whole uniform belonging to any one man. 

The fever was playing such havoc that Gen. Shafter 
himself telegraphed to the war department that if the 
troops were not to be moved till the fever had passed, there 
would be very few to move. This message brought an order 
for the immediate conveyance of the troops as rapidly as 
possible, to Montauk Point. The first troop ship left for the 
north on the 7th, and they continued to arrive and depart 
until, among the last, the Thirty-third was taken on the 
train over the now re-built railroad bridge, up to the out- 
skirts of Santiago, and took station at the pier of the iron 
company pending embarkation. 

The men were ordered to remove their clothing and take 
a plunge, and meanwhile the old garments were burned, but 
when the men were dressed again, they were a little more 
comfortable in clean under-clothing and light khaki uni- 
forms. 

The prospect of soon being at home again was very cheer- 
ing to even those who were suffering from the vicissitudes 

177 



of the life. They were to be taken on a lighter out beyond 
the harbor mouth, where the Harvard lay at anchor. 

The lighter started with its first load of regimental and 
company baggage with details and the quartermaster ser- 
geant from each company in charge of their stuff. Moving 
a vessel around in Santiago harbor just at that time was dan- 
gerous enough, as some of the immersed mines had not been 
recovered, but knowledge of the channel was also necessary 
for safe navigation. The shore had receded a quarter of a 
league when the men on board were suddenly startled by 
a hard jar and the noise of splintering timbers, and when 
the lighter was headed back, with whistle screeching for 
help and the engineer came up on deck — because he 
couldn't remain below — the men grasped the real serious- 
ness of the situation. Quartermaster-Sergeant Dan W. 
Smith of Company M was in command of the company's de- 
tail in charge of its baggage, and keeping his men near him, 
he divided his attention between the rising water and the 
vessel hastening to the rescue, and just as she rubbed along 
side the sinking lighter, he shouted to his comrades to drop 
their rifles and jump for the rail of the other boat and it was 
well for them that his words were heeded. Men from other 
companies were not so lucky and many floundered around 
in the water until rescued by anxious comrades; it was rather 
marvelous that no casualties occurred. "Say, 'sarge,' bully 
it wasn't a torpedo we struck, wasn't it," remarked one as 
he stood weighed down with water-logged clothing but 
cheerfully contemplating the narrow escape. Very little 
of the baggage and records were recovered, and as for the 
men who had been in the details, they were cared for by 
willing hands when they got ashore, and uniforms were 
cheerfully shared with them until theirs could dry. The 
next attempt to get the regiment off was set for next day. 

They had to remain at the spot they were in until the 

178 



next morning, wlben they could be taken out on another 
lighter. It was one of the hardest nights they had spent in 
Cuba, for their supplies were all on board the Harvard, and 
they had no shelter of any kind. It was true that they had 
become accustomed to sleeping wherever they could find a 
comfortable spot on the hard ground, and they had become 
adepts in the matter of adjusting their anatomy to the 
particular conformation of such spots of ground as selected 
for a temporary resting place. 

The next morning found the men cheerfully waiting for 
the lighter to come, and this time they made a successful 
embarkation. The creaking of the chains as the ship 
weighed anchor, was as the sweetest music to the ears of the 
men as they lined the shoreward side and watched for the 
places they had made acquaintance with while engaged in 
their maiden fight. They cheered the Stars and Stripes 
flying triumphantly from the Morro's heights. They 
eagerly pointed out to each other the walls of the Aguadores 
forts, and rather shame-facedly congratulated each other 
upon escape from rifle balls and bursting shells, and grew 
silent a moment at memory of those whose bodies rested 
behind in hastily made graves. They bethought them of 
what it all meant — the footlights did not dazzle them now 
for they had become spectators. Though hills hid the 
great stage, they knew that their countrymen had per- 
formed their roles with perfect heroism; that human blood 
had mingled with the rain to moisten the ground, and that 
many of those heroes had disappeared into little earth-made 
beds. Ah yes; the full meaning was coming to them, now 
that the last act of the fiery tragedy had been played, for 
they began to recall various sights which had greeted their 
eyes upon their visits to the old Spanish city. They had 
uncovered to the bright new flag instinctively, because they 
were trained soldiers, but they wondered why they only now 

179 



felt the emotion of the act. The feeding of the Cubans 
with their emaciated forms, and ravenous devouring of the 
rations issued them, had appealed only to their curiosity, 
and they had even felt disgust at their apparent lack of 
morals regarding property rights, but now they understood 
the mercy and charity of it all and they began to feel again 
as they had, when months ago, the newspaper accounts of 
starving Cuba, read in the midst of happy family circles 
where "Want was a stranger, and loving-kindness made the 
atmosphere, had made their blood boil. It was all coming 
back to their realization as they stood and watched the land, 
— ^now visible only in its great natural beauty — slowly drop- 
ping astern and out of sight, and they divided the glory of 
the flag, with the christian standard of their great and 
beloved country. 

The ship retraced the course of her twin sister when she 
had carried the same burden of humanity through the 
Windward Passage eight weeks before, but the burden 
was not so heavy now, for many were in the hospitals up 
North, tossing upon beds in fever wards and some were do- 
ing the same back at Siboney. The regiment was returning 
with a strength of six hundred under command of lieut.- 
Col. Schmidt. The ship was roomy, and the boys had no 
difficulty in finding comfortable quarters, and there was not 
much fault found with the rations. 

There were some on board who ought to have been 
traveling on a hospital ship, and on the second day out, the 
boys were made to know that death was upon the water as 
well as on the land; a poor wasted body, emptied of its 
spirit, slid down to the Ocean's graveyard, encased in a 
canvas shroud. 

The ship throbbed on with her nose pointing steadily 
northward, until, in the early morning, she hove to before 
the thick curtain of fog which shut off from the impatient 

180 



men the sight they longed and thrilled for. It was eight 
o'clock ere old Sol came to the rescue and let the boys see 
the Homeland. Montank Point on Long Island, was as 
strange a place to them aa was the island just left in the 
tropics, but was it not a piece of the great land that ex- 
tended back to Michigan's hill and trees? Certainly it was, 
and there was Gen. Alger calling to them from another 
boat and telling them it was so, and that he was sorry to 
have to also tell them that they must wait five days before 
they could start for those hills and trees, but that the gov- 
ernment was trying to be good to them, and would give 
them a month's pay to start them home -with, and would 
pay them double the amount extra for resting two months. 
Then later, as the great ship swung slowly up against the 
dock and the band played "Michigan My Michigan" as if 
it would die of broken heart if detained, Gen. Alger met 
and grasped the hand of each Michigan boy — sometimes 
we call them men in forgetfulness — as they stepped onto 
the dock, and the welcome going to their hearts, as his fare- 
well had two months before, they felt it would be no very 
great hardship if they had to wait there for a few days. 

Here at Camp Wikoff — named after the ranking Ameri- 
can officer killed in Cuba — the soldiers watched their coun- 
try taking care of its sick and wounded — the rest was done 
at Arlington on the Potomac. They saw the President, 
and the Secretary of War go through the fever wards, and 
the undelirious inmates remember that. 

It has been described how carefully the ranks of Com- 
pany M were filled before it was presented to Uncle Sam 
for acceptance, and although some of its members had been 
invalided home, and some were battling for existence in 
the hospitals back in Siboney, yet out of a final total loss 
in the regiment of fifty-eight, not one death occurred among 
the members of Company M, although, Company K, which 

181 



served with Company M at Camp Webb, lost seven mem- 
bers. 

If ever there was a war governor who was watchful of 
the welfare of the volunteers from his particular state, that 
war governor was Gov. Pingree. He had kept his son at 
Montauk Point, and with him, Mr. Dennis Donahue, a 
newspaper correspondent who had a short time previously 
returned from that zone of active mortality upon the coast 
of southern Cuba. A party of trained nurses were also sent 
forward and placed under the care of these two gentlemen, 
who supplied them with everything they needed to make 
the invalids' lot an easier one, and for which a generous 
amount of supplies and money had been placed in their 
hands. 

Col. Geo. A. Loud had been busy with the governor's 
hospital train in touring camps of other Michigan regi- 
ments, but he hastened to Camp Wikoff to welcome the 
Thirty-third on behalf of the governor and the State Mili- 
tary Board, and supply the boys with good food and many 
more material articles of comfort. As Michigan's official 
representative, he was the source of information to many 
anxious home-folks regarding the condition of their Johns 
and Georges. The boys mil never forget the hands of 
these good Samaritans at Camp Wikoff. 

It was getting to be very cool at Montauk Point, and the 
boys still having only their tropic underwear and light 
khaki uniforms, foraged hard for blankets to keep them 
warm while they slept, but lacking this very material com- 
fort, they eagerly awaited the end of their quarantine 
period and the issue of their homeward marching orders. 

Michigan was watching and waiting with out-stretched 
arms for her weak and weary sons, and especially were those 
in the metropolis — the home of Company M — ^preparing to 
welcome the boys with a great outpouring of sympathy and 

182 



love — the love of Plato — for mark you, they were Michi- 
gan's heroes, and Michigan knows how to welcome her own. 

The members of Company M knew that the home guard 
of Ladies and Veterans of the old Light Guard were plan- 
ning to receive them, and it pleased them mightily to get 
the following dispatch: 

Detroit, Aug. 29th, 1898. 
Capt. F. W. Cowley, Co. M, Thirty-third Mich., 
Camp Wikoff , Montauk Point : 

Every Light Guard sends greeting and pleasure at safe 
arrival of Co. M. You are our heroes. 

CASH P. TAYLOR, Vice-Pres. 

This was replied to with a "tiger." 

Capt. Cowley wired on Sept. 1st that the regiment would 
leave the next day. This information was based upon the 
following order : 

Headquarters U. S. Forces, 
Camp Wikoff, L. L, Sept. 1st, 1898. 
To the Officers and Soldiers of the Thirty-third and Thirty- 
fourth Michigan Volunteer Infantry : 

When your country called upon the brave men of the 
West to rally to the standard which waves as the emblem of 
American liberty, you were among the first to respond. You 
made no request but to be given the post of danger and 
honor. You gladly faced the torrid sun and the disease of 
a tropical climate. You bravely hastened to the firing line 
in front of Santiago and nobly did your duty as heroic 
soldiers. 

During this short but sharp campaign, in which you well 
performed your part, our country was elevated to a leading 
position among the greater nations of the earth. Your 
work having been accomplished, the Secretary of War 
directs that you proceed to your homes where the people 
of your great commonwealth await your coming, eager to 
shower plaudits and honors on you. 

To those of your comrades whose lives became a sacrifice 
to the cause you so bravely upheld, we reverently bow our 



heads and it will be the delight of a grateful country to 
cherish and perpetuate their memories. 

You take with you to your homes my best wishes for 
your prosperity and happiness and in bidding you adieu, 
with my whole heart I say, may God give you his blessing. 
JOSEPH WHEELER, 
Major General U. S. Y., Commanding. 

The Thirty-third and Thirty-fourth started amidst hard- 
ships, which multiplied as the journey progressed. The 
train was run in five sections with Col. Boynton — ^yet weak 
from the fever fight — in command. The officers and the 
sick occupied sleepers, but the rank and file were crowded 
into ordinary day-coaches. It was a long, tiresome ride, 
and the time was record-breaking only because of its slow- 
ness. 

The men's clothing looked bad, and there is nothing so 
evil looking as a soiled and roughly used-up khaki uniform. 
They were a silent lot, for how can a poor fellow be cheer- 
ful under the stings of thirst and the gripings of hunger. 
One poor fellow who had plucked up energy enough to 
listlessly handle a newspaper, suddenly exclaimed to his 
seat mate, "D — me, look here Jack, some guy says 'the 
American dinner is one of the worst crimes unpimished/ 
now wouldn't I just like to mix up with a lot of that crime !" 
and then, after a speculative pause, while his comrade 
slowly turned his head and stared aimlessly, "Guess he 
hasn't been soldiering any, Jack." There lay the trouble — 
sandwiches and coffee, and sandwiches and coffee ; mess hour 
after mess hour. A variation of any kind would have been 
as a heaven-sent blessing. As the sections pulled past the 
stations, the well fed people standing around had their pity 
turned into astonishment. The train was sent around most 
of the cities, on the through freight cut-offs, and this switch- 
ing kept them from much abundant refreshment hastily 

184 



prepared bj public spirited people in the places ahead, 
where news of the boys' pitiful condition had been sent for- 
ward by wayside spectators. The intense heat of the day 
would let out the slumbering fever devils, just enough to 
make the men look the miserable beings they were. They 
were passing through the severest test they had yet been sub- 
jected to. 

News of this condition flashed to Detroit, where the com- 
mittee of citizens were laying their plans for the reception. 
According to the orders of the War Department, the des- 
tination was Island Lake, and the Ladies' and Veteran 
Corps planned to immediately bring Company M to the 
city and give it a rousing reception, but here the "Good 
Grey Governor" stepped in and secured telegraphic per- 
mission from Washington to stop both regiments in Detroit 
and not consign them to Island Lake, and accordingly, ar- 
rangements were made to house the men in hotels and club 
houses. Arrangements were also made by wire to feed the 
men at Toledo. 

There was much discussion as to the appropriateness of 
giving Company M an individual reception, for it was 
Detroit's sole representation in the Fifth Army Corps, and 
the Light Guard Veterans desired very much to specially 
welcome their own company, but the broader feeling pre- 
vailed that both regiments should be received intact, as they 
had both been commanded by Gen. Duffield. 

Col. Loud had sent the following dispatch to Col. R. G. 
Butler, Chairman of the Citizens' Committee, for public 
information : 

Southampton Depot, N. Y., Sept. 2nd, 1898. 
Both regiments now in transit, West Shore. Troops 
not equal to long parade. Their looks will call for tears as 
well as cheers. 



185 



Early in the day, the Light Guard ladies and veterans 
had prepared a mighty feast in the main hall of the armory. 
Tom Swan had attended to the food creations, and he knew 
just what the boys would enjoy, and so did the veterans who 
had helped the ladies to plan and execute. 

As the second section of the troop train, containing Com- 
pany M and five other companies of the Thirty-third, pulled 
into Toledo at half past nine on the night of the 3rd, just 
fifteen minutes behind the first section, the half dazed, half 
slumbering condition of the men was quickened by the 
cheering on the platform, and when they learned where 
they were, and that a relief party from Detroit was outside, 
the poor dirty bearded fellows made eager but feeble re- 
sponse as they reached from the windows for the things 
their stomachs had craved for days, while the hardier ones 
got off and were served milk and chicken sandwiches by the 
ladies of the party, at temporary stands. 

The scene at the station in Detroit was one of those that 
staggers all but a professional pen. People had waited all 
evening mth the feminine sex predominating, for they 
were there, not because of curiousity, but because of a sol- 
dier husband, son, brother, or lover on that slowly coming 
troop train. 

By midnight, the Naval Reserves, who were to furnish 
the escort details, arrived and lined both sides of the street 
for the purpose of keeping the crowds in check, but even 
when re-enforced by patrolmen and mounted police, it was 
impossible to keep the people back. Ambulances, and de- 
livery wagons, loaned for like use by retail merchants, to- 
gether with many carriages, also loaned by citizens, added 
to the jam, and when the first section came in at one o'clock, 
and the first khaki uniform made its appearance, the effect 
upon the crowd was like to the transition of a tame wild 
beast upon its first taste of human blood. 

186 



When the second section rolled in a half hour later and 
deposited Company M, the veterans of the Light Guard 
were reminded of the return in '61, and just as the Light 
Guard band had then stood upon the platform and played 
Home, Sweet Home, so was the company greeted now, and 
when it stepped forth among the crowd, the increased cheer- 
ing attested the recognition. 

When the Detroit Light Guard's offering to the govern- 
ment in '61 returned, it was with an anguished tale of de- 
feat, but they were welcomed as heroes, and now, many 
years later, this offering had returned, and as Capt. Cowley 
lined the company up, the crowd went wild over Detroit's 
"own company," as it was called. 

Kow, the two home corps of the Detroit Light Guard had 
made up their minds that they would take Company M from 
the station up to the armory, despite the opposition of the 
governor, and the scheme to accomplish this was well laid 
and can-ied out. Maj. Jacklin, President of the Veteran 
Corps, was an aide on Chief Marshall Fowle's staff, and he, 
with others of the veterans took an active part in carrying 
out the plans of the governor and committee upon the ap- 
pearance of the first companies, but while their work was 
inspired by kindly feeling for these poor strangers, yet 
their activity was but to cover a little strategy, which they 
worked with lightning rapidity when the moment arrived. 
As soon as Capt. Cowley had gotten his company lined up, 
the home guard of the organization formed quickly in 
front, and with Comrades Jacklin and Taylor leading, the 
little column swung out clear of the crowd before the eyes 
of the astonished governor and chief marshal. The De- 
troit Light Guard Band had taken up station in advance, 
and to its joyful notes, a quick march was made to the 
armory, where the reception by the ladies awaited them. 

Before the little column had entirely cleared the pre- 

187 



cincts of the station, it was suddenly enlarged by the addi- 
tion of another company, and the fellows in Company M 
eying it askance, saw that its members had on the regula- 
tion blue uniforms that they used to wear themselves, and 
they knew that they were not of the service class. "Who 
are they. Jack?" said one Company M man to his comrade, 
but just then, word reached them that this was the home 
guard of the Light Infantry, under command of Capt. 
Chidsey, who had turned out to help receive them. "Well, 
that's jolly good," said Jack, "who would have thought 
those fellows would have turned out for us?" It was true, 
and this was the turning point in the character of the rela- 
tions between the two organizations, and while the reflex 
feeling has made slow progress, and at times in recent days 
looked as if it had again changed back to the old stage, yet 
certain it is that many members of both of these organiza- 
tions are willing to believe that there is no unpleasant feel- 
ings between them, and they date their change of feeling 
from this small hour on the morning of September 4th, 
1898. 

When the great hall in the armory was reached, the men 
of Company M broke ranks without an order. Women, old 
and young, rushed at this and that dear one, recognizable 
despite the strange beard and bronzed skin. Kisses left 
traces on the travel stained faces. 

The boys gazed in a bewildered way at the array of many 
kinds of food set on linen of the purest white, bedecked with 
real china, and cut glass and flowers. It made the poor 
hearts so glad with sheer joy that many forgot their hunger. 

Equipments and blankets were dropped, and convenient 
chairs sought that the scene might be better understood — 
the reaction from the long weary days of hardships was 
too sudden and intense. 

But there were only fifty-five of the boys here, and where 



were the rest? Anxious and tear stained faces looked the 
question, and good hearted Maj. Jacklin, President of the 
Veteran Corps, knew that this silent grief must not be, and 
securing attention, he called upon Capt. Cowlej to explain 
about these absentees. The captain said : "There are a 
great many mothers and sisters here to-night who are look- 
ing for the faces of their loved ones. To stop the heart- 
aches, I desire to say that Company M has not lost a man. 
There are some fifteen who were left behind to take care 
of baggage, and they w^ll come in on cars better suited for 
sick soldiers. You can all rest assured that you will see your 
boys again." 

There had been many speeches arranged for at this wel- 
coming reception, but the hour precluded their delivery. 
Mayor Maybury, on behalf of the city, expressed the good 
fellowship of the citizens for this company of "theirs." 
Some of the men may have recalled at that moment, the 
words he uttered before their departure for Island Lake 
in the preceding May when he told them, standing in the 
same place, that he was sure they would uphold the fame 
of the old Light Guard, whether their trip ended at Island 
Lake or in Spain. 

The veterans mingled thickly with the boys, insisting 
upon their eating until they could hold no more, and the 
kindly smile and expression of sympathy expressed upon 
the faces of the old comrades, heartily attested their good 
fellowship for these young veterans. 

A pretty and touching scene was enacted when Mrs. 
Baxter, President of the Ladies Aid Corps, presented, in 
the name of the corps, a great bunch of American Beauties 
to Dr. Sutherland. "Doc" Sutherland had come from his 
home in Bay City to Island Lake just w^hen the Thirty- 
third was being mustered in, and finding a chance to get 
in, in the ranks of Company M, he made what proved to 



be a very beneficial addition to the company's membership. 
His professional knowledge of medicine and kindness of 
heart, had eased the suffering of many a comrade and he 
had become endeared to his fellow members, who had 
enthusiastically written of him to the folks at home, and 
this was how the folks at home expressed their apprecia- 
tion. 

The old Tiger looked out a fierce eyed welcome to its 
cubs from behind the bank of flowers, and knowing that 
home and a good old sleep between sheets was what these 
boys needed now most of all, Maj. Jacklin took station 
behind the tawny sides, and as the last bars of the "Stars 
and Stripes" ceased, called for three rousing cheers. 
Cheers? yes, they had cheered and been cheered many times 
that day, but it had never been like it was at this moment. 

Home ! and sixty days furlough and no more reveilles. 

Company M had upheld the traditional fame of the De- 
troit Light Guard and its brother companies down at 
Chickamauga congratulated it, and while the signing of 
the protocol shut off a prospect of their emulation in active 
service, yet they helped to build the record of one of the 
trustiest regiments in the volunteer service, and we now 
pick up again the thread of its interesting tale, for such it 
is — a tale of a twelve-month's soldiers' life. 



190 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Thirty-first Michigan at Chickamauga Park — Massing of Volun- 
teers — Camp Life — Recruiting — First Georgia — Visit of Gov- 
ernor Pingree and General Case — "Rookies." 

The author feels that he deserves criticism for having 
left the boys of the Thirty-first alone for so long at such a 
critical period of their daily life. He should have per- 
mitted them to eat breakfast, but he found upon investi- 
gating his data that had he done so, he would have left 
them in a less amiable mood, for the breakfast that was 
served to them upon this first morning at Chickamauga 
did not hold forth a very cheerful prospect for their stom- 
achs. The commissary department was rather more a name 
than anything else, and of course, while some of the boys 
were unreasonable enough to grumble because beef steak 
and vegetables were not set before them, yet the fellows 
who had made up their minds to accept their new life as a 
duty, were half inclined to think that the government, 
with its new five hundred million dollar war fund, ought 
to have provided something a little bit better for the initial 
breakfast. A limited chance to add a change to the menu 
of travel rations was afforded by the appearance of a native 
woman with strawberries, but it does not take many hungry 
soldiers to eat all the strawberries one person can carry. 

Not long after breakfast, the boys began to receive some 
neighbors, when the Third Pennsylvania (it was the 
author's old regiment at one time) came up the road. The 
musicians gathered together, and helping the cheers of the 
boys, gave the Pennsylvanians a hearty greeting. The 

191 



work of pitching tents was completed, but after the last 
guy rope had been pulled taut, some officer came along 
and found that the tents encroached upon the lines of the 
Third Pennsylvania, but there was enough mercy at head- 
quarters to leave the change to be made on the next day. 

In the afternoon, the boys fell in and were presented 
each with a three cornered red bandana handkerchief which 
the state had forwarded upon Col. Gardener's requisition. 
It was ordered that they were to be worn at all times, but 
the boys little surmised the fame this little three cornered 
rag was to bring to them in the very essential matter of 
neatness. 

The Thirty-first was brigaded with the One Hundred 
an^ Sixtieth Indiana and the Third Pennsylvania, and 
there being a scarcity of brigadier generals. Col. Gardener, 
the ranking officer, assumed command of the brigade, and 
the conduct of the regiment remained much of the time in 
the hands of the other field officers. 

The water supply was one problem that called for im- 
mediate and supreme attention, but any complaints from 
commandants of regiments received only scant attention 
at the hands of the headquarters authority in charge of the 
matter. The little spring from which the Thirty-first drew 
its supply had to be guarded day and night, and a battle 
was narrowly averted vrith a West Virginia regiment be- 
cause some of its men became angry at not being allowed 
to help themselves. In fact, the spring had to be guarded 
like a thing of great value. 

On the 19th the first field rations were issued, and the 
first issue of mules was also made on this date. Details 
were sent to the corral to bring them over to the regiment 
and the fellows in that detail will never forget their ex- 
perience in trying to ride unbroken mules, but while the 
duty was a source of several cases of pronounced hardship, 




KathiiiK According to Oiileis 
(Camp Thomas). 




Every Man His Own Washerwoman; 
(Camp Thomas). 



yet there was much fun gotten out of the handling of the 
herd, and afterwards, any duty which involved the use of 
these animals was not one they tried to get out of. The 
fact is, the mule corral was always a source of devilish 
delight. 

There was water enough for bathing purposes in the 
Chickamauga Creek, and the corp couiniander issued an 
order locating a bathing place for the troops just above 
the Alexandria bridge on the other side of the river, where 
a secluded and extensive pool had been found. 

On the 19th the order for the make up of the regimental 
band was issued and service calls were arranged. 

On the 20th Lieut. Rogers of Company I was detailed 
in charge of the regimental canteen which was opened the 
following day. The articles placed on sale — exclusively 
for the boys in the Thirty-first — consisted of soft drinks, 
beer, writing material, postage stamps, thread, needles 
and such things as a soldier would need, and the boys who 
were detailed to rim the canteen under Lieut, Rogers' 
supervision, were among the most envied of the regiment. 

The matter of establishing a canteen had been discussed 
a great deal, but it was thought that it would confine the 
beer drinking, among those so inclined, within the limits 
of the camp, and therefore, within the sphere of discipline. 
Of course, the chaplain disapproved of the beer feature, 
but his objections, honestly stated by him, were based upon 
physiological reasons, for he held that, a man to enter a 
campaign in the tropics must have his system free from 
any effects of intoxicating beverages. Of course, the 
profits from the canteen was an item to be respected, and 
even the chaplain did not express displeasure at the fact 
that a supply of hymn books would be purchased from a 
part of the profits. 

After the first few days, the boys were amused to see 

193 



the darkies that drove in through the camps with articles 
of food for sale. The boys were all "captins" to them, 
and a non-com was "kumel," because of his stripes. They 
could not understand what a private was. 

Chickamauga Park is a vast stretch of land, covered 
with trees and monuments and old guns, the latter now 
firmly fastened to the spots on which they rested at the 
close of that famous battle. The growth of trees is thick, 
and most of the trees are large, and many of them grow the 
rusty old bullets that our fathers shot. In a place of such 
vastness, the twenty thousand or more troops located here 
at this date appeared as though they were but a few regi- 
ments, and for the boys themselves, it was dangerous to get 
far away from their own camp, for when they would decide 
to turn back, they would more than likely find themselves 
entering the camp of another regiment for their own, and 
it frequently happened that men were lost on brigade guard 
duty and had to be hunted up by a detail. 

The boys had expected to be handed nice new Krag Jor- 
gensen rifles immediately upon their arrival in camp, for 
the prospect of battle was strong in their blood, but when 
day followed day with the regular drills being performed 
mthout arms, they began to get sorely disgusted. It made 
them feel as if they were back in the awkward squad again. 

On the morning of the 21st, inspection of quarters was 
made, it being the first of the regular Sunday morning in- 
spections, and because of the great heat, the men were 
ordered to appear in blue shirts mthout suspenders. "This 
is the day the chaplain has to do duty," remarked Jim. 

The boys had been busy getting information about the 
park and picking up gossip about future movements, which 
they spent most of their leisure time on this day in reducing 
to paper for the folks at home, and by this time, the mails 

194 



had begun to bring the very welcome letters from the same 
persons. 

On the 23rd the boys were given a little taste of the way 
the weather did business in Cuba. The rain would come 
down pretty hard for about five or ten minutes, then the 
sun would come out and make things steam, and they were 
mighty thankful that drill duty was performed in the com- 
pany streets close to shelter. 

When the Light Guard boys had presented Maj. Harrah 
with a horse and equipments at Island Lake, the horse that 
was intended for him was presented by proxy, but on this 
day, the gift horse reached the major, and when he made 
his appearance at evening parade, the boys cheered him to 
such an extent that the major kept his seat with difficulty, 
while he made acknowledgment of their gift. 

Orders were issued from the regimental headquarters 
which painted a picture of discipline for the boys to copy 
that was a source of much sarcastic comment. In the first 
place, it was ordered that, before any detail" was taken out 
for guard mounting, every member would be inspected in 
the duties of a sentinel by a commissioned officer of his 
company, and before being passed, must commit the general 
orders of a sentinel. It was further prescribed that a check 
roll call would be made by the company officers immedi- 
ately after taps and absentees reported. Immediately after 
reveille roll call, and before the companies were dismissed, 
company streets were to be policed under direction of a 
sergeant, also, whenever a commissioned officer would pass 
through company streets, all enlisted men were to stand 
at attention and salute, and stress was laid upon enlisted 
men saluting commissioned officers regardless of place, but 
as a little sugar for this, officers were charged to be careful 
in returning all salutes. 

Attention of company commanders was called to a pro- 

195 



vision in the regulations regarding the cutting of the men's 
hair. 

The hygienic standard was established by charging com- 
pany commanders to see that enough thoroughly boiled 
water, properly cooled, was kept on hand at all times in 
the cook tent, from which canteens could be filled, and 
they were ordered to see that the men drank no other water, 
in order to prevent typhoid fever and kindred stomach dis- 
orders, and owing to the importance of proper cooking of 
rations, company commanders were cautioned to carefully 
select the best cooks in their company. 

Companies of soldiers are simply large families of big 
boys, and there are perhaps, many in the circle who never 
carried a Sunday school merit card home in his little pocket 
to deposit in the lap of a fond mother, because he was of 
the variety precocious. His precocity dogged him through 
his school days and he came to be spoken of as a bad boy, 
but therein lay the secret of his popularity with his play- 
mates. As he grew, the saxae spirit caused his cleverness 
and wit to specialize into a habit of irresistible fim-making, 
and now that the Maine was to be remembered, he had 
donned Uncle Sam's fighting attire, and at the moment the 
family was agreeing that the service would make a man of 
James, "Jim" could have been found playing the role of 
leader in some breach of discipline, or tormenting some 
poor fellow whose heart was an altar on which a perpetual 
fire of patriotism burned ; who could understand nothing 
but that he had left his serious faced life behind because 
he heard his country call, and who thrilled and flushed 
when chance brought him within saluting distance of an 
officer. Yes, Jim has also nick-named him — not "deacon," 
for a "deacon" can be enjoyable company and can appre- 
ciate a joke just right, and won't sulk because he's the 
subject,— but the poor "Unfortunate" — he was called that 

196 



in Jim's tenderest moods — always encountered difficulty in 
securing quarters, ard at every change of camp had to 
appeal to the first sergeant for help, for the "imfortunate" 
makes but a dull "bunkie," and his tentmate will finish 
the campaign without so much as knowing who he is at 
home. 

JSTow, there is a Jim, and Jim's prototype and fellow- 
conspirator, Bill, in this story of the Light Guard companies 
in the tour of the Thirty-first, and they spotted the 
"Deacon," when they observed that a certain respectable 
fellow with three white stripes on his sleeves answered 
numerous letters from home the same day they came, wrote 
in a diary every day, and spent his time over at the Y. M. 
C. A. tent. 

There is also a Tommy. Tommy is a good hearted little 
fellow who passed the examining officer by placing little 
blocks in the heels of his shoes — he couldn't get cards, for 
it was raining that day, and the idle fellows needed every 
deck. Tommy admired Jim and Bill by virtue of their fun 
making deviltry: he never swore himself, because of the 
reverence for his mother's teachings, but his picturesque 
temperament permitted him to enjoy the profanity which 
only Jim and Bill knew how to use without even shocking 
the "Deacon." Tommy was always saying "he wondered 
why they didn't" do so and so, and one day when the fel- 
lows were kicking about rotting at Island Lake, he said, 
"I wonder why that fleet of ours don't sail in and chip the 
front off of Havana and settle the whole 'biz' in twenty- 
four hours." "Well," says Jim, "I guess you don't know 
much about the ethics of this scrap. Tommy. You see, if 
our boats got to making showers of splintered masonry, 
there'd be a lot of people kind of marred up in Havana 
town, and where'd our humanitarian dodge be ? You just 
go along with the school of the soldier, Tommy, and don't 

197 



bother about the rest and you'll be a 'gineral' before your 
mother." 

Of course, Tommy, Jim, and Bill don't answer to those 
names; "Deacon" might, but the "Unfortunate" — ^well, 
he'll probably never come to a reunion. But more anon 
of this coterie. 

A little more than a week had elapsed since the men had 
been mustered into the United States service and they 
had learned more of real military life in that short time, 
than many of them had ever imagined would fall to their 
lot when they had rushed to enlist under the inspiration 
of patriotism. Guard duty was the most important service 
to be performed, and after the boys had found that Col. 
Gardener had a Rooseveltian manner of inspecting the 
work of the sentries, they began to look upon their duty 
as extremely serious and important, and so it was as con- 
sidered then, for it must be remembered that at that time, 
the navy and war departments were working night and 
day to fill the demand for new plans of action, and every 
sunrise welcomed new regiments, and every sunset called 
a new soldier to rest upon his arms, and to-morrow was 
always that important, but illusive period of time, for the 
tensely strained hopes of the men bounded up with the first 
notes of the reveille, only to fritter away with the day's 
struggle for a palatable meal and to get through with the 
field drills under the blistering sun. 

The first death in the camp of the Thirty-first occurred 
in the early morning of May 24:th, when private Henry M. 
Meginnis, who had been stricken with pneumonia en route 
to Chickamauga, quietly passed away. He had enlisted in 
Company I after the troops had been mobilized at Island 
Lake, but he was looked upon as a Light Guard comrade, 
and the scripture reading and prayers were held in the pres- 

198 



ence of his company, after which the remains were shipped 
to New York. 

By this time, the arrival of mail had become an important 
moment in the daily life, and upon the sound of the first 
sergeants' call, the men would rush their first sergeants off 
to the chaplain's tent and impatiently await their return 
with a letter from mother or others, who were following 
them at home with an interest that bridged all distances. 

The boys began to know that there was a great need of 
troops, for the first transports had started on the long jour- 
ney to the Philippines, and on the 25th the President 
issued his proclamation calling for seventy-five thousand 
additional volunteers, and of course, they felt that the gov- 
ernment was not going to raise and equip such a large army 
unless it had urgent need for it, so the boys buckled onto 
their work with a new zeal, which was rapidly gaining a 
great reputation for the regiment, and this was ofiicially 
attested by Gen. Breckinridge, inspector general, who, 
with his staff, and a major of the Japanese army, reviewing 
the second division on the morning of May 27th, asked Col. 
Gardener, who was commanding a brigade, the name of 
the regiment as it marched by, and the colonel was proud 
to tell him that it was his regiment of Michigan boys, and 
although it, and the One Hundred and Sixtieth Indiana 
were the only two regiments marching without arms, Gen. 
Breckinridge spotted the soldierly qualities and conferred 
upon the regiment his special approval. 

The regiment was one better than the neighboring regi- 
ments in the matter of a band, and one evening after guard 
mounting, the West Virginia regiment set up a cry, "We 
want that band," and offered to trade their drum corps for 
it. 

When copies of a certain newspaper, printed in Detroit 
under date of May 25th, reached the camp, and the boys, 

199 



as usual, gathered to read over the camp and general war 
news, they caught their breath when they came to a bit of 
correspondence sent by the paper's correspondent to be 
printed, regarding the situation in the regiment. In a burst 
of cynicism, the correspondent had sent home for the 
friends of the boys to read, an article which opened with 
the interrogation as to what influences had brought one 
thousand men from pursuits of peace in Michigan to pre- 
pare for war at Chickamauga. He wanted to know whether 
it was lofty patriotism, inspired by a past history of five big 
successful wars in one hundred and twenty-two years, or 
else the expression of the Anglo-Saxon characteristic wish 
for a change, and a desire to roam. He stated that he had 
talked with the men in order to find an answer to these 
questions, and the answer was what sent the blood rushing 
into the heads of the fellows as they read to the accom- 
paniment of oaths and threats of what was going to happen 
to that correspondent. He stated that, out of half a hun- 
dred, not one spoke for patriotism ; that they came for what 
there was in it. He accused some of being mercenary, and 
said they had given up their home life for the fifteen dol- 
lars and sixty cents monthly pay and expenses, and in the 
knowledge that their families would be cared for at home 
by kind hearted citizens; he said that some were tin soldiers 
and wanted to be the real thing. He charged them with 
trying to select their duties, but there were some of the 
boys of Company I who did not wait to read it all : — and 
they, found themselves kicking their heels in the guard 
house some time later, but they took satisfaction in the fact 
that there was at least a disfigured, if not a sadder and wiser 
newspaper correspondent in camp. 

By May 27th the volunteer army at Chickamauga num- 
bered about forty-five thousand men and the number was 
increasing very rapidly day after day as this was the prin- 



cipal national camp. Some of the volunteers were cer- 
tainly not a credit to their states or their officers, for by thia 
time, the people of Chattanooga, except the merchants, had 
ceased to congratulate themselves upon the location of the 
national camp in a neighborhood so close to them as Chicka- 
mauga, for there had been an indiscriminate issue of passes 
in some regiments, or else a laxity in the guard lines, and 
soldiers would go to the town in large numbers and after 
washing the dust do-^oi their throats to an excessive degree, 
they were ready to start out and own the town and put a 
new coat of paint on it. It is even a fact that, two volun- 
teers from that most refined and puritan part of the states, 
New Hampshire, were found guilty of such a serious mis- 
deed as to bring upon them the sentence of one hundred 
days in the chain gang and put to work cleaning the streets. 
Other acts that required vigorous punishment, made it 
necessary for the citizens to appeal to the military author- 
ities, and orders were at once issued from the division head- 
quarters prohibiting the issue of passes for the men. 

"Some one's got cold feet. Bill, and we don't get any 
more passes to Chat'." "How's that, Jim?" said Tommy. 
"Well, you see, those bloomin' rowdies from every state 
but the only, 've been giving exhibitions of their manners 
before the city folks and the city folks didn't like the show, 
so they want their money back and the general being mind- 
ful of the health of his men, won't let them go to the city — 
see !" Tommy grinned, and then wondered if there had 
been any kick against the Thirty-first's boys. "No," said 
Bill, "they're willing to send tally-hos out for the red 
neck-tied gents, but the general can't show partiality, but 
say, did you hear about the old farmer who wants a guard 
from our push? Said the other guards stole everything 
that didn't have roots six feet under ground." "Oh, we're 
the byes," said Jim. "Sure," said Tommy. 

201 



When the remodeled newspaper correspondent found 
himself able to grasp anew his lead pencil and pad, he 
hastened to advise the folks at home that Camp Thomas, 
at that spot occupied by the Thirty-first, looked as neat as 
a city lawn, and he set about to remove from the regiment, 
the odium attached to it upon its departure from Island 
Lake because of the criticism of the condition in which its 
ground was left. It was a nice thing for him to do, for the 
Thirty-first had left on Sunday evening when the ground 
was over-run vdth visitors who had brought their lunch, 
and scattered the wrappings, and the regiment, being under 
orders to move on board the train at any minute, and also 
being mthout teams, had no available time or facilities for 
cleaning up after the visitors. It showed that he had taken 
his medicine without crying, and some of the boys regretted 
the punishment inflicted. 

On the 28th, fresh meat began to arrive in camp and 
the boys were glad to shift from the hated "salt horse," and 
surprise their stomachs with a few "squares." It was long 
after taps and Jim had just shot his goodnight witticism 
at his bunkie, when Bill, hastily planning revenge, sud- 
denly exclaimed, "Wow ! something's been sticking in me 
half wa}'^ down all evening and it hurts like the deuce now." 
Jim became tender and asked Bill what he thought it was. 
"Why, that square meal I had," and dodging Jim's heavy 
shoe, he ducked under his blanket and fell to snoring. 

Discipline sometimes aroused a slumbering rebellious 
spirit. Of course, the boys knew that the first duty of a 
soldier is to obey orders, but here he could look out and see 
immense numbers of troops, and if he was a private, he felt 
the tininess of his oifering to his country. He envied the 
double stripes of a corporal, while a corporal's heart burned 
for the sergeant's extra stripe, and it did not stop even with 
the wearers of the eagle, for in such a vast army, a colonel 



does not figure very much in the game of war except in his 
own regiment, but the boys got to know their colonel and 
to appreciate his ways, and especially was this feeling of 
futility gradually diminishing among the Light Guard 
boys as they began to find that their regiment was bud- 
ding a reputation for trustworthiness. One of the boys 
wrote home that, "Capt. Henderson is very good to the boys, 
and a great deal more popular that he was as first lieutenant. 
Our rations are improving every day, and we are getting 
used to all the camp monotony which is sure to come in a 
camp of any length of time." That was encouraging to 
the people at home who were looking for signs of home sick- 
ness, especially as the letter was written by one of the boys 
who said he would ''close, as it was bed time," and he was 
"due home," for when a soldier goes to bed, he simply 
"turns in," and it would never occur to him to speak of his 
tent as "home." 

The 29th was Sunday, and a day of rest. Of course, 
there was always the regular Sunday morning inspection, 
but that did not require much in the way of extra duty. 
Divine services were always well attended, and in addition 
to the interesting address of the chaplain, some of the boys 
had furnished a quartette, and others sang solos. The offi- 
cers generally made it a duty to attend the services. 

The daily sick calls were beginning to make more and 
more work at the hospitals. Maj. Biddle, the regimental 
surgeon, found that many things were needed to enable 
proper care to be taken of the patients, and which were not 
at hand, and after making some purchases from his private 
funds, he advised certain people in Detroit of the situation. 
The response was instantaneous. His appeal was respon- 
sible for the organization of the Ladies Aid Corps of the 
Light Guard, and Mr. Clarence A. Black sent one hundred 
dollars for the use of the hospital, in the name of his baby 



daughter. The governor responded by forwarding two 
hundred dollars from the state war fund. The amount 
from Mr. Black came at a very opportune moment, and by 
the time it was used up, the assistance from the ladies of 
the Light Guard came to take its place. 

On May 31st and June 1st some of the volunteer regi- 
ments began moving to Tampa, including a neighboring 
regiment, and this put the boys all agog over speculation 
as to when they would pack up and move. The rumor was 
that, some of the volunteers were to be sent to Porto Kico, 
and it was celebrated by giving an impromptu dance in the 
interval between the first and second battalions. The band 
furnished the music, and the boys converted it into a very 
fantastic event by ringing in as many changes on their uni- 
forms as they could. Hats were reversed, as well as gar- 
ments, and those who could find anything that would enable 
them to assume the appearance of the opposite sex, added 
to the fun, which the officers stood around and laughed at. 

What served to strengthen them in their belief that they 
were about to be moved, was the fact that they were being 
served with roast beef, vegetables, good soups, and most 
surprising of all, good coffee, and they somehow felt a little 
as if they were being fattened up for the killing, but the 
feeling of being close to a coming change filled them with 
a bursting joy, and it required many admonitions from sen- 
tries that night to subdue the expressions of song and jollity 
continued long after taps had been sounded. 

On June 2nd the Third Pennsylvania pulled out and 
were heartily cheered by the boys, because they felt that 
they were going to follow right after. Even the officers 
had become infected with the rumors of forward move- 
ments, and Maj. Harrah, anxious to make a battle charger 
out of the horse presented to him by the Light Guard boys. 



rode out on the field and began the hard dangerous work 
of breaking the horse in to stand fire. 

Now that the boys' minds were cleared somewhat of the 
burden of anxiety and fear of being kept in camp for a 
long time, they were in a mood to let their curiosity about 
the historic ground they were on revive their appreciation 
of it. The "Unfortunate," coming one evening upon the 
trio, who alone, and only at times, were disposed to accord 
him any serious tolerance, and that only because of their 
broad good nature, asked them whether they knew that 
they were standing where a previous generation of Michi- 
ganders had once encamped. "Yes," said Tommy, "Jay's 
Mills was the headquarters of the Fourth Michigan cav- 
alry, and I've been looking at that fine monument they've 
put up." "Well, I'll tell you what it is, boys," said Jim, 
"we never appreciated before just what these battle fields 
were, and those rusty scraps sticking out of the ground and 
tree trunks spell a tale of a mighty hot old mix up." "And 
I'U tell you another thing," said Bill, "I believe we'll think 
a whole lot more of the old veterans when we get back 
home." For Jim and BiU were well educated fellows of a 
fine fibre, and the normal quality of their expressions was of 
a high polish, but somehow, soldiering shelves some of a 
fellow's culture for the time being. 

Lytle was the railroad station for the park, and it was 
the scene of constant activity. All buildings were of a 
temporary character, and the business transacted, ranged 
from that connected with the army and postal service, 
through aU the intermediate and milder forms of money 
separating schemes to plain faro games. This country was 
also the scene of revenue ofiicers' attentions, but despite 
their watchfulness, the liquid made by the light of the 
moon leaked into the great camp. Some of the boys from 
Company L had a lively time on provost duty one night in 

205 



holding up an attempt at smuggling whiskey into the camp 
by a party of men. 

On the 3rd, order number forty-one provided for a 
weekly inspection to take place every Saturday morning, 
and as it was principally for the purpose of ascertaining 
that each man was supplied with the articles issued to him, 
and for which he was responsible, it became known as an 
inspection of issue, and this was to take the place of the 
company drill. 

The officers were very anxious to have the command 
advance in a theoretical as well as a practical knowledge 
of soldiering, and for that purpose, company commanders 
conducted non-commissioned officers' schools ia the fore- 
noons, using a course consisting of recitations from the 
manual of guard duty, and readings from "Troops in Cam- 
paign." 

Underclothing was issued, but "the assorted sizes" seemed 
to be nothing more than a lot of wildly mixed up misfits, 
and the fellows were kept rather busy with their "house 
wives" in order to get a garment fixed up that would feel 
comfortable. It was the same way with the shoes when 
they were issued on the 7th, for the boys from Michigan 
were as sturdy ia their feet as in the rest of their bodies, and 
there were few who were sufficiently lucky to have a foot 
small enough to go into the new shoes. It took a good deal 
of swapping to come anywhere near outfitting the regiment. 

The work of vaccinating the members of the regiment 
began on the 6th and was finished on the 7th, and was but 
part of the general scheme ia looking after the welfare of 
the volunteer army. There was a good harvest of sore 
arms, and whenever a fellow would be seen shielding his 
left flank from contact with any sort of an object, it might 
be known that it had "taken" with him. 

Col. Gardener appreciated the desire of the boys to see 




After a bath in ("hiekar 
(Camp Th'iiiias). 




Regular Saturday Mornir 
■Inspection of Issue." 



the park, as it was a great historic object lesson, and he 
knew it would do them good to visit Look Out Mountain 
and Missionary Ridge, and the other places of interest from 
a military point of view, so he ordered that leaves of absence 
and passes be issued for from twelve to sixteen hours upon 
the approval of company commanders. The boys would 
take the train to Chattanooga, and then reach Look Out 
Mountain on a trolley line, and as they were drawn up the 
incline, the scope of their vision enlarging, brought to their 
view the beautiful and imposing scenery stretching away 
to be lost in the horizon's mists; a view that never failed to 
appeal to the lover of nature. Of course, the scenery, and 
the town, were two different things, and if any of the boys 
started to see the scenery, and got mixed up with the town, 
the scenery was sure to miss their presence, and the trip 
generally resulted in more or less successful attempts at 
running the guard line, but the Michigan boys never did 
anything ungentlemanly, even if they did not take a trolley 
ride to the mountain, and no matter how the hands of the 
hostile provost itched to rest upon the shoulders of a red 
neck-tied soldier, they itched in vain. 

On the 10th, all regimental hospitals were ordered dis- 
continued, and Surgeon Biddle was ordered attached to 
the division hospital, but Col. Gardener objected so strongly 
to the abolishing of the regimental hospital of the Thirty- 
first that he was finally permitted to retain it, sending, of 
course, the very serious cases over to the division hospital 
where there were supposed to be trained nurses. The col-, 
onel's kick was based on good grounds, for he and all the 
officers felt that it was best to have the sick taken care of 
close to their quarters where they were in the midst of their 
comrades, and not send them off to a place where they were 
surrounded by strangers, for in the matter of nursing facil- 
ities, the regimental hospital was almost as well off as the 

207 



division. However, the regimental hospital was main- 
tained even after the division hospital came to be in better 
shape, for while it was understood that a division hospital is 
always preferable for cases where close nursing is neces- 
sary, and more complete facilities needed, yet regimental 
hospitals are better for the immediate needs of less serious 
cases. 

Maj. Davis, of the inspector general's department, made 
a thorough inspection of the regiment and its quarters on 
the 11th and reported that the men and camp were the 
neatest of any regiment on the grounds. Such reports as 
these published in the newspapers at home, were gratifying 
to the friends of the boys as well as themselves, and they 
felt that if the country really needed soldiers, that in the 
face of the general commendation accorded the regiment, 
they surely ought to be used. 

The work of equipping the volunteers was going on as 
rapidly as possible, and on this day, the officers of the 
Thirty-first received an issue of forty-five caliber Colt's 
revolvers, with twenty-four rounds of ammunition apiece. 

The colonel appreciated the fact that he had a command 
composed of men of spritely spirit, and he knew human 
nature well enough to understand that the spirit of a man 
must be exercised to keep it in a healthy condition, just 
as the muscles must be subjected to exercise to keep them 
in serviceable shape, and he did not deem it inconsistent 
with, or liable to lead to a breach of discipline, to permit 
the boys to hold an entertainment once a week, under the 
chaplain's supervision, in the vicinity of the headquarters 
tent. These events were enjoyed by the officers as spec- 
tators, as much as by the men who were the performers. 
There is no company of soldiers but what has among its 
number at least one man who has marked entertaining- 
abilities; a comedian and a mimic, who is at all times irre- 



■ „.■■ -^ -' ""-M 






'M^M- 


WWJ!UU 


lUUE^ 


-■ --- -^^ 



Detail for OutpoHt Guar 
'aniii Thomasl. 




Crawfish Springs, Camp Thomas— The 
Water Detail from Thirty-first M. V. 1. 



sistible in his witticisms, and who generally goes by the 
name of "Actor." As a rule, they do not make good sol- 
diers, but they are a benefit to the command in their own 
peculiar way. 

Order niunber forty-six cautioned the men against the 
wastage of water, for it was still a very scarce article, and 
the quartermaster's department was kept busy making the 
six mile trips to refill the barrels at Crawfish Springs, which 
was the source of most of the general supply. There is a 
water system in the park with pumps here and there to fur- 
nish water to visitors in ordinary times, but they were not 
adequate, and the water was condemned as unfit, to meet 
the needs of the soldiers. The order also provided that 
company commanders should see that the men bathed at 
least once a week, and that proper attention was paid to the 
cleanliness of their persons by frequent changes and wash- 
ing of underclothes. The men were to visit the river and 
bathe under the care of a sergeant, and the length of the 
bath was fixed at twenty minutes. The boys would have 
liked to have made it twenty hours, for the weather was 
extremely hot, and the temperature was seriously computed 
for home information at one hundred and eight degrees, 
and "in the shade at that." 

On the 12th a recruiting detail in charge of Lieut. Camp- 
bell of Company I left for Detroit to secure additional men 
in order to bring the regiment up to full strength. The 
recruiting was carried on at the armory of the Light Guard, 
and selections were made after examinations by Dr. Wm. 
M. Harvey, former surgeon of the old Fourth Regiment. 
The boys attached some significance to this recruiting work, 
and fitted it in with the rumor circulated on the 15th that 
fifteen regiments were to move for Tampa within the next 
few days. Nevertheless, some of the boys had been fooled 
so often that they would refuse to pack up unless an orderly 



should ride in direct from Gen. Brooke's headquarters 
with the order properly addressed to each man. 

When it began raining on Sunday, and continued all day, 
and the next, the boys began to wonder if the rainy season 
in Cuba was anything like this hard dose of moisture. 
When it begins to rain, a soldier and his tentmates immedi- 
ately begin an inspection of the ditch around the tent and 
see that it is in a condition to drain off the rain, but when it 
pours hard, the rain does not take the trouble to roll down 
off the tent into the ditches, but finds delight in hunting 
every weak spot and every pole hole so that it may drip 
through and make it uncomfortable inside. In an army 
camp where there is, of course, no surplus of food, the flies 
are very likely to be in a constantly starved condition, and 
they joyously welcome the rain, for it drives their victims 
in tents and corrals them, so that they can get a chance to 
absorb some subsistence from vulnerable spots. 

There was one feature of the camp life that threatened 
to become much like the old tale of the boy tending 
sheep, and the wolf. From various causes, but more par- 
ticularly from the water, a man would receive a sudden 
attack of pain in the abdomen, and in many cases, serious 
treatment was necessary, but when the boys found that a 
fellow having received a sudden seizure was relieved from 
duty, the art of counterfeiting the seizures was developed 
to perfection, but when it began to be seen that chums or 
tent mates were attacked simultaneously, it gradually 
dawned upon the medical officers that the boys either liked 
the medicine, or else they did not like the duty. 

On the 18th the First Georgia Regiment arrived and 
went into camp on the right of the Thirty-first, and where 
the Third Pennsylvania had been located. The time was 
right after dinner; the weather, "one hundred and eight 
in the shade," and as the boys of the Thirty-first stood out 

210 



from their tents, with hunger appeased, and freshened hj 
rest, and watched the long dusty blue column coming up 
over the road, they remembered how long that road had 
been to them, and they could see that these newcomers 
exhibited unmistakable signs of fatigue, hunger and thirst, 
and then it was that the boys from Michigan showed the 
fine fibre of their hearts, for they set about immediately to 
prepare another mess, and each company of the Michigan 
regiment took care of one in the Georgia regiment corre- 
sponding to their letters. This was an exhibition of hospi- 
tality brought from the North into territory where hospi- 
tality is a marked feature, and the memory of that day still 
lives with the boys in that Georgia regiment. 

When the specifications for field rations were made up, 
the commissary department overlooked a certain article of 
general habitual consumption, the use of which, is more a 
fad or habit with Americans in general, and American 
soldiers in particular, than with any other peoples, but it 
was not long before it came to the attention of Secretary 
Alger that the troops needed tobacco to chew and smoke, 
and as it was at this period that even monopolies had awak- 
ened into existence, a "soul," and had even permitted a 
blaze of patriotism to come into life, the country was sur- 
prised, and the boys a good deal more so, when packages of 
tobacco were distributed in the camps by the great tobacco 
companies. 

Sunday was the next day and one of rest, and as the 
dinners in the Thirty-first were pretty good on such days, 
and the men in the Georgia regiment having but scant 
rations, the hospitality of the day before was repeated. 

After dinner the men from the N'orth and South went 
swimming together, and hunted over the park for relics 
in the way of old projectiles that their fathers had shot at 
each other once upon a time with deadly intent. 

211 



Special order number sixteen was issued on the 19th, 
detailing Lieut.-Col. Shubel, Maj, Harrah and Maj. Kirk 
to meet as a board to determine the relative rank of all 
United States officers of the regiment. The report was to 
be based upon date of muster, previous length of service as 
sergeant, corporal, and private in the Michigan National 
Guard, and in cases of equal consideration, the rank was 
determined by lot. 

The boys had waited a long time for their rifles and were 
glad to finally get them when they were issued on the 20th, 
and the little list of instructions that went with them did 
not appear to be at all irksome in their required observance. 
The rifles were to be kept in a continuous state of freedom 
from rust or defacement, with the inside of the barrel as 
bright as when received. Red. rust in the bore or any 
place on the rifle was punishable by court martial. As a 
softer note, the appeal was made that a soldier should treat 
his rifle as he would his watch and take pride in its clean- 
liness and perfect condition. It was also ordered that, now 
that the rifles were issued, formation at reveille and retreat 
would be under arms. 

Governor Pingree and Inspector General Case of the 
Michigan Kational Guard arrived in camp on this date, and 
a regimental review was ordered in their honor for the next 
day. The boys were rather pleased to exhibit themselves 
to the Governor and General Case, and were also anxious 
to perform their first field formation under arms, although 
of course it would be hardly fair to rate them under the 
circumstances, as they had been strangers to the use of 
rifles in their drills since they had left Island Lake. 

The review was held in the morning, and Governor Pin- 
gree, in company with Brig.- Gen. Poland, commander of 
the second division, were escorted and surrounded by a large 
party of regular army officers, and the smile on the gov- 

212 



emor's face, clearly indicated that the remarks of those 
officers regarding the Thirty-first were highly pleasing to 
him. 

After the regimental drill in the afternoon the regiment 
was lined up in front of the regimental headquarters, so 
that the governor could give "his boys'' a little talk. He 
told them that he had read up in the North of a most extra- 
ordinary regiment ^vhich was setting the example for neat- 
ness and manliness and general discipline down in the great 
camp, and that the members all wore red neckties, also, 
that this regiment was called the Thirty-first Michigan, and 
he had come to satisfy himself of the truth of the rumor, 
and he told them that he was mighty glad that he had come. 
After a few remarks by Gen. Case, Major Harrah called for 
the governor's yell which the Light Guard boys knew well 
how to give, for they had cheered his speeches before. Then 
Col. Gardener arose and told the boys how important it 
was to take good care of their rifles, and how that every 
inspector fixed the standard of a command by the condition 
in which it keeps its guns. He said that, after a period of 
thirty years in the regular army, he had to express his aston- 
ishment at the appearance made by the regiment at the 
review that morning, and the manner in which the rifles 
were handled, as the command had been drilling without 
arms so long, and there were so many recruits who had not 
been drilled in the new manual. He said that Gen. Poland, 
commander of the di^dsion, and the regular army officers 
with him, had remarked that the conduct of the regiment 
was phenomenal. He said that he had had the honor that 
morning to report to Maj.-Gen. Brook that he had not had 
in his regiment as yet, "one good case of square drunk," 
and he complimented them upon their assimilation of dis- 
cipline. 

Now, all this may seem like "bouquets" but it is never- 

313 



theless a truthful record, and there will be a time in the 
life of some of the boys who stood and heard these words 
out under the skies of northern Georgia who will like to 
read them over when time will have made that period a 
reminiscence. 

Keveille roll call on the morning of the next day was a 
rather tardy affair, as many fell in without thinking of the 
new rifles and had to be sent back to get them, while those 
who did think of them, did not find them so easy to handle 
with the residue of the night's sleepiness crowded into the 
corners of their eyes. 

Recruits began to arrive this day, and among them, was 
one of the Light Guard boys who had made desperate 
efforts to come with the regiment originally, but he had 
been rejected because he had been so unfortunate as to lose 
some teeth and had not been able to have them counter- 
feited perfectly enough to escape the attention of the 
examining officer. However, he was a man of medicine, 
and the fellows were glad to see him and not a few of the 
boys owe their escape from a sojourn at division hospital to 
this recruit with the false teeth. 

The "Rookies" were the victims of every practical joker, 
and one night when it was raining hard, a simple embryo 
soldier stumbled across Jim in his company street, and Jim 
knew his "mark" instantly. "Hello, 'Rook,' " he called, 
"what're you hunting for?" "Oh, gee! I'm on guard, and 
I'll get wet, and maybe catch the fever." "Now listen 
here, haven't you learned any more than that? All you have 
to do is to go to the captain's tent, and he'll issue you an 
umbrella. They keep a supply of umbrellas for guard 
duty when it's raining." The recruit started towards the 
captain's tent, while Jim dived into his, to tell the joke to 
Bill, and they kidded that poor "Rookie" for many a day. 
There came a time, however, when Jim met his match. 

214 



He was just a plain private then, and one day he waa 
assigned to guard duty at the mule corral. When he was 
posted after dark, the muleteer called his attention to a long 
"black-snake" whip hanging from a nail in a large tree 
trunk, and told him that if a mule began to cut up, to take 
the whip and "lash the critter good an' hard." Jim said 
he'd fix any beast trying to kick up a row, and walked his 
post with an eye on the line of tethered mules. He had 
about made up his mind that he would have no trouble 
from that quarter when suddenly, a lively young animal 
began to display marked signs of dissatisfaction. Jim 
walked to the tree, and resting his gun against it, started 
back with the whip muttering about what he would do to 
the beast. He did it alright; the way he swung that 
"black-snake" and brought it down on the animal's hide, 
would have brought a gleam of satisfaction into the eyes 
of the muleteer could he have witnessed it, but Jim was 
puzzled at the effect that worthy's instructions were pro- 
ducing, for in a few minutes, every animal on the picket 
line was kicking its heels over its ears and were combinedly 
making more noise than a naval battle. The communicat- 
ing sentry could not hear Jim's call, but the officer of the 
guard heard the noise and cut for the corral. Well, it cost 
the muleteer quite a lot of sleep and hard work to get the 
beasts quieted, but the way he talked to Jim afforded some 
compensation, and in fact, was the best part of his joke. 
Jim never passed a mule after that without ejaculating un- 
complimentary remarks, and when he afterwards became 
a corporal, he remembered the instructions of the muleteer 
and reissued them to the guard posted at the corral, but no 
satisfaction ever came to him. 

The Y. M. C. A. tent was established for the regiment, 
and came to be a very beneficial institution. Full writing 
facilities, including envelopes and paper, were placed at the 



disposal of the men in the tent, and they could also keep 
in touch with the general affairs of the country through the 
medium of the newspapers kept on file. The religious work 
cut out was the kind to have a good effect, and at no time 
did it take on an obnoxious form. 

The regular daily drills were occasionally varied by the 
conduction of a sham battle, or special battle exercises, and 
the first of these since the first division battle exercise, 
occurred on the 25th, when the maneuvers of the Light 
Guard battalion with half of the first under command of 
Maj. Harrah and the third battalion with the other half of 
the first under command of Maj. Kirk resulted in favor of 
-the former. 




316 



CHAPTER IX. 

First Order for Moving of Troops— Disappointment— Resignations 
of Lieutenants Evans and Doyle — News of the Santiago Battle — 
Target Practice — Sword Presentation to Captain Sink — Death 
of Harry Saunders — Funds from Ladies' Aid Corps — Promo- 
tions of Sergeants Dumas and Busch — Lieutenant Bersey 
Recommissioned — Another Disappointment. 

It was Sunday, the 26th; the boys had eaten dinner and 
cleaned up their tinware, and sought shelter from the rain 
within their tents, when a report, from which the rain could 
wash no color, foimd rapid circulation, that, the regiment 
was slated to move in its brigade with the First Army Corps 
in the expedition being planned for Porto Rico. The gen- 
eral order from the headquarters of the Corps designated 
the first division, and two brigades of the second division, 
and the brigade units specified, included the Thirty-first. 
This did not look like one of the regular '^pipe" stories, and 
the first impulse to cheer having been gratified in full, the 
growing darkness that followed retreat, found the boys in 
little groups around their tents discussing the whole mat- 
ter with a proper seriousness, and at the close of the battle 
exercises on the following day it was no wonder that the 
oflScers should make special commendatory remarks, for 
the fellows had carried with them onto the drill field the 
knowledge of that onward order, and on the next morning, 
the sham battle bore the same complexion of. serious work, 
but after recall, the whole bottom dropped out of every- 
thing, for that general order thirty-one from the head- 
quarters of the First Army Corps which they had come to 
worship, proved to be but another hollow mockery. How- 

217 



ever, the colonel thought differently, and as one of the 
neighboring regiments left the next day, he made up 
his mind to have his regiment fully prepared to move 
whenever the order should come, and he accordingly or- 
dered the men to pack up overcoats and what things they 
did not absolutely need and have them ready to send home, 
and this belief of the colonel's seemed to be substantiated 
when, on the next day, pup tents were issued. Sham bat- 
tles were performed almost daily. 

The regiment lost three good officers at this time, but for 
good and sufficient reasons their resignations were accepted 
and honorable discharges issued. Lieut. Frederick L. Abel 
of the Light Guard, had left Island Lake with the regiment 
as its adjutant, but believing that no active campaign was 
likely to fall to his lot, and having weightier interests at 
home than remaining in a reserve army corps, he considered 
it wisest to hand in his resignation, but he left his com- 
rades with many regrets that circumstances should call 
him northward. The other officer who resigned was 
Lieutenant Val. R. Evans of Company L, whose com- 
mission as first lieutenant, promoted from second lieutenant, 
had just been handed him on the 25th, but bearing the date 
upon which he was selected to fill the vacancy by the resig- 
nation of Lieut. Bersey before the regiment had left Island 
Lake. Lieut. Evans' resignation was forced from him by 
the repeated advice of the surgeon. A physical disability 
had made its appearance in a part of his anatomy which in- 
capaciated him for hard service. The trouble lay in his 
lower limbs and feet, which caused him much suffering 
and assumed abnormal size upon the performance of any 
great amount of field duty or marches. What troubled the 
lieutenant most was a fear of how the people in Detroit 
would interpret his resignation, and he told one of the ser- 
geants, in a pathetic manner, that he would rather fight 

218 



fifty battles and be sent home a dead man than go as he 
was, for fear people would think he was showing the white 
feather, as just at the moment, prospects looked pretty 
bright for active service. The boys in his company sym- 
pathized with the lieutenant, and when his discharge finally 
arrived and he left for home on the 21st of July, they gave 
him a good send off and presented him with a roughly pre- 
pared set of resolutions of respect and regret, and to show 
that the veterans at home followed all the doings of the 
boys, they grasped the situation and upon a request from 
the boys who furnished the money to pay for it, prepared a 
duplicate set of the resolutions, well bound in book form, 
and sent them to the boys for their signature. One copy 
now rests upou the parlor table in the armory, and the other 
is in the possession of Lieut. Evans, a testimonial that 
he might be prouder of than many other things that have 
come to him in his life time. 

Lieutenant A. G. Doyle of Company K resigned for rea- 
sons which could not be put aside. His wife was in frail 
health when the battalion went to Island Lake, and when 
the moment at last arrived for the departure of the regi- 
ment, Mrs. Doyle clung so to her husband that a parting 
was not effected without some exhibition by her of the 
constraint of feelings under which both labored. The lieu- 
tenant's wife entered a state of decline which threatened 
to prove fatal, and so, moved by anxiety, and with great 
regret that his duty required him to leave the boys and cut 
short his military career, he applied for discharge, and upon 
its receipt, hastily turned his steps towards the home where 
the sick wife constantly listened for the sounds that would 
announce his coming. 

"Taps" had just ricocheted its soul thrilling notes across 
the great camp, beginning with headquarters and taken up 
by buglers at the headquarters of regiments in successive 

219 



rank. The boys began to put out the little flame of their 
candles and prepare for a last quiet talk and smoke before 
turning in, when suddenly there came a distant sound 
that caused a general suspension of conversation, and every 
ear was strained to define the meaning. Its strength gra- 
dually increased as it came sweeping onward like a mighty 
wind storm, and the first thought of the men was about tent 
pegs and guy ropes, but as the sound grew in volume and 
came into closer proximity, it began to assume a character 
which was familiar and unmistakable. "Gee whiz !" said 
Jim, "I wonder what all those rowdies are cheering for." 
"Oh, I guess it's another pipe story about going to Cuba or 
Porto Rico or some other old place," said Bill. "Well, it 
won't hurt us to let off a little steam ourselves," so the boys 
pushed on the storm of cheering to the next camp, and it 
continued on to the farthest confines. There was not much 
talking about it, however, among the men. They had got- 
ten so now that they were not going to believe any more 
orders about moving until they had moved, but neverthe- 
less, speculation continued as to the cause of the cheering 
during the next three days, and by the time they were 
apprised of the facts, other things had come to distract their 
attention, for on Sunday, the 3rd, the "ghost" walked into 
camp, and that was always an event of supreme importance. 
It was at noon mess on Monday, July 4th, that the boys 
learned the significance of the cheering storm, and as the 
tale of that famous victory at Santiago became known to 
them, their enthusiasm broke all bounds. The band turned 
out, and the boys, grabbing up anything that would make a 
metalic sound, marched around through the company 
streets and along the regimental lines, until they stopped 
from sheer exhaustion. Then they broke up into little 
knots, and stood around and talked it all over. Somehow 
they felt a good deal like the amateur theatre goer feels 




Light Guard Battalion Practicing 
\'olley Firing, at the Target Ranges; 
Pea Vine Ridge. Camp Thomas. 



when he stands in the foyer, and hearing the orchestra play 
inside while he waits to get his ticket, becomes very ner- 
vous and anxious for fear he will miss some of the show. 
They had kicked about having to drill any on this day when 
they had responded to reveille, as it was a national holiday, 
but they were saved from doing much kicking by the rain 
that came, and as for drilling in the afternoon, well. Col. 
Gardener couldn't swear like Phil Sheridan could, and noth- 
ing but strong language could have moved the boys the rest 
of that day. 

Pursuant to an order issued on the evening of the 4th, 
the first battalion marched to a point seven miles from camp 
where the ranges had been built for target practice, and on 
the next day the Light Guard battalion, according to 
orders, started at 2 :30 p. m. for the same point and duty. 
One day's cooked rations in haversacks, shelter tents, 
blankets and ponchos were carried, as the battalion was to 
remain over night. Target firing was something the men 
had not been drilled in as yet, because they had been with- 
out rifles, but the duty was now taken up and instituted 
with vigor. The work performed on this trip was that of 
individual scoring, and when the boys marched back, they 
carried their rifles on a black and blue spot on their right 
shoulders and the letters written home during the next 
few days made the recipients wonder what had happened 
to their correspondents' hand writing. 

On the 7th the battalion had a good dose of guard duty, 
as the details were tripled on account of the absence of the 
first and third battalions at the ranges. The fellows 
grumbled a little, for they were not over the effects of their 
expedition to the ranges and were still nursing their 
. shoiilders, but that did not go with the colonel, for when the 
off relief heard the cry "Turn out the guard, commanding 
officer," the celerity of the formation did not meet with the 

221 



colonel's approval to such an extent that one of the boys 
was put under arrest for being slow. 

On the 8th the battalion started at 3 p. m. for its second 
visit to the ranges, and the bojs still remember Major 
Harrah's efforts to shorten the route by exploring and fol- 
lowing what he thought would be a short cut, but just be- 
cause it turned out to be a mile and a half longer, not count- 
ing the extra hills and rough character of the ground, their 
good nature was not a bit subdued, for they all felt that it 
was a joke on the major. They fared a Kttle better in the 
way of rations on this trip by purchasing fresh vegetables 
from farmers. 

The program for the day's work on the 9th consisted of a 
plan of skirmish and assault. The point of attack was a 
target three feet square set against a tree at two hundred 
yards, and only one-half of it visible above the tall grass. 
A squad from each company was selected and each man 
given ten rounds of ammunition, and as the squad leaders 
formed on the line, there were three hundred and sixty 
shots, and that the Michigan boys were pretty good marks- 
men was evidenced by the fact that there were one hundred 
and seventeen shots counted in the target and tree, and the 
tree trunk was literally shot away to about one foot above 
the target. The battalion started back over the old route 
in the evening and arrived in camp at T :50. 

Order sixty-eight contained instructions for the regi- 
ment to form for inspection and review by Brig.-Gen. Roe 
and staff on the morning of the 11th. The regiment was 
to form by battalions in heavy marching order, including 
the foot and mounted officers. The inspection also included 
quarters, and the satisfaction of the general and his staff 
as they passed through the camp the next day on their tour, 
was due to hard police work performed early that morning, 
but it added another merit to the already long list that hung 




Thirty-first M. V. I. marching- in Review 

I5efore Brig. -Gen. Roe, 

July 11th. 1S9S, Camp Thomas. 

The Field and Staff have turned to the Left. 

and the First Company is .iust 

about to make the Turn. 




Rear End af the Reviewing Column. 



in the memories of inspecting officers, for the Thirty-first 
Michigan. 

Trouble had been brewing between some of the men of 
a New York regiment, and the Thirty-first Michigan and 
First Georgia. Some of the latter, while on provost duty in 
town, had arrested some of the New Yorkers who were 
creating a disturbance in a bad part of the town known as 
the "bowery," and a party of the New Yorkers had planned 
to hold up every man of the twin regiments — as they had 
now come to be called — they could find in town on Monday 
night, the 11th, but the Michigan and Georgia boys were 
ready for any trouble, and in fact, they were going to town 
to court it, but the colonel had gotten wind of the matter 
and none of the boys were permitted to pass the guard lines 
after supper, with the reason given that because of a rumor 
that fever was prevalent among other regiments, it was 
deemed best to restrict the men to their own lines. 

On the 13th the battalion was in mourning for the death 
of Capt. Gutman, of Company M, from Monroe. The close 
comradeship of this company with the three Light Guard 
companies has been mentioned before, and much feeling 
was displayed by the boys of I, K and L, and the Ladies 
Aid Corps up home sent appropriate expressions of con- 
dolence to the widow. 

The 14th opened up with a hard rain that lasted all day, 
and as the first battalion came marching in from the ranges 
with every mother's son of them thoroughly soaked, the 
boys in the nearest tents, sitting in full enjoyment of their 
dryness, kidded the other poor fellows about its being a 
good thing, as they had needed a bath. 

The boys in Company K had a good captain, and they 
knew it, and having sought some manner of conveying their 
knowledge to him, they had decided to purchase and present 
a sword to him. A sword presentation is the only medium 



through which enlisted men may, with propriety, manifest 
in a material way, their appreciation of an officer, unless 
it be perhaps a horse, but a horse is rather expensive for a 
company of men. The proper minded officer cannot fail to 
grasp the significance of a "presentation," for he knows 
what pay the men get, and how much they need it for their 
own purposes. The boys of Company K had arranged with 
Maj. Harrah to enlarge the ceremony by parading the 
whole battalion, and so, after having waited all day in vain 
for the rain to cease, the battalion paraded in the form of a 
square after retreat roll call, and Major Harrah made the 
presentation. It was a surprise to Capt. Sink, but he being 
one of those proper minded officers, the boys were made 
to feel the quality of his appreciation. 

Some of the boys in the first battalion had captured two 
young goats at the ranges, and they were added to the list 
of mascots. They were very cute and intelligent and the 
boys decided to put them into an "awkward squad," where 
they soon fell into the ways of military life. 

The colonel was making up for lost time in the matter of 
target practice, and he did not permit the ranges to be free 
of the presence of some one battalion constantly. The 
boys had discovered the brick stack of an old mill or build- 
ing, and it came in. for a good deal of pelting as well as 
other, natural objects which appealed to them more than 
the set targets. 

On the 16th Company I lost a very good officer in the 
person of Lieut. Walter G. Rogers, who was appointed 
regimental quartermaster. He had been acting quarter- 
master from the first of the month, and he was retained in 
this post until muster out of the regiment. 

On the 19th belts and side arms were issued, and also 
blue shirts, making the regiment complete in its equip- 

224 



ment. A bath house had been erected in the neighborhood 
of the regiment, and completed the sanitary equipment. 

Any man in the regiment who had an ambition to wear 
shoulder straps, learned from order seventy-six, issued July 
19th, just what hurdles he would have to jump before he 
could stand even a show. The order specified that candi- 
dates would present themselves as such, for examination 
before a board of ofiicers detailed for the purpose. An 
essay of at least three hundred words upon some military 
subject would be required, while the oral ordeal consisted 
of the board exploring their mental make up. to determine 
their general intelligence and fitness for the rank, and 
finally, the board was to approve two of the candidates for 
each vacancy. 

While Company L was out on the field drilling in the 
forenoon of the 22nd, the spirit of one of its invalid mem- 
bers at the hospital — Harry Saunders — passed from the 
blue clothed shell for a new station in the spirit world, and 
in the evening, the comrades of the dead man talked to- 
gether of his death. 

The Ladies Aid Corps had sent forty-five dollars to each 
of the four companies of the Light Guard, and the plan 
expressed by them was that, each of the three ofiicers of 
each company should be responsible for the proper expendi- 
ture of one-third of the amount, thus spreading the re- 
sponsibility and permitting a broad but careful handling of 
the sum, and this fund proved to be a source of great relief 
when situations arose requiring the use of money. Every 
day's express delivery brought boxes of good things from 
the folks at home to the boys, and the spirit of generosity 
that predominated in the comradeship of the boys always 
caused a general distribution of the contents of the boxes, by 
the lucky ones. Thus did the home folks perform their mis- 



225 



On the 26th the board of officers recommended Sergt. 
Y. M. Dumas, of Company I, and Sergt. H. W. Busch, of 
Company K, for rank of second lieutenant in their respective 
companies, and though the former duly received his com- 
mission, certain influences operated to the disgust of the 
latter. 

Second Sergeant, Henry "W. Busch, was the man whom 
his comrades desired to succeed Lieutenant Doyle, and when 
the desire was stated in writing, signed by one hundred out 
of the one hundred and three company members, he decided 
to appear for the examination, with the result stated. The 
colonel approved the recommendations of the board in an 
order, but learning later that Company K remained with- 
out a second lieutenant, he ordered Mr. Busch to appear, 
and in terse terms asked his reason for not having instantly 
observed the order. The sergeant replied that he had not 
received a commission, and did not suppose he was to assume 
the new duties until such was issued. The colonel then or- 
dered him to procure the proper uniform and enter the rank 
of second lieutenant at once, pending the arrival of the com- 
mission from the governor. The instructions were obeyed, 
and Lieutenant Busch moved up to the officers' row. He 
worked and waited for his commission for nearly a month, 
but near the end of that period he learned that First Sergeant 
Miller had worked up opposition at home through his father, 
and finally, despite the efforts of Mr. Busch's friends, and his 
employer, Mr. George T. Calvert, who engaged legal assist- 
ance to set the governor right in the matter, the commission 
was refused to the popular choice, and the governor per- 
formed the only act that aroused the displeasure of the boys 
against him during the war, by forwarding a commission to 
Sergeant Miller, direct. As soon as Mr. Busch learned of 
Sergeant Miller's receipt of the commission, he cut off his 
shoulder straps and hastily removed to his old quarters. 



Some warm letters about the matter burned their way 
through the mails between the governor and the colonel, but 
to no satisfactory end, excepting that, the latter having re- 
ceived no regular advice from the former that he had com- 
missioned Sergeant Miller, vented his wrath by withholding 
a recognition of the fact. Meanwhile, Sergeant Miller won- 
deringly continued his round of first sergeant's duties, per- 
plexed over the fact that a lieutenant's commission reposed 
in his possession, and the boys continually addressed Ser- 
geant Busch as Lieutenant Busch, especially in the first ser- 
geant's hearing. The situation lasted for several weeks, 
when finally the two ofiicers tired of doing three ofiicers' 
work, and explaining "regular military chailnels" to the 
embryo lieutenant, told him to take his commission to divis- 
ion headquarters, and not to loose any time doing it. Lieu- 
tenant Miller served creditably until the muster out of the 
regiment, and the score against the governor has since been 
wiped out by the boys, by electing Mr. Busch to the cap- 
taincy. 

Order eighty-two threw a little war coloring upon the 
situation. It instructed each company commander to select 
from his command, two non-commissioned officers and three 
privates who were intelligent and good marksmen to be 
designated as scouts, and it was to be their duty in all ex- 
tended order drills and battle formations to act as such by 
proceeding in advance of the command and obtaining infor- 
mation regarding the enemy. 

"What 'm I going to do with this new thing, Jim?" said 
Bill, as he held up a new hat — an issue of which had just 
been made. Jim raised the blanket he slept on, and exposed a 
hat fresh in color only, and Bill, taking the cue, watered his 
new hat in the mornings and slept on it many nights before 
finally appearing with it in public, for the rough-and-take-it- 
iill soldier refuses to wear anything that will detract from an 

227 



appearance of veteraness, and he takes delight in posing in 
the tintype gallery in the toughest outfit he can contrive, 
and sends the likeness home mth a fiendish grin. But some 
are different. The"Deacon's" wardrobe contained "Sunday 
clothes," which he donned at six o'clock in the evening as 
regularly as if he were at home, and his hat bore an exasper- 
atingly serene appearance. Somehow, this bandbox neatness 
never downed with such as James and William. 

It will be remembered that Lieutenant Bersey was com- 
pelled to resign his commission immediately after his muster 
at Island Lake as first lieutenant of Company L, because 
of the critical condition of his wife's health, but upon receiv- 
ing news of the resignation of Lieutenant Evans, and advice 
that the members of the company would like to have him 
resume his old place, he applied to the governor for a com- 
mission. He was mustered at Island Lake, and left Detroit 
for the station of the regiment in company with Major Har- 
rah, who had been called home also because of the severe 
illness of his wife. 

They were to leave Detroit on the evening of the 26th, 
and the Veteran Corps had arranged to grace the event with 
a display of good fellowship. An informal reception was 
tendered the major at the armory, and then, marching arm 
in arm between two of the Veterans, and followed by quite 
a party of other Veterans, with the band leading, he reached 
the station where he was greeted by a number of ladies, who 
gave him various commissions to perform and placed in his 
care numerous articles to be distributed to the boys. The 
little procession had attracted a good deal of attention, but 
the climax was something to live in the minds of these two 
soldiers of a younger generation. Lieut. Bersey had missed 
the reception and escort, but he was found at the station, 
and just before the departure of the train, the veterans 
lined up, and baring their heads, extended their hands in 

228 



turn as the major and lieutenant walked along and grasped 
each, and then as the pair boarded the train, the veterans 
shouted a final farewell and the old "tiger's" yell. 

When these two officers arrived in camp, the reception 
was widely different from the farewell, for their brother 
officers had been planning, out of the dullness of their rou- 
tine life, a practical joke, which had its point in the findings 
of a mock court-martial of Maj. Harrah. The trial was 
rather long, and Lieut. Bersey was, as he supposed, com- 
pletely snubbed, for his fellow officers refused to even greet 
him with a word, and no attention was vouchsafed him 
except to demand his silence, but when the affair was over, 
jollity reigned and repaid for any apparent discourtesies, 
but it so happened from the detail of service for the captain 
and second lieutenant of Company L, that five days' con- 
tinuous duty immediately fell to the lot of the newly in- 
stalled lieutenant. 

The men were comporting themselves as models of the 
perfect soldier, and each fellow mounted guard over his 
comrade to see that nothing was done which might bring any 
disgrace upon the command and influence the authorities 
against its selection for service, which was so anxiously 
hoped for. 

There were orders and orders, and the fellows got into the 
habit of waking up early in the morning and wishing every 
minute that reveille would sound, for just at that hour of 
the day, there lay before them the possibility of being 
greeted with official information that they were to move. 
They understood that troops were not needed in Cuba, but 
they knew that an expedition was being planned for Porto 
Kico, and it was their anxious hope to be included in the 
expedition. One day, near the end of July, the One Hun- 
dred and Sixtieth Indiana was taken from their brigade, 
and the boys saw them move out with anxious hearts, and 



at various times when they would hear the marching music 
of a regimental band away off through the trees, they would 
become down-hearted, and by the last day of the month, the 
boys gave up all hope of ever seeing Porto Rico or any 
other part of Spanish territory. The strain of hope keyed 
up and kept intense from day to day had proved too much. 

On the 29th the boys had marched their two-mile course 
in the inspection and review, and the equipment of heavy 
marching order was no burden, for they had imagined that 
when they next lifted the burden to their backs, it would be 
for a point on the coast, but when they appeared on the 31st 
for inspection and muster in heavy marching order, the 
knowledge of the futility of their hopes made their accou- 
trements heavier than they weighed by the standard of the 
avoirdupois table. They had drilled hard; they had lived 
up to the regulations conscientiously; they had kept them- 
selves and their camp in the cleanest condition, and now 
they were passed by, and what was really inferior com- 
mands, were sent in their stead. Under these conditions 
they could not be blamed for feeling sore and disgusted, 
but they forgot that Michigan was only one of forty-five 
states, and that two of her regiments had been honored by 
active service before Santiago. They probably forgot that 
every soldier in the national camps was as anxious to be 
sent out of the country as they were, and that the statesmen 
from their states had just as much influence at Washington 
to prevent partiality being shown as did the statesmen from 
Michigan, but reasoning has never been known to alleviate 
the bitterness of keen disappointment. It is something 
that must be left to the com-se of events to wear itself away, 
just as a stain upon a person's skin. 

''Why did you become a soldier, anyhow, Jim?" ques- 
tioned Bill during a discussion of the situation. "Well, you 
see. Bill, when they were all working off spasms about the 



poor starving Cubans being tortured to death, and a fel- 
low had it shoved out to him every way he turned that he 
ought to help remember the Maine, and every one telling 
me what a nice looking soldier I'd make, I just 'called' 'em 
all and tied myself up to this outfit." "Well, how do 

you " "ISTever mind any more of your questions 

now. Bill." ''Here comes the 'Actor'." "Vas your fadder 
alife yet?" exclaimed the latter. "JSTo, not yet," growled 
Jim. "Well, say, did you hear how they've got us now? 
We're in the One Hundred and Seventy-ninth brigade. 
Three Hundred and Sixtieth division. One Hundred and 
Seventeenth army corps, and we'll be sent to the front just 
as soon as our turn comes." Tommy emitted a hearty laugh, 
while the others grinned. The "Unfortunate," he of the 
negative character, whose army god lived beneath the head- 
quarters flag, tried to tell them that he believed the colonel 
was looking out for the regiment, and he started to recall 
how indignant they had been at what the newspaper cor- 
respondent had sent to his paper about the patriotism of the 
men, but Jim cut him short with, "Oh, stow it." "I wrote 
home to-day," said Bill, "and told them we'd changed our 
name to Chickamauga Park Improvement Association, and 
were getting all the trees trimmed up in fine style, and that 
we hoped to get the seven thousand acres smoothed off be- 
fore our two years were up." "Well," said the "Deacon," 
"I won't worry so long as I get letters from home" — he 
always received one or two a day. "General Thomas said 
one time that if his boys could each get a letter from home 
just before a battle, he'd bet he could whip anything in 
sight." Mess call sounded, and the debate abruptly ended 
in a wild scramble after tin dishes and a place in line with 
its right resting on the cook-house. 

231 



When the Fifth Illinois left for Newport Kews a few- 
days later, it cannot be wondered at that nine members of 
the Light Guard companies took "French leave " and at- 
tempted to go with it, but a detail, posted after them with 
hot haste, spoiled the game. The guardhouse yawned for 
them, and a heavy fine swallowed most of their pay. 




CHAPTEE X. 

The Regiment's Future — Transfer of Camp — Peace — Removal to 
Camp Poland, Knoxville — Popularity of the "Red Necks" — 
Death of Harry Gould — Draft sent to Building Committee — 
Visit of Secretary Alger — Death of E. Wayletts and Norman 
Weldon— Y. M. C. A. Tent— Visit of James Gilboy. 

On Aug. 1st was sounded the key-note of the future 
work of the regiment. The surrender of Santiago and the 
Spanish army in the eastern part of Cuba, together with 
the crippled condition of the Spanish navy, created pros- 
pects of peace propositions from the enemy in the near 
future, and the Porto Rican campaign was but a race with 
time against the date of such proposals, but meanwhile, the 
large army of regulars and volunteers which had done its 
work before Santiago, had to be relieved and brought north 
to recuperate, and in its absence there would be a need of 
fresh troops for garrison duty, and then, too, when the 
whole island would have fallen into our hands by conquest 
of arms or diplomatic settlement, a large force of American 
soldiers would be needed in the military government of the 
island which would necessarily precede the establishment of 
a civil government, and as the Porto Rican expedition was 
complete in its strength, enough regiments of volunteers 
must be retained for the garrison duty to follow. 

Pursuant to the new order of things brought about by 
the departure of troops, a rearrangement of the camp in 
general was decided upon, and on the 1st of August the 
first battalion left as an advance detail for the site of the 
new camp, one and a half miles west of the Reed Bridge 
Road. The third battalion left in the afternoon, and on 
the next day the second battalion and headquarters packed 

333 



up the balance of camp baggage and moved to the new 
camp. The site was situated on the side of a hill, and was 
covered mtli qnite a thick growth of trees, and the dead 
leaves, falling ever since they were first able to grow, had 
formed a thick layer, and its removal, together with the 
clearing off of trees, furnished an occupation which soon 
began to wear away some of the bitterness of the disap- 
pointment the boys had suffered. Excavating for sinks was 
a difficult problem and also furnished hard work as rock 
bottom was struck within a foot or two of the surface. 

The lumber left behind by the Fifth Illinois on the next 
day, was transported to the new camp and used by the regi- 
ment. For the next few days, drills were suspended and 
the time devoted entirely to policing and building the new 
camp, and that the reputation for cleanliness might be 
perpetuated, details went back each day to the site of the old 
camp and cleaned up until it was in better shape than when 
the regiment moved onto it, three months before. There 
is nothing that lightens a man's heart so of his troubles, as 
approval of his achievements from high authority, and 
Major Hopkins' visit to the regiment in the new camp 
left behind a trail of commendation that brought much 
satisfaction to the boys and helped wonderfully in dispell- 
ing the discouragement which had taken possession of them. 
Of course, however, in such a large body of men, there were 
some who could not swallow their disappointment very 
easily, and these invariably found worms in the oatmeal at 
breakfast, or did not like the drinking water, and some even 
went so far as to make a mock grave and erected a tomb- 
stone, bearing the inscription, "'No hope for the 31st. 
August 4th, 1898," and surmounted it with a wreath of red 
handkerchiefs. Some of them put up a mock bulletin board, 
which they kept constantly covered with pipe stories and 
fake orders, and there was even some talk of petitioning the 



Secretary of War for active service or return home, but this 
sort of thing was quickly suppressed, as it was not consistent 
with the discipline which through the efforts of the officers 
had made the regiment famous. 

The boys were in better shape here than at the old site, 
for with the lumber, they were enabled to build floors and 
bunks in their tents. 

The Light Guard boys were in touch with affairs at 
home, and they knew the difficulties being experienced by 
those in charge of the armory in securing needed funds, so 
a movement was begun among themselves for the collec- 
tion of a sum out of their pay each month, the result of 
which will be mentioned further on. 

The first Sunday in their new camp was one of high 
living, but the boys certainly deserved it; roast beef, sv/eet 
potatoes, tomatoes, macaroni, cocoa and ginger snaps, witli 
bread of course, was none too good for these fellows who 
had wrought all week at a pioneer's task. 

On the 9th the regiment left camp at haK-past six in 
the morning for a review, and after a two hours' march, 
reached its post, and then, after waiting three hours more, 
fell in with a column of forty thousand troops, including 
all arms of the service, which marched in review before Gen. 
Breckinridge, stationed on Snodgrass Hill. The men wore 
their best garments and neckties, and as they swung past 
the reviewing station. Gen. Breckinridge knew who they 
were and pointed them out to the military representatives 
of foreign nations who were with his party. It was a thril- 
ling spectacle of a fine modern ai-my, made up from what 
was not long before simply a mass of volunteers. When the 
boys got back to camp at half -past twelve they were glad to 
eat any old thing, and they welcomed the downpour of rain, 
as it meant relief from drill, and the same held good during 
the next day. Rain was a thing to be laughed at in this new 

235 



camp, for the drainage was of a natural and thorough char- 
acter, and it was not necessary to look after rain trenches. 
After supper, the boys celebrated a rumor regarding the 
movement of the regiment to a point further south in about 
a week — the sore of the past disappointment was slowly but 
surely healing. An old colored man who had tramped into 
the camp from Graysville about a week before, and who 
had unconsciously furnished the boys much amusement, 
was used as a medium for the out-pouring of good spirits 
on this evening, and the illustration in which he appears in 
the midst of a group, shows the good nature apparent on 
the faces of the boys, several of whom have since found 
active service in the Philippines under the same com- 
mander, and one of whom now lies in a grave in the same 
part of the world. 

Some of the fellows had a fondness for their neighbors' 
fruit trees, but the gratification of their desires was checked 
by the colonel's announcement that guards would be placed 
around fruit orchards, thereby increasing the guard duty of 
the regiment, and you know that guard duty is not a thing 
prayed for by a soldier. Another restraining influence was 
the knowledge that the farmers had shotguns all loaded 
and ready for strange visitors in their orchards, and that 
they would shoot, was practically demonstrated one day 

when Private P limped painfully into camp headed 

in the direction of the hospital, where he gave the surgeon 
a half -day's job of probing for some twenty odd shot. For 
long afterwards, the boys joked him about the "moth holes" 
in the seat of his trousers. 

On the 12th the non-commissioned officers were num- 
bered according to seniority, as it simplified the matter of 
making up details. 

The boys of the Thirty-first got their share of outpost 
duty, and as it offered a change from the daily routine, 





rM^o 







Company L's Mess Tables after Lli 
Change of Sites at Camp Thomas. 




A Relic of the "South befo' de war. 
Amusing the Boys; Camp Thomas. 



the duty was a rather agreeable one, although it took them 
several miles from their camp, and the rations consisted of 
simply hard tack, sowbelly and coffee, but if a fellow hap- 
pened to have a post in the vicinity of a corn field, he was 
very liable to feel that one or two ears of corn would not 
be missed by the farmer, and it would make quite a nice 
addition to his otherwise plain mess. 

The 13th was pay day, and while the announcement can 
only be made in simple form, yet the mere name indicated 
a momentuous event in the lives of the boys. 

The cables had been busy since the first of August 
charged with the conveyance of diplomatic notes and re- 
plies with the object that peace might reign again in the 
Western Hemisphere, and the cables finished that particu- 
lar task upon the afternoon of August 12th, when the 
French ambassador signed the Peace Protocol on behalf of 
the Spanish government. 

On the southern coast of Cuba, at Manzanillo, a few 
vessels of the navy were engaged in their last little action 
when, on the-morning of the 13th, the town proclaimed the 
peace news by running up white flags. The last shots on 
the blockading station off Havana were exchanged at dawn 
with the shore batteries. Porto Rico was about one-half 
invested, and the hand of a gunner was stayed by a dis- 
patch bearer ere the initial shot would have opened up one 
of the fiercest actions of the war. On the morning of the 
13th, two officers from the staffs of Admiral Dewey and 
Gen. Merritt went ashore to accept the surrender of Manila. 
Such was the list of achievements attained by our forces, 
and it was time that they were rested and given a season of 
relaxation. 

This early and sudden ending of what had been looked 
forward to as one of the greatest wars of the century, left 
upon the hands of the government a vast addition of terri- 

287 



tory to be governed, and an immense reserve army of vol- 
unteers, and as only about one-half of the force would be 
needed for garrisoning the new territory, it became neces- 
sary to do some mustering out. Instantly there began a 
scramble among the more self-assertive regiments to secure 
their muster out and return home, and this perhaps was one 
of the most trying periods to the administration, as well as 
the statesmen who were called upon by their constituents, 
both at home and in the field, to secure their return. Of 
course, in no regiment was there an unanimity of desire in 
the matter, but the best disciplined regiments were never 
mentioned in the press dispatches in connection with these 
various attempts to influence the administration. 

It is generally held among military men that a soldier 
loses his sentiment after three months of enlistment, but if 
he be a man of any qualities, there comes to take the place 
of sentiment, an element of stamina which makes him a 
more reliable soldier, and this is descriptive of the condition 
of the boys of the Thirty-first, and then too, the inspector- 
general's reports were used at the war department in select- 
ing those regiments to be retained in service for the very 
important work of occupying the new territory. However, 
regardless of any attempt at analysis, the fact remains that 
the boys of this regiment never went by the name of kickers, 
and so they set themselves to steadfastly uphold their rec- 
ord, although had it fallen to their lot to be among the 
regiments mustered out at an early date, they would have 
faced homewards with probably more joy in their hearts. 

On the 17th was held the last grand review at Chicka- 
mauga. 

The officers were very careful about the health of their 
men, and when it was deemed best to send any of them home 
on a sick furlough, there was no time lost by reason of red 
tape. Several of the Light Guard boys were given thirty 

238 



days' sick furloughs on the 19th and their comrades gave 
them a cheerful send off. 

Dr. Hooper rejoined Company L with the recruits in 
July, and when the medical case arrived from the Ladies' 
Aid Corps, it was placed in his hands and used for the Light 
Guard boys in emergency cases. It proved to be a very 
beneficial little institution. 

The newspapers of the country had been publishing for 
some time complaints regarding the sanitary conditions pre- 
vailing at Camp Thomas, and criticising the War Depart- 
ment for permitting the troops to remain subject to such 
unhealthful conditions. Similar criticisms began to reach 
the department in a more direct manner and from more 
conservative sources so that Secretary Alger decided to 
have the premises thoroughly inspected and be truthfully 
informed regarding the situation. To that end Maj. Geo. 
H. Hopkins and Maj. Walter Keed, surgeon TJ. S. A,, were 
directed to make an inspection of certain U. S. General 
Hospitals and Division Field Hospitals in the various 
camps. The result of their investigations with recommen- 
dations was submitted to the War Department in a lengthy 
report. Maj. Hopkins, to emphasize the conditions at Camp 
Thomas, made a special report to the Secretary of War, 
which the author is permitted to copy. 

WAR DEPARTMENT. 

Office of Secretary. 
Washington, D. C, Aug. 8th, 1898. 
Secretary of War: 

Sir — Respectfully referring to report made this day to 
the Adjutant-General by Surgeon Walter Reed, U. S. A., 
and myself, of inspection of certain U. S. General and Eield 
Hospitals, I beg to say in reference to Camp Thomas : The 
general sanitary condition of the camp is bad. The preva- 
lence of typhoid fever to so large an extent is serious, if not 

239 



alarming. The general and medical officers have a very 
serious problem before them. If the camp is to remain 
there any length of time orders should be issued that only 
spring water of unquestioned purity be used, or that all 
water for drinking purposes be boiled, and all excreta and 
refuse be gathered and hauled from camp each day under 
contract, and the strictest police regulations enforced. In 
my opinion the entire command ought to be removed from 
Camp Thomas at once. 

GEO. H. HOPKINS, 

Major and A. A. G. Vols. 

Secretary Alger proceeded at once to act upon the advice 
contained in the communication, and so it came to 
be pretty generally known during the second week of 
the month that Camp Thomas was to be abandoned, 
and regiments and brigades transferred to various other 
points, but just where, and for what purpose, was in 
the nature of a mystery to officers and men. The brigade 
at this time was reduced to two regiments, the Thirty-first 
Michigan and First Georgia, and the order for the general 
movement came to this brigade first, and at a time when 
such an order was entirely unexpected. It was late in the 
afternoon, and even the colonel was not present in quarters 
when the order came, but immediately upon the reception 
of the order, the senior field officer in command issued the 
proper regimental order for the movement. The order 
from headquarters brought no other intelligence regarding 
the destination than that the regiment should march to 
Rossville and take train, so that from private to officer, there 
was not a man who would not believe that they were to 
either be sent to the front or home, but they earnestly hoped 
it was to be the former, and so, with the new life and energy 
inspired by the order, it was only one hour and a haK later 
that the column was swinging off through the woods to 
Rossville. The band was playing at East Lake in Chat- 

240 



tanooga when the order arrived, so that the boys had to 
march without the music, but they did not miss it because 
of their excitement over leaving Chickamauga. There was 
rather a long wait at Rossville before the train moved out, 
and there was another delay at Chattanooga, but the train 
finally struck the right trail and the journey's end was 
reached the next mornipg at Knoxville. 

An interesting incident during the journey, which came 
under the observation of the second battalion alone, 
occurred when, about fifteen miles out of Chattanooga, the 
boys were startled to see a ball of fire, apparently about one 
hundred feet in diameter, shoot up into the air at a great 
height and roll away in clouds. The wind was blowing 
away from the train and no sound of noise was brought to 
their ears, but they soon saw that it was a catastrophe caused 
by the explosion of the Chattanooga powder mills. 

The entire second division, under command of Gen. 
McKee, was to move to this point, but the Thirty-first, and 
a battalion of the Georgia regiment being the first to arrive 
in Knoxville, these two regiments were enabled to make 
their own selections for their camp. The spot selected was 
a little less than a mile north of the city, and there was an 
adequate supply of pure water, which came from the mains 
of the two local water companies. The camps of the two 
regiments lay on the opposite sides of two hills, mth a 
slight raise between them, and from the camp of the Thirty- 
first a view could be had of the city, while the Great 
Smokey Mountains loomed up in the distance, presenting 
an ever splendid picture of nature. The camp was chris- 
tened Camp Poland in honor of that recently deceased 
brigadier-general. 

Quite a number of the boys were absent from camp in 
Chickamauga when the order came for the movement of the 
regiment, and they straggled into the new camp several 
days later with the last baggage details. 

241 



The atmosphere was much better here than in the 
dense forest at Chickamauga, and the altitude being higher, 
the nights were so much cooler that the long unworn blouses 
came into use again. The tents were not gotten up that 
night, and the blanket bags and other baggage were delayed 
for several days, so that the boys had only the shelter of 
their pup tents. The cause of the delay of the baggage was 
due to the division headquarters appropriating a part of the 
regiment's train at Rossville at the last moment. 

As soon as the regiment had gotten established in 
camp, the people of Ejioxville came out to see what was to 
them a new sight, and the impression made by the regiment, 
which was the first one to be visited, was so favorable as to 
set up a high standard of regard in the hearts of these good 
people, among whom, the boys made many warm friend- 
ships during their stay at Camp Poland. The visitors 
arrived at about the time of guard mounting, and as the 
orderlies are selected from the guard detail, on the basis of 
neatness, it was the habit for all in the detail to present as 
neat an appearance as possible, and thus these civilians were 
confronted with the realities of the attractively pictured 
American soldier. 

On the 25th lumber was issued, and the men set to work 
to build bunks and floors for their tents. One important 
reason why tent floors were popular with the men was 
because they could dig a little cellar and conceal it from 
the view of inspecting ofiicers by a lid skillfully made to 
fit; on the plain ground it requires a woodsman's skill to 
conceal a little hole in the ground from the sharp eyes of an 
officer, and these cellars are just as important to the men 
as the storehouse is for the commissary department. 

On the 26th Major Harrah, on behalf of the members 
of Company I, presented a sword to each of the three officers 
of the company which had been bought out of the scant 



resources o£ the men. The major also presented the bat- 
talion with a bat and ball, and a very nice little speech. 
The gifts were immediately placed and maintained in com- 
mission, and afforded the boys much healthful sport. 

There was considerable fatigue work to be done in fin- 
ishing up the camp in every detail, and under the personal 
direction of the colonel, the work had to be done very thor- 
oughly. One of the features of the camp was a new bath 
house, put up for the use of the regiment. It had been the 
colonel's intention to allow the men a great deal of liberty 
in visiting the city, but division headquarters established 
restrictions to the contrary. However, passes were not so 
very difficult to obtain, and the boys found much pleasure 
in the long trolley rides out to Tort Saunders, where the 
Union artillery had been stationed at the siege of Knoxville, 
and General Longstreet had been repulsed in sanguinary 
battle on !N^ov. 29th, 1863, and where also at that time, 
the Second, Eighth, Seventeenth and Twentieth Michigan 
regiments were posted, numbering in all 1,015, some bare- 
footed and some (295) even without trousers, as the inspec- 
tors' report showed; then back to wander around the city and 
eat a good meal at some restaurant. A short cut to the city 
was along the railroad track, and there was frequently a 
chance of jumping on a freight train, but several narrow 
escapes from fatal accidents having come to the attention of 
the brigade commander, an order was issued prohibiting the 
men from using that route to the city. 

The ladies of Knoxville at once took an active interest 
in the welfare of the sick soldiers. Division hospital had 
been established in a large pavilion, located on a well shaded 
hilly spot in a public tract. The pavilion was large and 
dry. and could accommodate one hundred cots, and the poor 
fellows who laid there cannot forget the motherly care 
r^ccorded them by the ladies who came bringing flowers and 

243 



things to cheer. To better carry on the work they had 
assumed, a series of lawn fetes were inaugurated, and the 
initial fete was given on the court house lawn on the even- 
ing of the 31st. The band from the Thirty-first Michigan 
furnished the music, and Col. Gardener, in accordance 
with the application from the ladies, detailed a guard of 
twenty-five enlisted men, and to add a further military 
coloring to the affair, he issued twenty passes to each com- 
pany, accompanied with instructions regarding the per- 
sonal appearance of the users. 

The red neckties of the boys of the Thirty-first were so 
distinctive and unique a decoration among the vast num- 
ber of soldiers, that the fancy of the young ladies of the 
city centered more upon the wearers of the ties than those 
who were not so decorated, and it became a fad with them 
to duplicate the ties for their own use as such, and for belts 
and shoulder knots. 

The band had won its way into instant popularity upon 
the occasion of the lawn fete, and its attendance was 
requested at the Labor Day parade on the following Mon- 
day. 

September opened up with ball playing as the chief 
amusement and exercise, and even the officers got the craze, 
and on the 9th the officers of the second battalion won a 
match game with those of the third, only to lose the honors 
to the officers of the first battalion. The popularity of the 
sport was due in a great measure to the enthusiasm of Major 
Harrah, who was regarded as its chief patron. 

The colonel <iid not intend to keep his men down to a 
hard grind, although discipline was not abated one jot, and 
it is doubtful whether the men would not have lost respect 
for him if he had permitted laxity, but knowing that his 
command was well educated by now in the practical work 
of battle exercises and drills in general, he turned his atten- 

244 



tdon mostly to the evening parades and occasional reviews, 
and he established the custom of permitting the field officers 
in. turn, according to rank, to receive the regimental parade. 

The meals were good at camp, and the fraternal spirit 
existing betwen the twin regiments, was maintained by fre- 
quent interchanges of hospitality. 

Harry Gould was placed on the train on the morning of 
the 2nd on a journey home on sick furlough, but a rumor 
came back the same day that he had died on the train en 
route. 

It rained all day, but the boys found it a fascinating 
experience to watch the clouds, as they gathered closely 
around them, but toward evening, the wind came to bear 
company with the rain and the boys had to get up at all 
hours during the night to drive the pegs in deeper, and guy 
up the tent ropes. It rained the next day too, but the 
feUows were given a surprise over at the Y. M. C. A. tent, 
where they were requested to appear and make a selection 
from six groups, each containing a different combination of 
size and variety of packages of tobacco, presented by the 
American Tobacco Company. 

Some of the veterans at home kept up a correspondence 
with some of the boys, as well as officers, and in acknowl- 
edging the receipt of the draft for one hundred and twenty- 
six dollars and fifty cents subscribed by the Light Guard 
boys, and sent to Detroit for the benefit of the armory, the 
letter from Vice-President Taylor describing the work of 
the building committee composed of himself and Dr. Har- 
vey, treasurer, was read by Major Harrah to the boys, and 
they returned cheers and greetings to those two gentlemen 
and all the others who were taking care of the new armory. 
They also received accounts of the reception tendered to 
Company M upon its return from Cuba, but there was a 
feeling of wistfulness, and probably chagrin that the inde- 

345 



pendent company had returned home with the record of 
having been under the enemy's fire, and this rather aroused 
a spirit of restlessness among some of the boys. 

"Snowball" was the title to which a very bright little 
lad of colored extraction answered. Some years before, 
when he was quite a little chap, he hung around the old 
armory so much that the boys would ask him why he didn't 
go home, and when they learned that he had none, they 
decided it was a case of mascot, and they took him in. He 
was a jolly little mascot and his antics and witticisms made 
him the center of many an amused circle. When the boys 
went to war, they weren't going to run the chance of being 
hoodooed, so they took their mascot. He wasn't lazy, and 
that was one reason why he stood so high with the boys. 
He had begun a little enterprise, after camp was again 
settled, which netted him quite a profit. You see, the gov- 
ernment began to encourage the eating of wholesome candy 
— ^the German War Department makes it an article of reg- 
ular issue — and the boys, experiencing its hunger reducing 
effects, soon became steady and large consumers of the 
article they used to look upon with contempt at home. 
"Snowball" started in with a little stock, until his business 
increased so that he was even able to extend credit to the 
boys against the advent of pay day. Candy units became 
the unit in all bets and in the quiet little match games of all 
varieties which the boys used to while away dull time in 
their tent circles. 

The weather had turned very cool in the evenings, and 
the first serious notice taken of it was upon the 8th, when 
the boys had to resort to the violent exercise of dancing to 
keep up the warmth of their bodies. Sergt. Evans had 
returned from home, where he had been on a leave of 
absence, and brought good Detroit candy with him for dis- 
tribution to his immediate chums, and with his arrival 



Arthur Moore, "Mascot" ol' the 
Light Guard Battalion, Thirty 
first M. V. I., and Protege of 
the Detroit I>iffht Guard. 








Camp of the Thirty-first M. V. 
Camp Poland, Knoxville, Tpnn. 



came a rumor that the First Georgia was to be mustered 
out soon. 

On the 9th the mothers of two members of Company I 
arrived in camp and received a hearty greeting from the 
Light Guard members. Mrs. Dibble and Mrs. Cross had 
made the trip from home for a twofold purpose: one, to 
see their sons, and the other, to ascertain the exact needs 
of the Light Guard members so that the Ladies' Aid Corps 
could perform their work more intelligently. There is 
nothing so cheering and more appreciated by a fellow, a 
long way and for a long time from home, as a letter from 
those he thinks of most dearly, unless it be a familiar mes- 
senger from them, or better still, the appearance of those 
persons themselves, and so this flavor of the home up north 
brought to the boys, satisfied the cravings of some, and 
revived the home sickness of others. 

The Colonel was permitted to retain the regimental hos- 
pital, although he notified the patients that if they so 
desired, they could be moved to the division hospital, but 
the sick boys were content to remain in the midst of their 
friends, especially as Dr. Haze was the kind of a man who 
knew how to win his way into the hearts of the fellows with 
his competent ministrations, and he was also in the con- 
fidence of the Ladies' Aid Corps, and articles forwarded for 
the benefit of the Light Guard sick were addressed to him; 
then too, the ladies from Knoxville did not confine their 
flowers and attentions to the division hospital, but helped 
the invalids in the regimental hospital to endure their period 
of illness with the same good cheer that they took to the 
patients in the city. 

The boys had a funny time on the 10th when some of 
the beauties from a variety show in Knoxville visited the 
camp, apparently for the purpose of advertising their per- 
formance. After the boys got tired jollying and roasting 

247 



them, they were finally persuaded to depart by threats of 
blanket tossing, and it being pay day, a number of the fel- 
lows got passes for the city for the purpose of visiting the 
show and having some fun, but one of the ring leaders said 
it was "bum," so they turned their attention elsewhere, for 
they wanted amusement of some kind — a soldier can stand 
most anything but having money in his pocket and not 
being able to spend it. The officers and band had left for 
the city after mess, to attend the officers' ball. Of course, 
the officers had a generally more serene time, because of 
the passporting prestige of shoulder straps. Most of them 
had been presented with cards to the Cumberland Club, 
and they generally took precedence wherever they appeared 
in public places of refreshment, but there are privates with- 
out a stripe of white to relieve the general blue of their uni- 
forms, who, by virtue of their carriage and general phy- 
sique, present a more heroic figure than many an officer in 
his gilt trimmed uniform, and there were many such pri- 
vates in the regiment. The people of Knoxville were of a 
very discerning kind, and the boys were frequently invited 
to attend many social affairs of a more or less public char- 
acter, and many enjoyed the entree to the circles of many 
very fine families. 

Time rolled easily along, with lawn fetes in the city and 
reciprocal entertainments between the companies of the 
twin regiments; a division review held on the 15th made 
less than two hours of duty. On the 19th, both regiments 
paraded together, and on the 20th, the evening parade 
exhibited a remarkable formation. The two regiments 
were consolidated by companies, making one column of 
double companies with the ranking officers in command, 
and the balance marching as file closers. Both bands were 
also massed. It was a unique sight from the very character 
of its formation, but to see soldiers from the north coming 



to the south and meeting a younger generation whose sires 
had been active exponents of a bitterly contested war, and 
mingling so close together as to be totally indistinguishable 
— by reason of the sameness of uniform and good fellow- 
ship — was a sight that should go down in history as one of 
the best sequels to the worst period in the life of the nation. 
Certain it was that the affair made an impression upon both 
the actors and mass of spectators. 

On the 21st Secretary of War Alger and party arrived 
at Knoxville and immediately proceeded to the drill field 
where a review was held. The secretary's interest natur- 
ally centered upon the regiment from his state, and while 
the regiment was drawn up just previous to review, he rode 
between each company of the Michigan regiment and said 
good morning to the boys as he passed. It was a compli- 
ment which the Light Guard boys appreciated, for Secre- 
tary Alger was one of their honorary members, and to many 
he was an acquaintance; they were glad that he was going 
to inspect them so closely and they put on their best sol- 
dierly appearance so that they might show him that the 
boys he honored at home would try to honor him in the field. 

The secretary inspected the quarters of the regiment and 
its hospital after the return from the field. To most of 
them it was the same as the inspections they had grown to 
be so familiar with. Some of the unruly spirits in the for- 
ward companies, even though they stood at strict attention 
while the inspecting party were present, waited only for the 
party to turn into the next company street when they 
started a yell, the purport of which was "we want to go 
home." It was decidedly unsoldierly, and it was shocking 
to the ears of the Light Guard boys, and must have been a 
disappointment to Gen. Alger himself. The cries were soon 
checked, however, and by the time the secretary had 

249 



cleared the last company of the Light Guard battalion he 
wore a more satisfied expression. 

It began raining that night and continued for several 
days. Of course, drills were suspended during such 
weather, but it made it hard to clear up the debris from the 
entertainments held almost nightly by the men of both regi- 
ments, for the day was close at hand when the friendship 
must be broken up by order of the war department. 

A week previous to the date of muster out of the First 
Georgia, the oificers of that regiment copied the established 
custom of the enlisted men of exchanging hospitalities, and 
tendered a very enjoyable banquet to the officers of the 
Thirty-first at the Imperial Hotel in the city. 

It was on the morning of the 23rd that the First Georgia 
struck tents and packed up for home, and while the regi- 
ment waited on the vacant field for the order to move, 
the boys from the Thirty-first went over and romped with 
the Georgians like school boys. The Thirty-first had fur- 
nished the Georgia boys their first meal in Uncle Sam's 
camp, and they now performed the same act of hospitality 
upon the occasion of their final mess. It was a gallant 
friendship, and had the two regiments had the good fortune 
to go into action together, there would have been a wonder- 
ful tale to tell of their deeds. 

In the afternoon of the 24th two prisoners were received 
at the regimental guard house from the Fourth Tennessee, 
charged with manslaughter. They had been on provost 
duty in the city when a party of their own men made an 
onslaught upon them, and in self-defense, one of the men 
discharged his piece and killed one of the crowd. The un- 
reasoning condemnation which is such a prominent element 
in southern character, was for immediate vengeance, so the 
colonel of the Tennessee regiment transferred the two pris- 
oners to the Thirty-first, and as a night attack was being 



planned by the men of the Tennessee regiment to carry out 
their idea of vengeance, several rounds of ball cartridges 
were issued to the sentries of the Thirty-first, and ammu- 
nition was at hand for immediate use by the whole regi- 
ment, but the Tennessee men did not put in their appear- 
ance, and later, the two men were exonerated by court mar- 
tial. 

Col. Gardener, who was in command of the third brigade 
and remained at brigade headquarters, gave a reception at 
his headquarters to the officers of the Thirty-first on the 
afternoon of the 29th, for the purpose of meeting a number 
of the ladies of Knoxville who had been invited to attend. 
It was a very enjoyable social affair, and a compliment 
appreciated by both the ladies and the officers. 

There was a certain element in the regiment which was 
likely to ruin the good reputation the regiment had earned. 
It was made up of the men who nearly disgraced the regi- 
ment upon Gen. Alger's visit, but while they numbered but 
few at first, they seemed to have power to add to their num- 
ber until this discontented element represented about ten 
or fifteen per cent, of the entire regiment. These men 
sought to gain their own selfish ends by writing letters 
home containing nothing but misrepresentations. It was 
tiresome to every officer, from the colonel down, and a plan 
for getting rid of them was finally evolved among the higher 
officers of the regiment and placed in the hands of Col. 
Gardener for projection and execution, if possible. The 
plan, which was given wide prominence in the newspapers 
at the time and brought to the attention of the war depart- 
ment, provided that authority be given to the commanding 
officer of the regiment to release these dissatisfied men as 
fast as substitutes could be received, and these substitutes 
were expected to come from the ranks of the First Georgia, 
which was about to be mustered out at this time. Col. 

251 



Lawton of the Georgia regiment had advised the colonel of 
the Thirty-first that about two hundred and fifty of his men 
were very anxious to re-enlist in the Thirty-first. This 
statement is general in its character and cannot be said to 
apply to the Light Guard battalion. The men of that bat- 
talion had not merely the reputation of the Thirty-first 
Michigan to maintain, but also — and what was perhaps more 
important to them — the time honored organization known 
to fame at home, and somewhat in the general history of the 
country as the Detroit Light Guard. There undoubtedly 
was a little vein of dissatisfaction among the members of 
the battalion, but it was pitched in a minor key and had but 
a very subdued expression. Of course, many of them had 
duties and responsibilities at home which they should re- 
sume at the earliest possible moment, but the honor of the 
old organization wielded a greater than any other influence, 
and keeping their confidence placed in their immediate 
commanding ofiicer, Maj. Harrah, and in the Secretary of 
War, they maintained the same demeanor which they had 
first brought with them into their first duty as a soldier of 
Uncle Sam. An illustrative incident may be found in the 
fact that, on the first of October the non-commissioned offi- 
cers of one of the companies — Company L — organized a 
club for the purpose of military improvement and providing 
some social recreation, not exclusively for their own benefit, 
but also for their comrades whose uniforms were unadorned 
with white. 

Company L lost two of its members by death upon the 
5th and 6th of October — E. Wayletts upon the former, 
and Xorman Weldon on the latter. The body of the first 
dead comrade was escorted to the railroad station by the 
whole company after supper on the 5th, and the same honor 
and office was performed for the body of the other dead 
comrade on the 6th. 



Towards the end of the first week in October, some of the 
malcontents tried to organize a complaint against the con- 
tinual round of drills, and the first expression showed so 
much strength that the officers had quite a little difficulty 
in immediately overcoming it. The ringleaders had prob- 
ably been organizing the kick for some little time, but at 
any rate, certain it is that their action had no influence in 
the promulgation of a division order prescribing the omis- 
sion of regimental drills on Tuesdays and Thursdays. The 
regimental circular upon the subject also ordered that all 
men not in ranks at the last call of the bugle at any roll call 
at which they should have been present, would be reported 
and tried by summary court. Further lightening of duty 
came in the relief from division guard duty, as Capt. Dick- 
man, 8th Cavalry, who had been sent from corps headquar- 
ters to inspect the second division guard, reported larger 
details furnished from the Thirty-first than the regulations 
prescribed and in excess of those from other regiments. 

The "Descriptive Book" was the bogie of every man, for 
in it was recorded a history of his daily life ever since the 
muster into the volunteer service, and it would continue to 
record his doings until his discharge from that same ser- 
vice. Furloughs, sickness, special duty and promotions 
were recorded, and just as faithfully was set down the 
record of every summary court findings. Many a fellow 
found how extremely accidental it was to hear himself 
named for appearance at summary court, and while his 
minor offense called for simply a fine, accompanied some- 
times by a reprimand, it was galling to know that the matter 
was indelibly recorded in that "Descriptive" Book. 

The Light Guard battalion had rented a piano for use in 
the Y. M. C. A. tent and the boys subscribed enough out 
of their pay to make up the monthly rental of five dollars. 
One evening, the Inseparables decided they would go to 

253 



the Y. M. C. A. tent and write a letter or two. "There's a 
meeting going on, Bill." "Oh, never mind that, it won't 
bother us, we can write just the same," and later, having 
sized up the attendance and made their comments, they 
turned their attention to the business in hand. "What's 
the date, Jim?" said Bill, after selecting the best pen. 
"Fourth of Ju-new — confound these pens, why don't they 
get some christian ones that won't write a dual stroke and 
then drop all the ink at once. Give me a lead pencil you 

" here Jim's tirade stopped short as he suddenly 

assumed a listening attitude. At the same moment Bill 
looked up inquiringly. "Sounds like a familiar voice," re- 
marked Bill as they both turned to see the new speaker 
addressing the meeting. "Well, I'll be jiggered," ex- 
claimed Jim, "if it isn't Sergt. P ." A long while 

later, the Inseparables strolled back to their quarters, for- 
getful of the two unwritten letters. 

The first fruits of the non-eommissioned officers' club in 
Company L were made apparent upon the occasion of a 
hop which the club had arranged to give in town on the 
evening of the 12th. The colonel had given the entire 
company permission to attend and was present himseK, to- 
gether ^dtli some of the other officers, and as quite a nimi- 
ber of the boys from the other companies had obtained 
passes and made their appearance, it was rather a large and 
successful affair, being well graced by the presence of quite 
a nimiber of the ladies of the city. 

The paymaster arrived in camp on the 10th but the cash 
did not arrive until Saturday, the 14th. The Thirty-first 
was the first regiment to receive pay, and it took twenty- 
five thousand dollars to do the job. In addition to this being 
pay day, the boys received another agreeable remembrance 
from the American Tobacco Company. 

The leaves had just begun to spread out in tiny shapes 

254 



when the boys first went forth from their homes to enter 
Uncle Sam's army, and they had seen the small leaves grow 
larger as days were followed by weeks and weeks by months 
until they had reached maturity and their old age had set in, 
touched by the artistic brush of Nature, ere they with- 
ered and died, and now the boys could see the trees 
being gradually shorn of Nature's adornment, for the 
frost was beginning its work of destruction. It was on 
the last day of the second week in October that the boys 
woke up to find themselves very cold, and as some claim, 
nearly frozen. It was a little sudden, and they hardly 
realized how close they were getting to the end of the year. 
Next morning found the temperature even more severe 
and there was no need for the bugler at headquarters to 
sound reveille, for the boys were up long before that and 
had built bonfires to thaw the frost out of themselves, and 
as the blood began to warm up and course again at the regu- 
lar pace, they acted like Indians at a war dance and the old 
pastime of blanket tossing was revived and made to produce 
exercise and fun until roll call. 

The military home of the boys in Detroit had, as far back 
as their memory could go, been presided over by an old 
veteran of the Civil War who bore the official rank and 
title of Armorer, but to the boys it was just "Jim." His 
full name was James Gilboy, but nothing but Jim would 
do for the boys. It had a more familiar sound and was 
more easily said, but there never was a bit of disrespect 
meant in the brevity of address by the boys so many years 
his junior. They all liked Jim, and he was the kind of a 
man that the boys would warm up to in their character of 
soldiers. Now, they had not been exactly homesick, but 
they somehow felt that they would like to have someone 
visit them from home, someone whose visit would bring a 
general satisfaction and represent to every one something 

255 



of Detroit. It was decided that Jim was the person they 
would like to have visit them, and for a week they had been 
getting enough money subscribed among themselves to send 
for him. On pay day they had made up an amount to send 
to Detroit to pay for the expenses of his visit, but mean- 
while, the Ladies' Association had arranged to send Jim, 
and early upon the morning of the 16th, cheering and a 
note of surprised comment heralded the unexpected advent 
of the old armorer. He had various little commissions to 
discharge, and he was a great information giver about things 
back home during his stay. 

"Why, there's Jim," said 
Tommy, as he sat looking out 
from the tent of the Insepar- 
ables. "Against our house rules 
to kid, Tommy," remarked Bill, 
but Tommy had gone. "Let's 
see what the kid meant," said 
Jim, as he lazily pulled himself 
out of his reclining position. 
"Why, blow me, come on. Bill, 
it's Jim," and in a few seconds 
the pair were hugging the 
breath out of old Jim in their 
boistrous soldiers' fashion of 
greeting. And so the greeting 
of Jim, christened James Gilboy, 
Armorer of the Detroit Light 
Guard, Minister Plenipotentiary 
and Ambassador Extraordin- 
ary from Home, proceeded to 
engulf him, so that he had to 
spend a week to rest up ere he 
he undertook to say farewell. 




JAMES GILBOY, 

A8 HE APPEARED UPON ARKIYAL 



CHAPTER XI. 

Samples of Winter Weather — Sports — Revolt of the Sixth Virginia 
— Itinerary Announced — Forty-third Anniversary — Krag Jor- 
gensen Rifles and Stoves Issued— Christmas — Camp Onward, 
Savannah — Feast Given on the Anniversary of General Lee's 
Birth. 

The boys had developed a verj fine foot ball team and 
while a great deal of their playing was confined among 
themselves, yet there were many match games played with 
the teams of neighboring regiments. 

Sergt.-Maj. Sanford Hunt had a record of twenty-four 
years' service in various military organizations, and he had 
always been a very efiicient officer at his particular post. 
Besides his efficiency, he had a personality that made him 
generally well liked, and a testimonial to this fact was pre- 
sented to him on the 18th in the shape of a pearl handled 
sword, by the officers of the regiment. 

The annual carnival time observed by the people of Knox- 
ville began on Wednesday, the 19 th. Thursday was "Mili- 
tary Day" and the entire division paraded in the city. 
There was a general sameness in the appearance of all the 
regiments, but the spectators were given a treat as the latter 
part of the parade passed with the red necktie regiment 
looking its best, and eliciting the wildest cheering accorded 
the troops. By a peculiar disarrangement, the third brigade 
had been placed on the left of the line. J^ow, a soldier is 
very jealous of the position of his regiment in parade, and 
if a mishap of this kind occurs, he and his comrades will 
grumble over it long after the parade is dismissed, but the 
special approval of the good people of Knoxville on this 

257 



occasion healed up the scratch upon their pride. The boys- 
were given many privileges during the rest of the week, and 
they look back to those days as a very bright spot in their- 
camp life. 

An arrangement had been arrived at whereby five men 
could receive ten days furloughs from each company at one 
time, and the boys who had hoarded their cash hastened to 
take advantage of the chance to visit home. 

When the members of Company L had appeared for 
examination at Island Lake in May, Corporal Wm. Laurence 
met with rejection on account of eyesight. This failure, 
however, did not daunt him and he immediately took up 
membership in Company M, which was yet independent, 
but when it was afterwards accepted by the government, as 
has been told, Mr. Laurence, who had meanwhile become 
first sergeant, contrived with the assistance of the officers of 
the company to pass the physical examination and then 
accompanied the company as its first sergeant during the 
campaign in Cuba. His brother, Emil Laurence, was pro- 
moted to be second lieutenant in Company L, as has also 
been mentioned. Suddenly one day, it was the 21st, "Bill," 
as the boys called him, made his appearance at the camp 
in Knoxville, partly to visit his brother and partly to see 
the other boys and give them the laugh, for he, the rejected 
one, had come with a service record to see his old comrades, 
and many were the tales he had to tell of the campaign in 
Cuba. 

Samples of winter weather began to visit the boys in the 
latter days of October, beginning more in earnest on the 
26th which opened up with a chilly rain, turning later into 
a light fall of snow, the flakes of which would disappear 
upon reaching the ground. It was a day upon which cord 
wood was in great demand and the boys sat around huge 
bonfires only to retire later to a cheerlessly cold bunk for the 

258 



night. The overcoats gave some protection from the low 
temperature, and they were even worn at drill. 

The regular monthly inspection upon the last day of 
October was of more importance than usual, because the 
inspection was conducted by an investigating committee 
appointed by the war department. The importance of the 
day was further added to by the disbursements made by the 
paymaster. 

Maj. Harrah was a base ball enthusiast, and having inaug- 
urated and encouraged the sport among the enlisted men, he 
spent a great deal of time in trying to make up a good team 
from among the officers. His efforts were quite successful 
and after considerable training a match game was arranged 
for with a team of officers from the First Georgia. The 
game was played at the ball park in Knoxville, but the 
Michigan officers met with overwhelming defeat, the cause 
of which, the major afterwards ruefully explained, was due 
to the fact that the pitcher on the Georgia team was a fresh 
graduate of a college where base ball was a part of the regu- 
lar curriculum, but that otherwise the play of both teams 
was equal. The society element of EJioxville graced the 
game with their best turnouts, while the boys from both 
regiments who were able to attend kept the game lively by 
their "rooting." 

'•'Well, Bill, we can't let Hallowe'en get away without it 
costing somebody a bunch of dignity." "Sure not," Bill 
jerked, "and I've got a good one." "What?" said Jim. 
"Well, I know where we can get a calf and we can make it 
do some funny stunts of some kind." The Inseparables 
disappeared in the darkness and when one of the captains 
returned from the city and ran into a hairy object in the 
center of his dark tent, he lost his senses for a minute, but 
recovered them at a bound when he struck a match. Jim 
and Bill, lurking near, knew from the words they heard 

269 



that he had recovered his senses all right, but when all the 
boys had been called up, the pair mixed in and when the 
captain gave up the hopeless job of placing the responsi- 
bility, they offered to conduct the nuisance away. They 
knew of a tent whose owners would be returning late from 
town on passes, so they tied up the legs of the calf and 
placed it 0*1 one of the top bunks. The denouement hap- 
pened at a late hour, when the owner of the bunk, with talk 
much like the captain had used, ciTt the ropes around the 
animal's legs and then attempted to lift the youthful cow 
out of the bunk. He had never heard of cows kicking be- 
fore, but this caK caught him several good ones in the chest, 
made a few punctures in the tent and played hob with the 
bunk before the victim finally got it tumbled out. Jim and 
Bill tried to trace the course of the little beast after its 
ejection, but it had learned what Hallowe'en meant and 
cut hard for a more restful neighborhood. 

On November 2nd the regimental bugler sounded 
assembly at haK past ten in the forenoon, and after the 
men had fallen in, ten rounds of ball cartridges were issued 
to each man and it was given out that the men of the Sixth 
Virginia — a colored regiment — ^were in revolt and refused 
to perform duty under their white officers. The order was 
that the first battalion to get ready should lead off and as the 
Light Guard battalion was first in readiness to move, it 
started off in the lead. The route was up over a hill, but 
when the battalion had but half reached the summit it was 
ordered back and kept under orders as the revolt had been 
somewhat quelled, but an outbreak was liable to recur and 
the Thirty-first being the nearest regiment, was looked upon 
to perform any duty required in the premises. 

"Say, Bill, it seems as if we can't get into a fight nowhow. 
We filled our clothing account loafing around for a chance 
to get to Cuba, and after that band down there played 

260 



'There'll be a Hot Time in the Old Town/ we knew we 
couldn't get a chance there, and then when Gen. Miles gave 
us the go by on the Porto Rico biz, I tell you. Bill, I almost 
cried. Then you know they expected that Tennessee crowd 
to attack us at night and take some prisoners from us, but 
it went up like all the other old pipe stories, and here, when 
the old battle blood got to pumping the right pressure in 
me, those d — d niggers had to go and give us another com- 
edy, just when we'd climbed half up this hill. Say, Bill, 
can't you and me mix up a little, just for relief?" but Bill 
gently sang, "McGinty had an army of ten hundred thou- 
sand men, he marched them up the hill and he marched 
them down again, and when they were up, they were up and 
when they were down, they were down, and when they were 

in the middle, they were neither up nor — Och ! d you, 

Jim, you: hurt." "Well, don't be singing that old tune at 
me or I'll poke you clear through." 

Swearing is a soldier's special prerogative, and although 
not prescribed in the drill regulations, yet its effectiveness 
when applied at the proper moment is very marked. Of 
course, there are officers who do not believe in it, but even 
they cannot but appreciate its use when it comes rolling off 
the lips of a man whose refinement of face gives the pro- 
fanity no color of immorality, but whose picturesque appear- 
ance somehow lends the same kind of charm to the words. 
The writer once served under a battalion commander whose 
use of the profane vocabulary was of that character, and he 
was irresistible with the men and a favorite with the chap- 
lain. "To hell with Spain" attained popularity through the 
assistance of guarded as well as loose months. Secretary 
Wilson remarked to a reporter, after leaving a cabinet meet- 
ing where Admiral Dewey's victory was imder discussion, 
that "the Spaniards had received a devil of a licking," and 
none shuddered at sight of the last four words strung across 

261 



a four-column space in heavy-face type at the top of a news- 
paper. In November, 1899, a troop ship was conveying a 
regiment to the Philippines. Leagues this side of Hawaii, 
a storm put everything out of commission but the steering 
gear and one engine, and the men were marshaled to do 
the work of the disabled steam pump. To a rollicking re- 
frain of "What the hell do we care," the badly leaking ship 
was gotten safely into Honolulu harbor. Had the chaplain 
cautioned those men to repeat prayers and sing hymns, 
would their courage have been so well fed during that hard 
work of the bucket brigade, toiling in the suffocating heat 
and darkness of the hold? — it is the moment and the man 
which take the bad odor from the otherwise objectionable 
words. So if Jim or Bill ripped out an oath occasionally 
without thought of its import, you must remember the 
life, and that the pair attended services as regularly and 
sang the hymns as devoutly as the average christian. This 
digression is for the purpose of completing the picture of the 
soldier as he is. 

The fellows who had been fortunate enough to make a 
visit home on furlough were heartily welcomed back to 
camp on their arrival, and were eagerly greeted on all sides 
with many questions about home and the different people 
it would do them good to hear from. 

Maj. Harrah was anxious to try his ball team against the 
officers of the Fourth Tennessee, so on the 4th of November, 
getting together his brother officers and accompanied by a 
small bodyguard of the boys, proceeded over the hill to the 
camp of the Tennessee regiment where there was quite a 
good diamond. Again the Michigan officers went down be- 
fore the southern ball players so fast that the little band 
of rooters from the Thirty-first had hardly a chance for a 
single yell. This defeat was explained by the fact that most 
of the officers of this regiment had been picked from the 



state military academy, where the game was part of the 
physical exercise in their college life. 

On the evening of the 7th, a very pretty formation in 
the return to camp from evening parade was made when 
the regiment marched down over the hill in line, and just 
because it was difficult, it was the better performed, for with 
soldiers, the esprit de corps rises with increased difficulties. 

These were the days when the Secretary of War and all 
the heads of minor departments under him, together with the 
President, were busily engaged in determining upon the 
points and time of occupation in Cuba by our troops. It was 
known that the control of the island would not pass to the 
United States until the first of January, and the total 
evacuation by Spanish, troops could not be completed before 
that time. Plans, however, were formulated and assign- 
ments made as early as the first of llovember, at which time 
it became known that the brigade of which the Thirty-first 
was a part was to proceed to a southern point for embarka- 
tion and proceed to Cienfuegos, from where it would be 
stationed at some inland point in the province of Santa 
Clara. It Avas not supposed that the entire Spanish army 
remaining on the island could be moved by January 1st, but 
the plan was to have our troops make their appearance at 
the various posts just previous to the final evacuation, as it 
would not do to allow Cuba to remain for one minute 
without military occupation or investment. There were 
too many firearms and too much ammunition unaccounted 
for in the island. It was also known that some bands of 
Cubans were dissatisfied and might seriously embarrass the 
government by taking the field in insurrection against the 
Americans, and the militia having been used by the Span- 
ish, might join forces with the Cubans in a new insurrection. 
Another element to be feared unless checked by the pres- 
ence of military were the brigands who plied their trade in 

263 



accordance with all the horrible traditions of their profession 
which Americans made acquaintance with in their boyhood 
days in the books of travel written specially for the enter- 
tainment of juvenile minds. All this was more or less 
understood by members of the Thirty-first, and almost to a 
man it became their desire to go to Cuba. 

Now that it was common knowledge that the Thirty-first 
was to go to Cuba, there were efforts made by the men of 
other regiments that had been mustered out, or were about 
to be mustered out, to secure enlistment in the Thirty-first. 
Some were transferred from the Thirty-second, Thirty-third 
and the Thirty-fourth Michigan regiments at their request. 

The first movement was inaugurated by the issuance of 
order ISTo. 139 on the 10th of K^ovember, making up a detail 
to proceed to Atlanta, Ga., on the evening of that day, with 
tools, rations and equipage. Upon arrival at Atlanta the 
detail was to report to Col. Gardener, who had gone on ahead 
with all his baggage for the purpose of superintending the 
preparation of the camp at Atlanta for the main command. 

The hospital arrangements underwent a change due to 
the onward movement. The division hospital was to remain 
at Knoxville until all cases had been discharged. In the 
place of the division hospital there were to be brigade hospi- 
tals, and each regiment was allowed to maintain a hospital 
of ten beds and entire medical staff, so that in the tropical 
country to which the troops were going, the sick men would 
be able to receive immediate attention. 

The date of the forty-third anniversary of the Detroit 
Light Guard had arrived, and the boys had made some plans, 
as well as they could, for its fitting remembrance. The 
Veterans' and Ladies' Associations in Detroit had remem- 
bered the event and endeavored to help the boys to celebrate 
it by sending them money to be used for that purpose, and in 
addition the ladies and the veterans assembled in the armory 

264 



one evening and packed two barrels full of ginger bread, 
doughnuts and other cakes to send to the boys for the occa- 
sion, and on the outside of the barrels were written the sig- 
natures of each one present and helping in their prepara- 
tion, as a novel form of greeting. The address on the barrel 
has become a legendary joke. It read "Keep dry Maj. C. W. 
Harrah, Thirty-first Michigan, Ivnoxville, Tenn." The 
major was absent on leave in North Carolina when the bar- 
rels arrived, but the head containing the address was pre- 
served for him. The boys enjoyed the contents of the bar- 
rels and things purchased with the money sent them, and 
wound up their jollification with a parade. 

On the same day, Col. Gardener received an order from 
the War Department to cease work on the camp at Atlanta 
and immediately return to Knoxville with the detachment. 
It was a surprise and caused much speculation among the 
boys at Camp Poland, and even the members of the detail 
upon their arrival back in camp on the 18th could give no 
satisfactory explanation. However, information arrived 
on the 21st to the effect that it had been found impossible 
to occupy Santa Clara province before January 1st, and 
that the regiment would have to remain in camp at Knox- 
ville a while longer, but that business was still meant, was 
indicated by the issue of Krag-Jorgensen rifles upon the 
same day. 

The weather had grown very cold and the tents had 
been arranged in ranks of three for better protection, but 
the situation was modified by the issue of the diminutive 
but prolific Sibley stoves on the 23rd and the camp soon 
wore the appearance of a little village of closely huddled 
tents, from the top of each of which a little pipe projected, 
and according to the amount of smoke emitted could be 
judged the extent of occupancy. Further comfort was 
added by banking sod around the base of the tents. 

265 



Although the bayonets and belts for the new guns were 
not issued until the 27th, yet immediately upon the issue 
of the rifles on the 21st the regiment was taken out for 
instruction in handling and drilling with them. They 
were of the very latest make, but the balance was at a dif- 
ferent point from that of the old Springfield. In the new 
rifles, the weight lay more towards the stock, and many a 
fellow in coming from an "order" to his first "shoulder" 
with the new piece found it shooting up into the air almost 
out of his hands. The old force of impetus applied to the 
new rifles seemed to indicate a disarrangement of the point 
of gravity. This feature was soon become accustomed to, 
and the new piece was handled so well that it was found that 
no special instruction was needed. 

Thanksgiving day dawned bright with sunshine, and with 
the keen bracing air it was an exceedingly pleasant day in 
point of weather. Many of the boys had invitations in town 
for dinner at various houses, while many others went to 
hotels and enjoyed the special dinners prepared for the day. 
They found that possums held equal popularity with turkey 
as a holiday article of food, and as a great many of them had 
never entertained their stomachs before with portions of 
the former, they invariably selected it in preference to the 
good old time honored fowl. 

Rain, freezing weather and wind storms ushered out the 
month of November and proclaimed the first days of the 
wintry month. Seven months of hard drilling and prepar- 
ation for duty had made model soldiers of these Michigan 
boys. At all times they presented a polished appearance, 
but it was an impressive sight to watch details for guard 
making their preparations. Not the smallest piece of brass 
but was made to shine and glisten in the sunlight. The 
guns were marvels of polish and cleanliness. Of course, 
there was lots of rough work from the moment they they 

266 



had. to pull themselves out of their warm bunks to respond 
to the early morning roll call. There was general policing 
of the camp, and wood to be chopped and hauled for the 
cook's and for their own stoves. There was the usual round 
of drill duty which were simply exhibitions of cadence and 
steadiness. A couple of hours of leisure before mess, then 
at the first sound of the notes of "soup, soup, soup, soup, 
soup," tin dishes were grabbed and a line quickly formed, 
always with more or less good natured scrapping over posi- 
tions and then the cook and his assistants were kept busy 
piling up the little procession of tin plates with pretty good 
food. After this performance, the men polished their tins 
and loafed around until the regular afternoon drill, with a 
dress parade following close on its heels. The supper hour 
was five o'clock, and from that time until the much rumbling 
of drums, mixed with the musical sound of the bugles play- 
ing the long "Tattoo," announced "to your tents and to 
bed," the men congregated in their own tents or visited 
others and spent the time in cracking jokes, telling stories 
and singing songs. 

If you have never been a soldier and spent a night on 
a tented field and heard what is termed the "prettiest 
call," you cannot understand the beauty of "Taps." You 
first hear it faintly away off in the darkness at the main 
headquarters, then it zig-zags nearer as each regimental 
bugler takes it up in succession and suddenly your own 
bugler standing up at headquarters, pieces on to the last 
dying note of the preceding bugler and there floats down 
to you the silvery tones, the burden of which you must 
also be a soldier to interpret, for it sings "go to sleep, go 
to sleep, go to sleep" — more times than that, and it also 
means more arbitrarily "lights out," for in that, it pipes 
the regulations, and then, too, you can't sleep with your 
candle burning, and besides, candles cost the government 

267 



something, but Jim. and Bill and their ilk knew just how 
to shade the candle's glow from the prowling watch if, for 
instance, the game of cards was not ended, or they had not 
finished something they had gotten from the canteen. 

Of course, this was the routine of those who were not on 
regular or special duty, but it was a bright side of their 
lives, and each man enjoyed it to its full extent until he 
should hear his name called out for the next day's guard or 
other duty. 

In the first part of December, it was rumored that the 
signing of the peace treaty by the commissioners of both 
countries at Paris would very likely cause a muster out of 
a large number of volunteers, but as has been said before, 
the force was not likely to be very greatly reduced. !N"ever- 
theless, there was a feeling of fear among many of the boys 
that they would be denied the opportunity to perform some 
service in Cuba before returning to their homes. The pros- 
pect of returning with only a national camp record was not 
to their taste. The only thing that had a tendency to allay 
their uneasiness was a knowledge of the regiment's record 
as inscribed in the reports of inspecting officers, and also 
the fact that all the officers of the regiment were making 
a concerted effort to have the regiment sent to Cuba. The 
fact was that, no change had been made in the itinerary of 
the regiment since its selection in the early part of IsTovem- 
ber for garrison duty in Cuba, but the boys were not kept 
assured and so were swayed by rumors and guesses. 

The physical condition of the boys was very good at this 
date, and on the 9th, the hospital reported no cases on hand. 
Pay day came a little bit earlier this month as a welcome 
surprise. The mere announcement of the paymaster's 
proximity to a camp, is sufficient to make the laziest fellow 
liven up ; it had an inspiriting influence. Of course, many 
of the boys were of the spendthrift kind and more than 

268 




At the Target Ranges, 

Four miles from Camp Poland. 




Thirty-first M. V. I., Encamped at the 
Target Ranges with Shelter, or "Pup' 
Tents. 



half of their pay had to be handed over to some one or more 
of their comrades who had loaned them amounts against the 
advent of the paymaster, and these same fellows generally 
had to settle at the post exchange for canteen checks which 
they had received on credit. There were many who were 
careful enough in their expenditures to be able to send an 
amount home each pay day, either for the benefit of their 
people, or to be placed in the bank to their credit. 

A range had been selected about three miles north of 
camp in the mountains and authority had been given to 
issue thirty rounds of ammunition to each man for target 
practice with the new rifles. The Detroit Light Guard 
battalion made its initial visit to the range on the 12th. 
There was snow on the ground, and it was pretty hard to 
make a good score because of the very cold atmosphere. 
The boys had to build fires to keep warm and were very 
glad to get back to camp in the evening and enjoy the 
warmth of their tents. The fluctuating character of the 
weather, which was very violent at times, played havoc 
with the regularity of drills and parades, but inspections 
maintained their regularity as nothing else did, and during 
the first two weeks of December, numerous inspecting ofii- 
cers followed close upon the heels of each other, charged 
with the duty of seeing that the regiment was in good con- 
dition as regarded health, clothing, rations, and equipments. 

In accordance with a general order from corps head- 
quarters, regimental order li^o. 162 was posted on Decem- 
ber 16th, which caused considerable comment and disgust 
among the boys. It ordered a regular tattoo roll call at 
nine o'clock with taps a half hour later, and the result of 
the roll call was to be regularly reported. It was believed 
that the object of the order was to prevent the men from 
being absent from the camp in the evening without passes, 
but what made it most unpopular was the fact that many 

269 



of tliem were in the habit of turning in at eight o'clock and 
in order to respond to the roll call, they would have to 
change their retiring hour, but it was no use grumbling at 
an authority several hundred miles away. However, the 
sleepyheads were rejoiced four days later by an order 
changing the tattoo roll call to eight o'clock. The order 
also provided for a weekly practice march by battalions. 

On the 21st a fitting tribute to the ability and character 
of Quartermaster Lieutenant Walter G. Kogers, formerly 
first lieutenant of Company I, was given him by the quarter- 
master sergeants and the men under his command, in the 
shape of a handsome sabre, with both sides of the blade 
bearing appropriate inscriptions. The presentation was 
made by Lieut.-Col. Shubel. 

The battalion marched to town on the 21st, and on the 
22nd, after the forenoon's rain had exhausted itself, the 
battalion started at ten o'clock on a practice march, but the 
rain had gotten its second wind and when the boys got back 
at noon, they were pretty well soaked. 

The boys and officers of the Detroit Light Guard com- 
panies became very much worried over reports from home 
that the regular annual allowance by the state was to be 
denied them, as the stand had been taken by the state mil- 
itary department that old I^ational Guard companies still 
in the volunteer service had no status in the Michigan 
l^ational Guard. This was a source of worriment, not to 
them alone, but also to those at home, as the financial affairs 
of the new armory were not in the safest condition and such 
action on the part of the state would cut off an income of 
twelve hundred dollars which had been depended upon. 
A document setting forth these facts and also pleading the 
cases of the other N"ational Guard companies in the regi- 
ment was formulated by Maj. Harrah and Lieut. Green of 
Co. G, Ypsilanti — now inspector general M. IST. G. — as a 

370 



committee appointed by the officers of those companies on 
behalf of the members, and forwarded to Governor Pin- 
gree. It was an eloquent appeal to prevent an injustice and 
a loss of the result of years of self denial and labor in build- 
ing their armories. 

By the 24th there were only the Thirty-first Michigan 
and the Sixth Ohio left at Camp Poland, and the latter 
was under orders to move to Savannah, thus leaving the 
boys of Michigan still to guess about their future, and a 
little popular remark was "Cuba, nit!" 

The boys never felt the significance of Christmas before 
as they did on that day. It was difficult to make a joyful 
holiday of it; there were boxes from home, of course, but 
boxes of edibles had no special significance as they had 
been making their appearance ever since the boys left 
home. A quietus was kept upon any attempts at celebra- 
tion in the camp, and a special guard was detailed to pre- 
vent the discharge of firearms or explosive bombs and 
crackers. 

Captain Henderson entertained his company at dinner 
in the city, and Company K boys enjoyed a feast provided 
through the kindness of Mrs. Sink, the captain's wife, who 
had collected a purse among the families and friends of the 
boys and forwarded it with a collective greeting, but 
L Company's boys looked wise when those of the other two 
companies twitted them about having the regular rations 
for their dinner. "Say, I can spare one of you fellows a 
piece of hard tack today," shouted Jim, "I'm going to eat 
dinner at the hotel with the captain. Don't know but what 
I might be able to spare two pieces." Two days later the 
band headed off the camp grounds for the city with Com- 
pany L following and proceeded to McCallies Cafe, where 
the tables were set for a feast with printed menus all ar- 
ranged and executed by the Non Commissioned Officers' 

271 



Club, which has been mentioned before. All the oflScera 
had been invited, and the Colonel and Major Harrah were 
down for a speech. 

Owing to the changeable weather and the extremes of 
its character, colds and frequent complications played 
more or less havoc with the physical condition of the boys, 
and those who were severely ill welcomed the army hospital 
train from Fort McPherson. 

'No particular event happened to mark the closing days 
of the year which brought only a feeling of loneliness to 
the boys, as they, and considerable snow had become the 
only occupants of the camp, for after the Sixth Ohio left, 
the quartermaster's and commissary departments closed and 
surplus supplies were shipped away. 

The first day of the new year of 1899 found the boys 
lined up in the increased depth of snow, standing at inspec- 
tion and maintaining the position of a soldier with great 
difficulty because of the icy atmosphere. 

In October Secretary Alger had endeavored to thor- 
oughly satisfy himself as to the majority sentiment pre- 
vailing among the officers and men of the Thirty-first. He 
desired to be very careful in making a disposition of the 
regiment, and finally being satisfied on that point, and be- 
ing a veteran soldier himself with a proud service record, 
he was able to appreciate the desires of the Michigan boys 
and all doubts were finally made to vanish when an order 
from General Wilson reached camp on the evening of the 
5th, stating that Secretary Alger directed that the camp 
at Knoxville be broken up at once and the Thirty-first 
regiment sent to Savannah, equipped for field service, and 
there prepare for transportation to Santa Clara Province, 
Cuba. When officers' call was sounded at the unusual hour, 
the expectant men had an inkling of what might be its pur- 
port and as the news spread, there were wild demonstra- 

272 



.j;t.¥^<w 






-.a. 



-^ t^ 



-^«i^As»- •«, 



At Camp Onward, Savannah, Ga.- 
Awaiting Transport for Cuba. 



/t< 




Provost Headquarters. Chatham Artillery 
Armory, Savannah, Ga. 



tions of joy, but the wise ones merely shook their heads and 
remained mum, as they fancied they sniffed the odor of a 
pipe. However, the regimental officers were somewhat 
anxious about the financial condition of the regiment, and 
as they knew that nearly all the boys were "dead broke" 
and owed little accounts in the city, they were anxious to 
have the paymaster arrive and put the men in shape to leave 
Knoxville with a clean record in this, as they would in all 
other respects. To that end, Maj. Harrah persuaded Lieut.- 
Col. Shubel to take up the matter, with the result that the 
paymaster arrived and paid the regiment on the 8th. Al- 
lowing for furloughs and sick cases, the regiment mustered 
all but eighty-four of its officers and men ready for duty 
upon the arrival of the order. 

Breaking camp and packing up was done in record break- 
ing time on the 9th and by noon time the regiment marched 
off the ground, leaving it as clean as it had ever been. The 
first section of the train left Knoxville at half-past two, 
vdth the others following at close intervals. Atlanta was 
reached at half-past three in the morning by the Light 
Guard section, where the boys got off and stretched them- 
selves. Macon was reached at half -past eight, where break- 
fast was had and the band indulged their instruments in a 
little exercise. Many of the boys of the First Georgia regi- 
ment, whose homes were here, turned out and greeted their 
old friends, and Company I of the same regiment, located 
at Cochran, together with the citizens of the town, gave 
the Michigan boys a great reception as the train passed 
through. It had been rather a slow trip and the boys were 
glad to see the suburbs of Savannah about seven o'clock on 
the morning of the 11th. After leaving the train, the 
regiment marched to Camp Onward and occupied the site 
vacated by Col. Wm. J. Bryan's (Third) Nebraska regi- 
ment, where the tent floors were still in position. The day 

273 



was spent in completing the camp and arrangements made 
for several weeks' stay, as it was feared a transport would 
not be available before. A rainy afternoon made their job 
a cheerless one and their lot was not brightened any by the 
supper of hard tack, sow belly and coffee, the existence of 
which kind of stuff they had almost entirely forgotten. 
There were three companies of the First Georgia at Savan- 
nah, as well as the headquarters and armory of that regi- 
ment and the numerous visits of the Georgia boys were 
gratefully received by the Michigan men. The Third 
Georgia was in camp undergoing muster-out, and the offi- 
cers of the regiment, who had been informed of the friend- 
ship existing between the Michigan and First Georgia regi- 
ments, sent ambulances over to the camp of the Thirty-first 
as soon as it arrived, with an invitation to the officers to 
partake of the hospitality of the Third Georgia's officers. 
The invitation was gratefully accepted, and the Light Guard 
officers hope this further acknowledgment may meet the 
eyes of their hosts some time. 

Besides the Thirty-first, there was only a battalion of 
artillery from Maine stationed at Savannah, and although 
it was necessary to establish a provost guard, yet the fellows 
who were detailed on that duty found that they had the 
pleasantest duty yet assigned to them since their muster into 
the volunteer army. The boys from Maine were gentle- 
manly and of course no provost duty was needed to restrain 
the Thirty-first boys, but the camp being a United States 
post at the time, the guard had to be observed, however, 
the principal duty performed was visiting all the theaters 
and other places of amusement, where their uniforms acted 
as a free passport and as for the provost headquarters, they 
were in the comfortable armory of the Chatham Artillery. 
The boys, as they were able to get passes to go to town, 
would generally visit the harbor front, and to many it was 

274 



the first time they had ever seen salt water and breathed 
the fine air from off the ocean. 

The officers and men of the First Georgia — when they 
had returned home upon their muster out — had told the 
people of Savannah of the fine fellows they had made the 
acquaintance of who hailed from the state of Michigan and 
were known as the 31st M. V. I. They told of the wonder- 
ful hospitality these Michigan men had greeted them with 
upon their arrival in camp at Chickamauga on that dry, 
hot, dusty day, just at the hour when their stomachs needed 
refreshment and they were too tired to make much prepara- 
tion for satisfying their hunger. This and many other acts 
of generosity and good heartedness on the part of the Mich- 
igan boys were recounted by the Georgia men, and these, 
with their friends and the citizens generally, made prepara- 
tions to return that hospitality. 

The good people of Savannah observe the anniversary of 
the birth of Gen. Robert E. Lee, and they decided that 
greater significance might be added to the affair as well as 
to the day by giving a banquet to the Michigan men, for 
the spectacle would be presented of soldiers from a far 
northern state, being hospitably entertained in a part of 
the country devoting itself to the observance of the birthday 
of a famous general of an earlier generation who had mar- 
shaled his forces to combat the sires of these northern men. 
It was a right royal affair. 

The preparations for the entertainment of the Michigan 
boys by the ladies and members of the First Georgia were 
met with similar preparations upon the part of the boys 
themselves. An order was issued on the 18th, ordering a 
suspension of all drills on the next day and the careful polic- 
ing of the entire camp. A review and parade were ordered 
after the dinner and all men, except on special and regular 
duty, were to attend and in order that the plan could be 

375 



carried out, it was ordered that no passes were to be issued 
for the day and the boys were urged to further impress the 
southerners by their full ranks, appearance and deportment. 
The day came bright and sunny and after hard work, the 
noon hour found all arrangements perfected for the big 
dinner. Each company was seated at separate tables, trim- 
med and canopied with palm leaves, cedar boughs and flow- 
ers, and the boys marvelled at the creations of the ladies, 
who kept close watch upon their plates. It was the best 
feast they had had at most, more than a year. Of course, 
the officers were dined at a table by themselves, but received 
the same solicitous attention as was shown the boys. After 
the bountiful repast had been finished, the companies as- 
sembled on the parade ground and the colonel of the Georgia 
regiment exchanged felicitations and speeches with the 
commanding officer of the Michigan regiment, after which 
the regiment was formed for the march through the city 
and the parade at a place called Park Extension. The 
ladies were transported to the point of parade in the gov- 
ernment wagons which formed part of the regiment's 
equipment, and which had been specially cleaned and dec- 
orated for the occasion. On the march through the city 
the regiment was escorted by the famous Georgia Hussars 
and the Chatham artillery, which latter, it is claimed, is 
the oldest military organization in the country next to 
the Ancient and Honorable Artillery of Boston, while the 
Detroit Light Guard claims third place. It was a great 
day for the Michigan boys, but most of their attention was 
earnestly turned toward the part of the city where the ships 
came up and departed. 



276 




Transport "Chester" 

Loading- at Savannah, Ga., for Cuba. 




Thiity-first M. V. I. pets 

Aboard Transport bound for Cuba. 



CHAPTEH XII. 

On Board the "Chester"— Arrival at Cienfuegos, Cuba — Rodrigo 
— Company I at Caibarien — General Gomez — Amaro — Visit of 
General Breckinridge — Sergeant Evan's Expedition — Objec- 
tions to Remaining in Cuba During the Rainy Season. 

The "Chester" — which was the transport assigned for the 
duty of transporting the regiment to Cuba — was expected 
daily, but being in drydock at Newport ISTews undergoing 
repairs, it was impossible to tell far ahead just when she 
would be ready to sail for Savannah. She finally arrived 
on the 24th and the work of loading baggage began at once 
and by noon was nearly completed. In the afternoon camp 
was broken and the regiment marched through the city to 
the harbor and went on board the transport at a late hour. 
According to the expressions in the "Savannah ISTews" and 
the "Press,"' the people of the city held the officers and men 
of the regiment in high regard, and as a sample of this feel- 
ing, tliere is quoted here a portion of a published statement 
made by the superintendent of a division of the railroad. 
"I have handled quite a lot of soldiers to and from Tybee 
and I found that all of the Michigan boys who had gone to 
Tybee are thorough gentlemen." However, friendships or 
no friendships, the boys were bound for Cuba and being now 
actually aboard the transport destined for a port in that 
island, their attention was centered upon the new situa- 
tion. 

"Say !" Jim hailed the regimental clerk, "got the type- 
writer on board alright?" The clerk said it was at its post. 

"Then why in the d don't they start the tub? Have to 

wait for a tide, eh, humph !" 

277 



The "Chester" was an old Trans- Atlantic liner with rather 
a narrow beam, as she had been built mostly for speed and 
was therefore not exactly fit for the work of a troop ship 
with the accompaniment of military baggage. The harbor 
of Savannah is not classed with the best on the Atlantic 
coast, due perhaps to the misuse of enormous amounts of 
government money by the army engineer who had been 
detailed, a few years before to accomplish the deepening of 
the harbor, and as the "Chester" when loaded drew twenty- 
three feet, it was a case of wait for the tide. 

Back in Detroit, all the Light Guard people were follow- 
ing with deep interest the movement which was taking 
their boys still farther away, and to a land of unpleasant 
report, but it was only for them to cheer the departure and 
the telegraph wires bore this burden : 

Detroit, Mich., Jan. 15th. 
Major Chas. W. Harrah, 

31st Mich. Vol. Infy, Savannah. 

Care Transport for Cuba. 
Veteran and active Light Guards, ladies and hosts of 
friends wish our boys a safe voyage, agreeable duties, and 
pleasant times in Cuba. 

CASH P. TAYLOR, 
For Light Guard Association. 

Breakfast on the morning of the 26th consisted of the 
old travel rations again, but that was not minded so much 
because of the excitement attendant upon the departure. 
The ship pulled out from the dock at haK-past eight in the 
morning, with a pilot on board who had told the captain 
that he knew every shoal in the harbor, and it turned out 
that he had evidently told the truth for he did not seem to 
miss any. He landed the ship on two shoals during that day, 
and when the early morning light came, it was found necs- 
sary to unload onto lighters in order to get the ship afloat, 

£78 




Entrance to the Harbor at Cienfuegos. 
On the Harbor's Edge. 
Distant View of the City. 



but it was not until half -past seven on the morning of the 
27th that the tugs were able to release the vessel. How- 
ever, the pilot was still at his post and found the next shoal 
an hour and a half later, and this time it took a dredge all 
day to scoop the obstruction away. 

The 28th opening up with rain and wind found a lot of 
disgusted men in blue, and it was not until they had changed 
from the ship to a number of lighters and four or five tugs, 
nearly blew their sides out that the "Chester" finally glided 
off again into navigable water, just about the time for noon 
mess, but as soon as the ship stood on her own keel, she im- 
mediately answered to the thirty-mile wind that was blow- 
ing and some of the boys began to feel that they did not care 
much about eating any dinner. The ship headed out into 
the open and struck her southward course, but the waves 
that were continually greeting her played havoc with the 
boys. There had been jokes exchanged about sea sickness, 
but the jokes grew scarcer as the lines of the homeland grew 
dim and vanished and nothing could be seen but a continu- 
ous field of dancing waves. It was the men who watched the 
waves over the sides of the ship who first disappeared below. 
The fickle ailment which invariably lays hold upon un- 
sophisticated sojourners upon the decks of an ocean-going 
steamer, appears in two stages. In the first stage, the vic- 
tim is afraid he will die, and in the next second, he fears he 
will be denied that relief. Those who were naturally im- 
mune to the ailment, sought diversion by tormenting the 
poor fellows who were struggling in the throes of the awful 
affliction. 

The next morning the water was somewhat better, but 
during the night's storm the deck load had been washed over- 
board, and almost every cot and much of the tentage and 
other general baggage was lost. The ship put in at Palm 
Beach, Florida, at four o'clock in the afternoon and the 

279 



colonel went ashore to send advices regarding the loss. The 
chaplain also went ashore for the purpose of placing in the 
mails over a thousand letters which had been written in 
some manner since the "Chester" was first boarded. The 
discipline on board the ship was much more strict than it had 
been in camp, and guard duty was very carefully per- 
formed, the principal orders to be enforced by the guard 
being the prevention of smoking between decks and re- 
:straining the men from intruding upon forbidden parts of 
the ship. The Light Guard companies were quartered in 
the forward and after part of the ship and on both the mid- 
dle and lower decks, the latter being spoken of by the boys 
as the hold. At night, the boys would sHng their ham- 
mocks in a space two feet wide and in tiers of two, one 
•directly above the other. Sleeping was easy, but the lack 
of ventilation was a very serious objection. In the morning, 
the men had to take their hammocks downi and roll them 
and stow them in their bags. The fellows who were not 
writhing in the clutches of sea sickness spent most of their 
time on deck, and while they were out of sight of land much 
of the time, yet they could find more amusement and good 
air above than in their quarters, and besides could enjoy 
the privilege of smoking on deck. The band played every 
evening, while the boys grouped around listening, and 
chatting and smoking. 

On the third afternoon out, the men were put through 
setting up exercises below, and when they came on deck 
again, they were greeted with their first sight of the Cuban 
coast. It was so hot and close under decks when all of the 
men were turned in for the night that quite a few who were 
light sleepers found it unbearable, so they would make their 
way up on deck and sleep out the rest of the night under 
Nature's canopy. The meals were bad at first but the chief 
complaint was that there was not enough to satisfy the appe- 




•Quarters of the Light Guard Battalion, 
Thirty-first M. V. I., after landing at 
Cienfuegos, Cuba. 




Plantation near Cienfuegos, Cuba. 



tites. Those who were lucky enough to have some of their 
pay still with them were able to piece out with articles of 
food obtained from the steward at fancy prices. The offi- 
cers had very good meals, but it cost them more than their 
ration allowance. 

Early on the morning of the first of February a moun- 
tainous coast was sighted by the early risers who had gone 
on deck to smoke, so that they would not be very hungry 
and could therefore satisfy their stomachs with the small 
portions meted out to them. The boys were somewhat 
mystified by the movements of the vessel in sailing up and 
down the coast for some little distance, but when they saw 
a little sailing boat heading for the ship, they found that 
they were close to their destination, and that Capt. Wil- 
liams Avas simply awaiting the arrival of the pilot. As the 
ship neared the harbor entrance the boys strained their eyes 
to take in everything they could see of this country they had 
heard so much about and had so long desired to reach. 
The narrow channel was safely cleared, and half an hour be- 
fore noon the vessel came to anchor in the fine harbor of 
Cienfuegos. There were vessels of various nationality in 
the harbor, and the band on a German vessel exchanged 
compliments with the regimental band on the "Chester." 
There were several Spanish transports in the harbor taking 
on board the soon to be repatriated troops according to the 
terms of evacuation, and the "Alphonso" of Barcelona was 
anchored only a ship's length away. Immediately after 
dinner the regiment began debarking by means of lighters, 
and went into quarters on the long dock and piers. The 
boys woke up from their first night's sleep on an alien shore 
at half-past five, to find, to their astonishment, that they 
felt very chilly, and that a heavy dew during the night 
had thoroughly saturated everything. Unloading had pro- 

281 



ceeded during the night and was completed on the morning 
of the 2nd. 

The first battalion had landed first and proceeded with 
tentage by rail to Rodrigo, a station about sixty miles north 
of Cienfuegos, for the purpose of preparing camp for the 
regiment. 

On the 4th the Light Guard battalion boarded the train 
at a quarter after twelve for the three hours' run. The 
coaches were regular box cars with plain wooden benches 
inside, and as they afforded little comfort and small chance 
for observation through the doorway, many of the boys 
climbed on top. The locomotive was of American build, 
but the engineer did not seem to know how to get Amer- 
ican speed out of her, however, the boys did not mind that, 
for their attention was fully occupied with whatever was 
to be seen along the route. ]^ot far out of Cienfuegos the 
camp of the Sixth Ohio was passed, and its band and many 
of its members turned out and cheered the Michigan boys 
as they went by. The natives' thatched huts in the small 
villages, the palms and banana trees and tall grass, gave a 
picturesque coating to what was more or less actual squalid- 
ness when viewed at close quarters, and from what they saw 
of the natives themselves, they gathered the opinion that 
dress was not an item of much importance with them. At 
the first stop, a place called Homiguero, the boys were sur- 
prised to see rather a neat looking station with some at- 
tempt at landscape gardening, but what caught their atten- 
tion was something they had not seen since their boyhood 
days — an old-fashioned street car with a little mule, rattling 
along on a narrow guage track. Some of the stations along 
the route were decorated with tricolor bunting. The boys 
got their first sight of a Spanish block house near Cien- 
fuegos, and later near Rodrigo. Approaching Rodrigo — 
the destination of the battalion — it could be seen that the 

283 




Light Guard Battalion's Train en route to 
Rodrigo being cheered by Natives at 
Palmaro. 




Railroad Station at Rodrigo, Cuba. 



country, once well improved, had been ruined by the 
guerilla warfare that had been carried on all over the Pro- 
vince of Santa Clara. 

The battalion detrained at Rodrigo at a quarter after 
three in the afternoon and immediately went to work put- 
ting up tents. When it was time to turn in, the boys under- 
stood how much better it was to sleep on board floors than 
on the hard ground, but being veterans, they made them- 
selves comfortable without any grumbling. However, many 
stories had been told among themselves about the tarantulas 
and scorpions, and the nervous ones did not get much sleep 
that night, for imagination made every grass touch a mon- 
strous trantula, and they were glad to hear the notes of re- 
veille the next morning. There was good, clear water near 
by and a creek where swimming was excellent, much to 
the joy of the boys. 

In the afternoon a train came in bringing Detroit papers 
only a week old and it began to seem as if home was not so 
very far away. 

The quality of the meals improved after the second day, 
and the boys pieced between mess hours on sugar cane 
they pulled off the trains which passed through every day 
and stopped at the station for running instructions. Fruit 
was rather plentiful and easy to get at, and it was a new 
experience to eat oranges off the trees and get lemons and 
pineapples as they grew. This little foraging attracted the 
attention of Major Harrah and he cautioned the boys about 
being sure the fruit was ripe and other matters regarding 
their health and discipline. Trains would come through 
with tank cars full of molasses, and also in barrels. Some 
of the boys happened to run against some barrels of molasses 
at the freight depot and borrowed a little. It went pretty 
well with their bread, and some of them made taffy candy. 

On the Yth Lieut. Bersey was detached from his com- 



pany and detailed for duty as assistant to the depot quarter- 
master at Cienfuegos. 

The boys were beginning to get restless here at Rodrigo 
and would indulge in the sport of jumping the trains, so 
that it became necessary to issue an order prohibiting such 
dangerous tricks, and as a substitute for such exercise, and 
for the purpose of giving them an opportunity of seeing 
some of the country, passes were issued for five men and 
dne non-commissioned ofiicer per day from each company. 

After retreat roll call on the 8th four quinine pills were 
issued to each man and one was to be taken daily by order 
of the surgeon. Later in the evening, lumber for floors 
arrived. 

On the 9th the band and some of the officers ran up to 
Sagua la Grande, a port on the northern coast, to attend 
a serenade. Some of the boys got a chance to go along also 
and had their first experience with Cuban hotel life. 

By the 10th the Light Guard battalion was alone in the 
Rodrigo camp, as the other two battalions had proceeded to 
Amaro, a point about three miles distant, where the regu- 
lar station of the regiment was to be during its stay on the 
island. The town of Rodrigo was an uninteresting place 
after the novelty of the first sight had worn off. The one 
hundred inhabitants were mostly those who had been driven 
in from their little country homes at the time Weyler's 
reconcentration system went into effect, and they were in a 
very poverty stricken condition and almost devoid of cloth- 
ing. They were of the lowest class, and their morals being 
on a par with their low grade of intelligence, the boys had 
to keep a pretty sharp eye on their stuff or else they would 
find themselves minus some of their property, as these na- 
tives hung around and never missed a chance to swoop down 
upon and carry off anything they could. The few inhab- 
itants who had more of Spanish blood in them, made some 

284 




A Masonry Blockhoust at Rodrigo. 




A Blockhouse built of Palmetto Logs, 
Rodrigo. 



little attempt at business and social intercourse. The little 
uncouth hotel came in for more or less patronage from the 
boys. There was a billiard table of immense size, and the 
large balls and immense cues made them feel more like play- 
ing a game of croquet, but it all went in with the rest of 
the novelties. 

On the 11th, ten cots were issued to each company for 
the use of the sick, and although supplied through govern- 
ment channels, they were in reality the gift of Miss Helen 
Gould. On this day, Lieut. Campbell and twenty-one en- 
listed men were ordered detached from Company I, to pro- 
ceed with an interpreter to Caibarien, and upon arrival to 
report to the collector of customs and then take station at 
that place. 



Lieutenant Campbell and his detachment proceeded to 
Caibarien by rail. The arrival did not elicit much in the 
way of a welcome from the inhabitants, to most of whom 
the sight of a United States soldier was a strange experi- 
ence. Remedios, six miles inland, had been used by Gen- 
eral Gomez as his headquarters, and the Cuban soldiery, 
foot and mounted were even yet posted in some strength 
in Caibarien, but the men in blue shirts, leggins and slouch 
hats looked so much more like the ideal warrior in equip- 
ment, appearance and precision that the inhabitants were 
awed into a state of silent regard. 

The detachment had brought tentage and the little camp 
was established just outside of the town. Lieutenant 
Campbell reported to Captain Landis, the regular army offi- 
cer in charge of the customs. The harbor was so shallow 
that all incoming freight was lightered in after passing 
through a customs station located on the farthest of the 
chain of keys stretching seaward, and although the imports 



were not very large, yet the customs receipts acciimulated 
to as much as forty thousand dollars sometimes, and as the 
repository at the custom house consisted of a very old fash- 
ioned safe, easily crackable, it became the important duty 
of the detachment to protect the money, at a cost of life if 
necessary. In the inlying hills were the keeps of the bandits 
whose daring and barbarous operations had trailed over the 
surrounding country, preying upon the planters, pillaging, 
kidnapping and murdering until the insurrection had com- 
pletely devastated the vicinity. Times had grown better, 
though, and the plantations were growing and grinding 
again so that the hill gentry required watching, and when 
a cut in the telegraph line was located near the city one 
day. Lieutenant Campbell made up his mind that some out- 
lying patrols might avert possible trouble of some kind, and 
as the Cuban officer in command of the Cuban contingent 
had come to regard the American as his superior, he posted 
some of his mounted command. 

Shortly after the detachment arrived an event occurred 
which had the effect of causing the Cubans to become more 
hospitable and friendly to the Ame7'icano Soldados and 
even add the words d grande. A captain of the Cuban army 
had died, and although his skin, swarthy almost to blackness 
stamped the class he rose from, yet the townspeople mourned 
his death and arranged a public interment. Great was the 
surprise of the Cubans to find the American officer and sol- 
diers present at the grave, and their thanks and expressions 
of appreciation were conveyed in graceful manner by the 
alcalde to the Americans, 

ISTo incidents of importance in the line of duty, nor in 
any other line, transpired, and the boys found the life an 
easy one. There were no ceremonies and drills, and only 
four guards were drawn for twenty-four hours' duty, two 
at the camp and two at the custom house, each relieving 

286 



each other with a non-com. in attendance of course. The 
rest went fishing, swimming and sailing. One of Lieu- 
tenant Campbell's duties was administering the oath of 
allegiance to the owners and captains of coasting schooners 
and other vessels and they in turn extended many courtesies 
to the boys. They were taken out in the fishing boats to see 
the novel taking of fish by the use of explosives — dynamite 
cartridges and bottles of lime dropped into the deep water, 
exploded and stunned the then easily captured fish. This 
was sordid business, however, and did not appeal to the 
lovers of healthy sport, so the boys fell back upon their old 
national game and played on a diamond which they were 
surprised to find the Cubans had made. 

Three match games were played with a team made up 
of Cubans of the higher classes. The scores were "cinches" 
for the boys, but what the game lacked in close sport was 
made up by the amusing features. The approach of the 
Cubans to the grounds was always signalled way in advance 
by their musicians and shouts, and then the coach would 
come into sight loaded with the players, waving banners 
and flags. Jim always called it the "Opera Bouffe Mne." 
The townspeople would flock out in clean white clothes and 
encourage their players, but to no avail. The fun always 
began ^\'ith the first decision of the umpire, who was a Cuban 
vnth a very partial knowledge of English, but he was the 
closest to being an interpreter the boys could find; he was 
about as good a judge of the American game as he was of 
the meaning of English words. When the boys would 
protest against a judgment of the umpire, the latter would 
get so worked up that only about every fifth word would be 
said in English, so the boys would grin and give in, for the 
decisions never affected the results to any extent. 

When the balance of the company arrived several weeks 
later with Captain Henderson and Lieutenant Dumas, the 

287 



camp was abandoned and quarters taken up in an old 
storehouse, after it had been thoroughly cleaned and fumi- 



"Not long after, the company was ordered to rejoin the 
regiment at Cienfuegos for the homeward voyage. 

We now return to the Light Guard Battalions' position 
at Rodrigo. 

Sunday, the 12th, was a day of ease, but with plenty of 
rain. The town was filled with excitement over the coming 
of General Gomez, who was to arrive that day. The Cuban 
general put in his appearance after dinner, and the battalion 
formed and received him at a present, while the inhabitants 
crowded around and the women Hobsonized him. 

On the next day a sudden heavy rain and wind storm 
surprised the boys and made them hustle to drive their tent 
pegs deeper. It did not last long, however, and Company 
I packed up and started for Aramo and after dinner Com- 
pany K followed with the band, leaving Companies M and 
L and headquarters behind, but the latter moved the next 
day. 

The little town had a chief of police and a lieutenant, 
which constituted the entire force, and the boys, finding 
them a combination of vanity, proceeded to have much 
sport mth them and rigged them up in old cast-off hats and 
leggins, and thereby formed life friendships. It was very 
cold in the afternoons, and guard mounting this day was 
performed with overcoats. 

After the boys had been at Eodrigo for about a week, 
the railroad authorities decided to send the sugar trains 
through without stopping, because of the soldiers, but one 
evening, the engine of a sugar train in its efforts to get its 
load ' hurriedly and safely past the hungry Americanos^ 

288 




Light Guard Battalion's Camp at Rodrigo. 




Principal Store at Rodrigo. 
Owned by a Chinaman. 



jumped off the track, and the boys didn't do a thing to the 
cars of sugar cane except to lay in a several days' supply. 

The next day someone happened to remember that it 
was the anniversary of the blowing up of the Maine and it 
formed food for a variety of gossip and discussion of the 
events which had followed it, and which, every soldier 
strongly believes were entirely due to that treacherous deed. 

Mr. Saunders, famous at home for his confections and 
ice cream soda, ran down from Havana where he had been 
with a view to establishing a branch. The boys were glad 
to see him, and it brought a flavor of Woodward avenue 
to them. 

Some of the boys transferred their sleeping quarters to a 
freight shed, where they were able to make themselves much 
more comfortable than on the ground, for it was only the 
sick who had cots, and it was not worth while getting sick 
just to enjoy that luxury. 

Just before the Chester left Savannah, an issue of khaki 
uniforms was taken on board, and on the lYth, the boys who 
were left at Rodrigo received their uniforms according to 
measurement and initiated them by attending a dance given 
by the Cubans at a little school house, and to which they 
had been invited. 

These two companies had been retained at Rodrigo for 
the purpose of guarding the regimental supplies as they 
came from Cienf uegos, where Lieut. Rogers was receiving 
and forwarding the stuff, and this having finally all arrived 
and been forwarded to the camp at Amaro, the two com- 
panies left on the 18th, leaving behind a small detail as a 
permanent guard. 

The camp at Amaro, which had been selected by 
Colonel F. J. Hecker, was one of the best sites the regi- 
ment had ever occupied. It was situated about two hundred 
feet higher than Rodrigo and upon a range of foot hills. 



affording a fine view for miles on each side. Before the 
war the locality was used as a summer resort bj the wealthy 
people of the Province of Santa Clara, but there were now 
only scant traces of the magnificence of the bath houses 
and springs, and crumbling ruins marked the site of sum- 
mer hotels where gay life had reigned only a few short years 
before. There was plenty of good water from the numerous 
springs, and the heat of the day was tempered by breezes 
from the ocean only twenty miles away. A peculiarity of 
the weather was strong winds in the afternoon which sub- 
sided by evening and followed by very cold nights. An 
order issued, provided that tent walls should be rolled up 
every day during the forenoon and until one o'clock in the 
afternoon, which would afford some comfort from the ex- 
cessive heat, but because of the strong afternoon winds, they 
were securely fastened down after the noon hour, and it 
was also ordered that the bedding was to be aired all during 
the forenoon. 

On the 19th a large shipment of papers and magazines 
and medical supplies arrived from the Light Guard Ladies' 
Association. The reading matter was greatly appreciated, 
for the daily explorations were becoming less interesting 
and reading was a welcome diversion. 

Previous to the advent of General Breckinridge, who was 
touring the island on an inspection trip, the colonel re- 
ceived a list of questions regarding the condition of his 
command, even to the most minute detail, and a list of 
thirty-six questions was placed in the hands of each com- 
pany commander, and having the same purport. It was a 
system that should have been established months before 
in the camps back in the States, and might have been the 
means of saving a great deal of suffering among the troops, 
but although it was well enough to adopt the plan even 
tardily, yet it came at such a late day in the career of the 

390 




Constructing Tent Floors in Camp at 
Amaro under Major Harrah's direction. 



i^mvm^mis^mitiiiHm* 



Guard Mounting Ceremony at Amaro, 



Tegiment, and so near to the completion of that career, and 
also when it had become established in an ideal camp, that 
the object of the questions was not likely to cut any figure 
with the condition of the regiment. The general himself 
made his appearance close upon the heels of his lists of ques- 
tions, arriving very unexpectedly at Amaro on the 20th, 
but two hours' notice to the men found them equal to the 
emergency. The regiment had not been drilled in regi- 
mental formation since leaving Savannah, but the old 
esprit de corps made up for the lacking, and the march and 
review showed the regiment up in as perfect form as had 
ever greeted the eyes of the inspector-general. His only 
criticism was "that he could find no fault with it," and he 
stated that he was very much pleased to see the "Red 
l^ecks" again. 

Drills were not much of a feature in the camp at Amaro, 
and company drills generally consisted of a march to one of 
the dilapidated bath houses or springs. 

On the 22nd the boys were amused at the sight of a small 
detachment of what was called Cuban cavalry or scouts 
which had been sent by General Bates from Cienfuegos 
to take care of a band of brigands in the mountains. They 
stopped in the camp for supplies and exchanged courtesies. 
The result of the expedition was heard later from the imique 
report made to General Bates that the enemy "had been 
met, and had perished," 

Before leaving Savannah, there had been loaded on the 
Chester abundant supplies with which to stock the canteen, 
but although the canteen had been opened for business, 
trade was falling off, and most of the purchases were made 
with checks issued on credit by company commanders, for 
the January pay had not been issued yet and the boys were 
without funds, but on the 24th the paymaster relieved the 
situation. Some of the food supplies had been short since 



establishing the camp, although a regimental bakery had 
been opened with a capacity of one thousand loaves daily. 
The boys generally did a Kttle foraging in the cane fields, 
but the practice of bringing the cane to their quarters for 
consumption was prohibited by the colonel because of the 
protests made by the plantation owners, so that the boys had 
to confine their "cane-sucking" within the limits of the 
plantation, and secluded from watchful eyes behind the tall 
cane. 

On the 1st of March, the boys were suddenly aroused by 
a &x^ call, and hastily formed to fight a prairie fire which 
was coming toward the camp. A large belt was lighted and 
burned off between the oncoming fire and the camp, so 
that no harm was done, but for permanent protection, the 
grass was burned off of the whole camp site and for a wide 
belt surrounding it. One beneficial feature of this measure 
was that the grass spiders were killed off. 

Sleeping on cots was much more comfortable, but mos- 
quitoes bothered the boys at night, and also a greater pest 
in the shape of a little flea called "pulgas," the bite of which 
produced a little red blister of a very irritating character, 
but on the 5 th, protection arrived in the shape of ready- 
made nets to hang over the cot and envelop the sleeper. 
These were also the gift of Miss Helen Gould. 

Scorpions were more or less of a pest, and tarantulas were 
also present, but in less number, and confined themselves 
mostly to hiding under bricks and stones in the old ruins, 
but nevertheless, they turned up occasionally in camp, and 
those who were of a nervous disposition were continually 
on the jump. 

The sting of the scorpion is not deadly but nevertheless 
somewhat unpleasant. Tarantulas were what most were 
in mortal fear of, and the Inseparables found a new field 
for their deviltry. The "Unfortunate" proved to be an 

292 




Detachment of Cuban Cavalry arriving 
Camp at Amaro for supplies. 
The Detachment was proceeding- under 
orders from General Bates to capture a 
Camp of Bandits in the Hills. 




Ruins of a Hotel near Amaro. 



almost inexhaustible subject. One day when he was dozing 
in his tent, Jim tossed a wad of paper through the flys and 
when it lit on the victim's face, he let out a yell and almost 
jumped through the side of the tent. Pieces of earth, dried 
bread and other light projectiles were used with like effect 
until the "Unfortunate" was almost a nervous wreck. Then 
they started on the "Deacon." When something was 
dropped upon him from behind in his tent one evening, he 
gave a wild whoop, and grabbing a shoe and yelling to the 
fellows to "look out," began hammering the supposed tar- 
antula, but when he paused to inspect his execution, he 
turned and fired the shoe at Bill, for he had been the only 
one chewing tobacco in the tent and the "Deacon" naturally 
argued that the disfigured quid on the ground came from 
the veteran joker. 

It was not until Lieut. Eogers had discharged his duties at 
Cienfuegos and rejoined the regiment at Amaro that the 
issue of cots and other articles arrived to replace what had 
been lost in the gale during the first night out from Savan- 
nah. The stuff came on the transport bringing the 2nd 
U. S. Cavalry. After the supplies were unloaded, the 
cavalry quartermaster loaded all the stuff he could put his 
hands on into the freight cars standing in the yards, and 
after having them sealed up and marked with the name of 
his regiment, he looked up Lieut. Bersey, who was on duty 
at the department quartermaster's depot, and mistaking 
him for the quartermaster of the Thirty-first Michigan, re- 
quested him in case he should come across any stuff in his 
baggage belonging to the 2nd Cavalry to kindly forward it. 
Lieut. Bersey notified Lieut. Eogers that the supplies had 
arrived and that he had better come to Cienfuegos at once. 
"When Lieut. Rogers reached there, he was puzzled at find- 
ing his stuff was very short, and taking counsel with his 
brother officer, he enlisted the services of a native who was 



employed as a car sealer and who had a little story to tell 
about how the cavalry quartermaster had grabbed up what 
he could, so they prowled through the yard and broke the 
seals of those cars bearing the name "2nd Cavalry," and 
after extracting all the stuff that he knew belonged to his 
regiment, Lieut. Rogers had the native seal up the cars 
again, and the stuff removed was hastily loaded into other 
cars and sealed up and labeled "Thirty-first Michigan." All 
this happened while the ofiicious cavalry officer was quietly 
smoking on the plaza and he probably never guessed what 
had happened to some of his stuff, unless he charged it to 
the poor Cubans, for nothing was ever heard of the matter 
afterward, but the action of Lieut. Rogers prevented per- 
haps a great deal of real distress, as the supplies he had 
saved were absolutely necessary for the comfort of the regi- 
ment. 

An item of interest, is a special duty that was performed 
by Sergt. Evans of Company L, according to the order here 
published, together with the receipt issued to him for the 
prisoners : 



Hoadquarters 3l8t. Miohigan Volunt«er Infantry* 
Aaarot Santa Clara; FroTinee* Cub^, 
Harch lat., 1899. 



Order Ko. 



•ar. 1. 

Pursuant t» telegraphic inatruotiona from Readquao^ 

tera Departaent Santa Clara, a Guard of Two Non-Comniaaioned Offiotr 

and four sen vlth Sergt. John Kraha, Co. L., in charge will prooeed 

fl-oiD thia point to Cardenas, Cuba, a»i there report to the CoamaTiding 

Offioer of that station, for the purpose of bringing baok to Sagua 

le Grande four bandits noT in tha hands of the Military at Cardenas. 

The Sergeant in charge will deliver toid Bandits to the Judge of 

Criminal Jurisdiction at. Sagua le Grande and then return with his 

detaohnent to thia place. 

The Quarternaater's DepartDent will furnish transportat- 
ion froD thia point to Cardenasfor the Guard and froo Cardenas to 
Sagua le Grande for the Giuard and four Prisoners, and froi Sagua 1» 
Grande to kasro for tha ^kiari. 

The Conoiasary DepartDent will famish trarel rations 
and coffee noney for four (4) days for the Guard and for two (2) 
dlnrs for the prisoners. 

The journey herein ordered is necessary for the public 
serrioe. 
/\ , ^-c?- Ijy order of Colonel Gardener, 



/'^^fSm^ihit^ 



295 



N. 3-263.493 













^e^^X .-z.^^*-,*.*-*^^-^^^ . 




297 



Now that the boys had had their long contained desire 
to get to Cuba satisfied, matters were not turning out just 
the way they had figured they would. Ordinary camp life 
was a common story to them now, and while the duty was 
as severe as ever, yet there was not enough of it to keep them 
all busy. Cuba had for a long time held a fanciful place in 
their imagination, but a month and a half had worn off the 
fascination and daily life had become rather a hum-drum 
existence. "WTiat specially aroused their fears was that the 
report of the medical staff and the colonel's desires were so 
much in harmony with the impressions carried away by 
General Breckinridge that they might be kept there for 
an indefinite period. Although the regiment had not re- 
ceived a baptism of fire, it had come in contact with a force 
equally as fatal as firearms. It was the fever that was 
dreaded, and when it appeared to the boys that they might 
be kept in Cuba simply for garrison duty through the sea- 
son that never fails to attack and generally break down the 
hardiest alien constitution, some of the most conservative 
registered their first kick, and a plan was even discussed 
by some of those who carried on a correspondence with tho 
veterans at home, to have General Duffield — because of his 
closeness to the Light Guard and to General Alger — try to 
have the latter return the regiment before the rainy season 
would set in. It was the sentiment of those who had never 
made a murmur before that they were still inclined to ser- 
vice in the island if only the service would be active, but 
they did not want to get sick and die to be buried in a for- 
eign soil, such as they feared would be the result if the regi- 
ment remained as it was. 

It was a peculiar situation. It could not have been home- 
sickness that bothered the men, as they had been away from 
home long enough to have had that worked out of them. 
It was one of those situations where a man has a mental 

298 




CAMP AT AMARO, CUBA. 
A Company Street. 
A Rest after Duty. 
Distant View of the Camp. 



consciousness of a deadly invisible foe, whose attack offers 
no chance of defense. K there was still fighting to be done, 
the visible foe and the work of subduing him would have 
shut out any contemplation of the idea of being fever 
stricken. The hospital already contained fever cases, and 
a big sturdy fellow might say, with a ring of contempt, that 
he never had a day's sickness in his life, but thh next morn- 
ing be laid so hard by the heels with fever as to be unable to 
even report himself in person at sick call. 

Major Harrah, in letters to some of the veterans, men- 
tioned Col. Gardener's attempt to have the regiment re- 
tained in service. As for himself, his own affairs at home 
had suffered greatly from his sudden leave and long absence, 
but he would stick to the post in the hope that muster-out 
orders would come in the near future, but he held that as 
long as there was no important duty to be performed by the 
regiment, it should be sent home by the first of May at the 
latest, and this was the view held by most of the officers. 
A rumor had gotten about that he intended to seek dis- 
charge, but upon the boys petitioning him to remain, he 
assured them that they had been misinformed and advised 
them not to send any petitions home asking for muster-out, 
stating that he would see what influence coiild be quietly 
set to work in their behalf. If the boys could only have had 
some assurance that they would be sent home before the 
commencement of the rainy season, they would have been 
perfectly satisfied, but lacking this, they endeavored to make 
the best of the situation and fell back upon their old stock 
of patience which had stood them in good stead during 
previous similar situations. 

For some time Jim had been stealthily conning a little 
book, when suddenly one day he broke out with Tengo un 
idea. "What?" shouted Bill. "I have an idea." "That 
wasn't what you said first." "Well, look here," explained 

299 



Jim, "since we're to be kept here, I'm going to learn the 
gibberish and we'll talk it to each other my companero. 
"You're crazy," Bill remarked. "I'll give you a few for a 
starter," persisted Jim. "Now, the tent is hohio; soup is 
caldo; honiaios mean sweet potatoes — " "I suppose you'll 
want me to call the chaplain padre" interrupted Bill, as 
he turned away with a scowl. "Don't forget to call the 
tent ho/iio or I won't let you in it," Jim called as he looked 
after the retreating figure of his "bunkie" while a satisfied 
smile played upon his face as he contemplated his little joke. 

One source of pleasure to the boys was the music of the 
band, and when the members of the band would begin to 
climb the little grade to headquarters tent with their instru- 
ments softly gleaning in the fading light of day, many of 
the boys would straggle after, and being on an alien land, 
they felt the goodness of that close comradeship which came 
to the surface as they heard the airs and sang the words of 
the old songs they used to sing at home in the l^orth. 

The natives had an ear for music and found much delight 
in listening to the band. An amusing thing about them was 
that they had gotten twisted on the identity of our national 
air. Every one will remember that upon the close of the 
first day's fighting at San Juan and our tired troops had 
flung themselves down in the captured trenches for rest, a 
regimental band played "A Hot Time in the Old Town," 
and it seems that the natives in the vicinity gathered the 
impression that it was the American national song, and the 
report had evidently spread, for whenever the natives heard 
the rollicking strains they paused and removed their hats, 
but if they lacked knowledge of this matter, they had the 
pattern of our colors by heart, and in fact, Old Glory was 
displayed at headquarters in such a manner that it adver- 
tised its presence for miles around. Growing on the knoll 
in the ^acinity of the headquarters was a tall palm tree and 

300 



a twenty-five foot bamboo pole was spliced to the top of 
the tree, to the peak of which the halyards made a long trip 
in the morning, slowly bearing the flag aloft. 

The boys were ordered up to sign the clothing account on 
the 6th, and it turned out to be an occasion for considerable 
grumbling. Answering to his name called by a sergeant, a 
fellow would step forward and be requested to affix his sig- 
nature, which was in effect, a receipt for clothing issued to 
him, and while the boys as a rule had not thought to keep 
an account of their own, they knew pretty well just about 
what they had received, and as according to the amount 
charged would be figured the balance due them on their 
clothing allowance, they were very critical over the entries 
in the book. In the afternoon the camp took on a sudden 
display of new life and color when two ambulances contain- 
ing a party of senoritas from near by plantation families 
arrived as guests of the colonel. 

Major Harrah was anxious to make up a collection of 
relics and souvenirs of the Light Guard Battalion's tour of 
service to be placed in the armory at home, and many offers 
were made by the boys of various articles they had gathered. 
Sergeant Lake of Company L promised a set of all the 
photographs he had taken since leaving home with the bat- 
talion. Some of the boys had made quite a collection of 
buttons, beginning with Island Lake, and had carried on the 
fad by making exchanges with regiments from other states 
and perfected the collections by the addition of a variety 
of buttons worn on Spanish and Cuban uniforms, and some 
of these were also promised for the armory. 

On the afternoon of the 10th, the regiment was paraded in 
front of headquarters and Col. Gardener made an announce- 
ment of the plans concerning the disposition of the regi- 
ment. He said that in all probability the regiment would 
be mustered out of service or sent to the United States by 

301 



the middle of May, but that, as the rainy season might set 
in before that time — perhaps in two or three weeks — it had 
been decided to place the regiment in protected quarters by 
detaching one or more companies to take station in the vari- 
ous towns in the district which he had been appointed to 
administer. This plan originated with Gen. Bates, whose 
headquari;ers were at Cienfuegos, and it was determined to 
send the three Light Guard companies under Major Harrah 
to Caibarien. These precautionary measures were pro- 
jected in accordance with the joint determination of Presi- 
dent McKinley and Secretary Alger to return the troops to 
the States before the rainy season should make its appear- 
ance. 

Meanwhile, the lot of the boys was enlivened some by 
the issue of four passes to each company per day, and with 
the restriction that side arms or firearms of any kind should 
not be carried. Those who had some money left in their 
clothes would go on a little pleasure jaunt to Cienfuegos. 
This trip was always a source of considerable pleasure, as it 
is claimed to be the most beautiful city on the island — with 
wide, straightly laid out streets, fringed with white houses 
surrounded by beautiful gardens. The plaza was a place 
of considerable beauty and quite a general meeting place, 
and next to the harbor, was the most attractive place for the 
men. The harbor is one of the finest of the many of which 
the Coast of Cuba can boast, and was generally filled with 
foreign shipping. The customs receipts were amounting at 
that time to about six thousand dollars a week. Two United 
States war vessels came into the harbor on the 13th, and the 
boys who were lucky enough to visit the city during the 
time they remained in the harbor, were gladdened to know 
that one of the ships bore the name of their own home city, 
but her companion, the Texas, received equal admiration. 

On the 16th a small party of the boys — mostly non 




Blockhouse near Cienfuegos. 
Portion of Trocha and Barbed Wire 
entanglement in foreground. 




The Plaza in Cienfuegos. 



corns — received ten day furloughs, which they had applied 
for sometime previously, and armed with these and plenty 
of money they had been saving for the event, they started 
on a trip to Havana, taking in the points of interest on the 
route. 

The Light Guard battalion lost their commander for a 
brief period, commencing with the 18th, at which time 
Major Harrah was ordered to sit in general court martial 
at department headquarters at Cienfuegos. 

Preparatory to disposing the regiment as planned, com- 
pany commanders were busy with boards of survey daily so 
that their accounts might be put into a correct condition. 




CHAPTEK Xm. 

Announcement of the Return to the States — Ahoard the "Thomas" 
— The Voyage — Quarantine — Detention Camp — Back at 
Camp Onward, Savannah — Muster Out — Society Formed — 
From Savannah to Detroit — Preparations in Detroit for the 
Reception — The Arrival — The March to the Armory — The 
Reception — "Goodnight." 

A whirlwind of joj struck tlie camp on the evening of 
the first day of April, the cause of which was knowledge of 
a dispatch from Ma j. -Gen. Brooks, through department 
headquarters at Cienfuegos, containing preliminary in- 
structions regarding the muster out of the regiment. The 
men were delirious with the news and acted as if they had 
been absorbing too much of the native rum. Their demon- 
strations of joy made so much noise that it was almost im- 
possible for "Officers' call" to be heard. The jollification 
continued long into the night by the more demonstrative, 
while the more quiet natured ones sat with their pipes and 
discussed the events during the past year of their lives, while 
they were filled with the heart-warming glow from the 
knowledge that ere long they would be stepping over the 
threshold of their homes and greeting old friends again. 

The boys were soon impressed with the fact that the 
War Department meant business in the matter of transport- 
ing the volunteers back to the United States at as early a 
date as transportation facilities would permit. The first 
work in connection with the homeward movement began 
on the 5 th, when Quartermaster Lieut. Rogers began mov- 
ing the stores of the regiment to Eodrigo in the morning. 
Everything that could be spared from camp was moved to 
that point, so that when the moment came for breaking 

304 



camp at Amaro there would be very little work to be done 
beyond the striking of tents. The day before, an old fash- 
ioned dress parade took place, according to the custom of 
national guard encampments, when the regiment was 
passed in review by the sergeant major and the first ser- 
geants in command of their respective companies. 

Of course, the usual plurality of conflicting rumors ex- 
isted regarding the date of departure and the transport 
which was to carry the regiment north, but it was at last 
determined that the "Thomas" would be assigned to that 
duty. She arrived at Havana on the 9 th, and after dis- 
charging her load, she was to proceed at once to Cienfue- 
gos. The lieutenant colonel and the adjutant were in 
Havana upon that date, and finding that a strike on the 
railroad might delay them indefinitely, they decided to 
rejoin the station of the regiment by taking passage on the 
"Thomas." The railroad strike also tied up the mails and 
the boys missed a number of letters as a consequence. 

The companies in camp belonging to the first and third 
battalions moved to Eodrigo on the 9th, and the second 
battalion, with headquarters, was to follow on the next 
day, but General Bates sent an order deferring the move- 
ment until the "Thomas" had arrived at Cienfuegos. The 
crowning event of the day was the appearance of the pay- 
master, who came with a heavy burden of gold and de- 
parted with his load somewhat lighter to the four towns 
where the detached companies were still on duty. The 
mood of the boys was a very happy one, and they were 
about as anxious to be mustered out as they had been over 
the appearance of the mustering officer at Island Lake when 
they kicked over the delay at getting started in the new 
career of soldiering. The band played "Michigan, My 
Michigan," every evening from the time that the first news 

305 



came about going home, and the boys invariably added 
the words. 

It was not definitely known where the regiment would 
be mustered out, but the boys desired it to be at some 
southern point so they could have the benefit of travel pay 
and commuted rations to Island Lake, which would amount 
to over sixty dollars. According to the rules of the War 
Department, whenever a soldier is mustered out of ser- 
vice with honorable discharge, he is allowed travel pay and 
ration money to the point at which he was mustered in, and 
under this rule some of the boys decided to remain in Cuba, 
as there were good prospects for intelligent and energetic 
Americans on the island. Among the number who re- 
mained were eight from the Light Guard companies. 

According to the change in arrangements ordered by 
General Bates, the Light Guard battalion and the regimen- 
tal headquarters did not leave Amaro on the 10th. It was 
very cold that night, and in the evening the boys had to 
respond to a fire call and fight a prairie fire. 

The Second U. S. Cavalry had been assigned to relieve 
the regiment, and during the day the quartermaster of the 
cavalry arrived at Amaro and received from Lieut. Rogers 
all the government property except what the regiment 
was required to take along. The band left the camp in 
the morning and took the train at Rodrigo, and on the 
morning of the 11th headquarters followed. On the even- 
ing of the 11th the Second battalion received orders to 
loosen tent pegs and be ready to break camp early in the 
morning. The eventful day dawned long after reveille, 
which had been sounded at three o'clock, and after a hasty 
breakfast in the dark, tents were dropped and loaded on the 
wagons and the march taken up to Rodrigo, which was 
reached at six o'clock. The train was not ready to leave 
for several hours, but the boys felt very jolly and did not 



A Prairie Fire near Camp at Amaro. 




Looking aft on board Transport "Thomas 
Bound for the United States. 



mind waiting. At last they got started and reached Cien- 
fnegos at one o'clock. Meanwhile the companies on de- 
tached duty had been ordered to proceed to Cienfuegos, 
where the regiment was reunited on the day that the Light 
Guard battalion arrived. The regiment went on board the 
ship in the evening, and were agreeably surprised to find 
much better quarters than they had had on the "Chester." 
The "Thomas" was a large boat; in fact larger than the regi- 
ment required, so that a battalion of the Third U. S. En- 
gineers was also embarked aboard her. 'Next morning 
guard was mounted with the band on the upper deck, and 
in addition to the guards, a detail of six men and one non- 
com was ordered for each day to police the forward deck. 
A good dinner was served, and ginger ale, beer and tobacco 
could be purchased from the steward, so that altogether the 
boys felt that they would have a pleasant return voyage. 
The exchange officer was ordered to turn over to each com- 
pany, without charge, a division of the stores remaining in 
his possession. The work of loading baggage continued all 
day until late in the afternoon, but shortly before five 
o'clock in the afternoon the noise of the anchor chains as 
they came rattling home announced that the homeward 
trail had at last been struck. 

Other ships in the harbor gave farewell blasts from 
their steam sirens, while their crews lined the rigging and 
cheered as the "Thomas" pointed seaward and gathered 
speed. The boys filled their own rigging and returned the 
friendly demonstrations and then set themselves to take in 
every last sight of the land which had so strangely changed 
the course of their lives for a twelve month. "That's where 
the boat crew from Marblehead cut the cable," remarked 
Tommy as he pointed to the shadow cast upon the water 
by the disfigured fort, "and the little ruins there are what's 
left of the cable station." "Looks as if the Marblehead 

307 



had some good target practice, from the appearance of the 
fort," remarked Jim. "Three hundred graves mark the 
tally of Spanish casualties," said the "Deacon." "Talk 
about castles in Spain," exclaimed Bill, "look at that!" 
The harbor entrance had been reached, and Bill's exclama- 
tion was caused by the sight of the ancient castle standing 
high, and like all mediaeval castles, "frowning" down over 
the battlements and through the loopholes. "All is van- 
ity," muttered the "Unfortunate," earnestly contemplat- 
ing the scene. The pilot was dropped shortly after and 
darkness began to draw the veil of night. 

The course kept the ship out of sight of land during the 
first day until in the afternoon, when the western coast 
of Cuba came into sight. The weather during the entire 
voyage was exceptionally fine, and no cases of sea sickness 
occurred to mar the pleasure which the boys were getting 
out of the trip. On the second day out a passenger steamer 
was sighted which was soon made out to be a Star Line 
steamer, evidently bound for Havana. She drew very 
close to the "Thomas" and the boys all crowded to one side 
to watch her, when, to their surprise, the vessel passed a 
little ahead of the "Thomas" and impudently crossed her 
bows without any room to spare, after which she set a parallel 
course. The captain of the "Thomas" told the officers that 
if they would have the boys distribute their weight, he would 
have his vessel kicking its heels in front of the Star Liner, 
and to the accompaniment of hard breathing funnels and 
the excited cheers of the boys the feat was very shortly 
accomplished. 

The boys began to take stock of the hair on their faces, 
and many a growth which had come to be regarded with 
pride, unceremoniously went by the board. 

There were about three hundred parrots on board which 
were purchased by some of the boys while in Cuba. The 



stock of cages had given out in Cienfuegos, and so, while 
in camp at Amaro the birds had been kept on perches put up 
in front of the owners' tents, but on the ship they roosted in 
the rigging and carried on much to the annoyance of some 
and the delight of others. 

During the next day, which was Sunday, the vessel re- 
mained out of sight of land all day until shortly after sup- 
per the Tybee light was sighted, and a little later the ship 
dropped her anchor and hove to for the night. The news 
of the arrival was passed to Savannah, and from there 
flashed on by the press associations, was heralded in the 
Detroit papers the next morning, and welcomed by the 
home folks and friends of the boys. The Veteran Corps 
of the Light Guard had been eagerly awaiting this news, 
and just at the moment that the anchor of the "Thomas" 
splashed down into its berth, the veterans were holding a 
meeting in the armory, presided over by General Duffield, 
and arrangements were being discussed for a grand recep- 
tion to be given the companies when they would finally 
arrive in Detroit. 

On the next morning the boys woke up to find themselves 
standing on rather unsteady legs, for a rough sea was run- 
ning and it was quite cold; in fact, cool enough for over- 
coats, but it was impossible to get at those articles of com- 
fort. Immediately after breakfast the pilot was taken on 
board, and at about nine o'clock the "Thomas" passed Fort 
Tybee, the new harbor defenses being built by the govern- 
ment and ordnanced with disappearing guns, and shortly 
after came to anchor at the quarantine station. 

The following day was made miserable by the continual 
fall of rain. The first of the baggage to be unloaded cod- 
sisted of cooking utensils and similar articles of camp 
equipage, but after leaving the vessel aside, they failed 
to reach the shore, for the lighter sank, and while the loss 

309 



was not much appreciated at the time, it was later on when 
the boys wanted something warm to eat. 

It was not until the 19 th that the regiment went ashore 
and the work of disinfecting the baggage was begun. The 
men were ordered to unpack their blanket bags and rolls 
and haversacks and place everything in the nature of cloth 
into a spread out blanket, after which the whole was tied up 
securely, and they were cautioned to leave out every article 
of leather. Each bundle so arranged was conveyed on an 
over-head track system to a boiler room and placed in a 
boiler large enough to accommodate the baggage of two 
companies at a time, after which the room was securely 
sealed and steam turned on in the boiler until the tempera- 
ture of two hundred and twenty degrees had been reached, 
which was maintained for half an hour. The articles made 
of leather, such as shoes and straps, were immersed in an 
alkali solution. When the boys got their rolls back again 
they examined the contents in the fear of finding some- 
thing damaged. IvTothing was found to be spoiled unless 
made of leather, and one fellow who had put a pair of shoes 
in his roll ruefully held up the strings with only small frag- 
ments of leather clinging to them. 

The whole day was put in at the disinfecting station, and 
about the only thing of interest on the island, which gives 
the name to the light and the new fort, was the old defenses 
known as Fort Pulaski. Late in the evening the regiment 
was embarked on lighters and taken across the harbor to the 
South Carolina side, where it went into a detention camp 
on Daufuskie Island. The boys had been very late in 
turning in, owing to the advanced hour of their arrival, and 
they were accordingly grateful to be permitted to sleep 
until late in the morning and without fear of missing roll 
call, for that was dispensed with in order to suit the comfort 
of the men. It was rather cold during the day, and be- 

310 




Transport "Thomas" at Anchor, 
off Quarantine Station, 
near Savannah, Ga. 







'mmi^^- 








Thirty-first M. V. I., 

at the U. S. Disinfecting Station on 

Tybee Island, near Sa\ annah, Ga. 



cause of the loss of cooking utensils, warm, meals were 
rather scarce, and rations were also rather scarce, but negroes 
began coming over from the mainland in small boats, prin- 
cipally with eggs, which found a ready market, but this 
being a detention camp a dead line was established, and any 
piirchasing had to be made across the imaginary line, the 
buyer on one side and the seller on the other, when the sen- 
try had started to double back on his post, but when the 
matter came to the attention of the colonel he prohibited the 
landing of the negroes at all. 

Immediately upon the issue of the order for the return 
of the regiment, the War Department was at some loss to 
decide just where to muster it out. The people of both 
Atlanta and Augusta clamored for the last days of the 
regiment and protested against Savannah being selected. 
Colonel Bird, of the Quartermaster's Department, had ex- 
pressed his opinion in the latter part of March that the 
regiment would very likely be returned to Fort Wayne via 
New York, but the final order issued to Colonel Gardener 
in Cuba instructed him to remove his command to Savan- 
nah, and thus the question became narrowed between the 
three cities mentioned. All the officers and men preferred 
Savannah, but their wishes were not finally granted until, 
Colonel Gardener having exhausted his efforts in the mat- 
ter, appealed to Major Harrah to try what he could do. 
The major wrote to the "friend at court," Major Hopkins, 
with satisfactory results, and the boys were happy. 

On the 21st the regular routine was re-established, except 
drills. The island was flat, with a broad, sandy beach all 
around its edge, making an excellent place for bathing, and 
the boys enjoyed the situation to the utmost. The matter 
of rations improved the next day, and the boys had nothing 
to kick about. They were beginning to get a little impa- 
tient, but a circular from headquarters on the 23 rd gave 

311 



the quieting information regarding the order to be ob- 
served on Tuesday when the regiment would be moved to 
Savannah. 

Eeveille roll call was sounded at four o'clock on Tues- 
day morning, the 25th, and as the packing had been done 
the day before, the First and Second battalions, with the 
band, marched to the boat, leaving the rest to follow later. 
The landing was made at Savannah at noon and the march 
taken up through the city to the old familiar site of Camp 
Onward. The regiment was greeted with an enthusiastic 
demonstration by the people, who turned out in throngs 
at the dock and along the street and royally welcomed back 
the Michigan boys. There were board floors on the camp 
site, and after putting up the tents, the floors and the straw 
ticks enabled them to have a pleasanter sleep than they had 
had for some nights. 

The 26th was remembered as the anniversary of the 
Light Guard Battalion's departure from Detroit for Island 
Lake, and the event called forth long strings of reminis- 
cences. The day was further added to by the posting of 
the order regarding muster out, the date of which was an- 
nounced as May 17th. The camp wore a different appear- 
ance from any in which the regiment had ever been sta- 
tioned. It was lined on all sides with enterprising persons 
who were hungrily awaiting the muster out and pay of the 
boys, for they had many schemes for separating them from 
their money, and as of course it was optional with the boys 
as to when and how they would return to their homes, a 
number of railroads had opened up ticket booths close to 
the camp and worked as ^ ard as the fakirs. 

The colonel issued order on the -st day in camp giv- 
ing company commanders permission ^ o issue passes for fif- 
teen men at one time, and the men v\ ere cautioned i wear 
blue trousers and blue shirt or blouse with regimen al ^k.Jk- 

312 




Tliiity-liipt M. V. I. in 

Detention Camp on Daufuskie Island, 

just off tha Coast of 

South Carolina and Georgia. 




''■'^&':gm:'ri^i-if.:m 



On the Beach on Daufuskie Island, S. C. 



tie after sundown, or clean khaki uniforms with blue shirt 
and tie in the daytime, and no man was to leave camp be- 
fore first presenting himself to his company commander for 
inspection. Thus the good people of Savannah were made 
to still marvel at the neatness and general appearance of 
the Michigan boys; however, it is not to be thought for a mo- 
ment that the boys needed the colonel's coaching, for has it 
not been proven that they were gentlemen all, and sur- 
charged with self respect? The boys found the pleasant 
southern spring weather very enjoyable, and every day was 
a day of rest except for the details on regular duty. Await- 
ing muster out there was practically nothing for them to do. 
The rations were quite good, and the large issue of passes 
permitted the boys to visit the city and wander about at 
their pleasure. It was an era of relaxation from their long 
period of service, and yet the regiment lost none of its 
pride and discipline by the change. Even the officers 
seemd to respond to the general mellowness and began to 
let up a little on their strict army dignity. Perhaps they 
had in mind the coming period of reorganization in the na- 
tional guard, and remembered that the retention of their 
commissions in the State service depended upon the suf- 
ferance of the men; at any rate, the friendly footing of 
officers and men was rather general, although there existed 
several more or less marked exceptions. 

The boys of the three companies of the First Georgia, 
spoken of before, flocked to the camp and renewed their 
friendships, and listened to the wonderful tales the Michi- 
gan boys had to tell of their experiences in Cuba. The 
evenings found the boys the guests of the Georgians in 
their home circles or in places of entertainment, and the 
citizens in general accorded the Michigan boys marked at- 
tention. The citizens had been greatly pleased to receive 
the set of resolutions passed by the State Legislature of 



Michigan, thanking them for the kind treatment accorded 
the Thirty-first boys, and the resolutions had been framed 
and hung in a conspicuous place in the office of the city's 
chief executive. The officers of the First Georgia gave a 
banquet to the officers of the Thirty-first, and the latter 
endeavored to show their appreciation of the friendship and 
its expressions by having made and presenting to the First 
Georgia Regiment a very artistic loving cup, the intrinsic 
value of which was represented in three figures. This cup 
was to remain always at the headquarters of the First 
Georgia Regiment as a token of this wonderful comrade- 
ship. 

Even the colonel had dropped the practice of issuing 
orders — ^they were entitled "circular." The officers had 
suggested to him that it might be a compliment to the citi- 
zens to have the regiment paraded in the city before it be- 
came disbanded, and on the 30th of April he had summoned 
the regiment and put the matter before the men, who at 
once and unanimously agreed to carry out the idea, so 
after supper on the evening of the 5th, and after each com- 
pany commander had thoroughly inspected his command 
to see that it bore a perfectly neat appearance, the regi- 
ment was assembled and marched through the city to the 
Park Annex. The people turned out en masse and engulfed 
the regiment in a storm of applause. The review was by 
Brig.-Gen. Gordon, and his comments, and the expressions 
of praise in the papers, are things that the boys delight to 
remember. 

The commissioned officers of the regiment assembled on 
the 2nd at headquarters and were photographed in a group. 
Pending the work of the officers of preparing for muster 
out, the boys resumed the old sport of base ball and match 
games yere played among their own number and with teams 
from the Fourth Tennessee, which was also in camp. 

314 



The examination of company books began on the 4th, and 
the men were put through the medical examination on the 
6th. On the 9th the muster rolls were signed, and after sup- 
per Maj. Harrah told the boys in his battalion about the 
routes home and the accommodations to be had over each. 
It was decided to go via Asheville, S. C, Knoxville, Cincin- 
nati, and then through Toledo to Detroit, the latter part 
being the same route they had come south over a year be- 
fore. 

By the 10th all government property, including rifles, 
had been turned in, as it was necessary to make a full ac- 
counting of such articles before the paying and mustering 
out could be done, and the regiment found itself again 
mounting guard without rifles. Roll call had become rather 
a farce, and the sergeants' reports to their company com- 
manders generally consisted of "All that are not present, 
I know where they are." 

The 13th was a sad day for the band, as a band without 
instruments is generally more impotent than a soldier with- 
out a rifle. They had to turn in their instruments, which 
were government property, but before they did so a little 
concert consisting of "Johnnie Comes Marching Home," 
"Michigan, My Michigan," "Dixie" and "Home, Sweet 
Home" prefaced the act that was to shear them of their 
ability to make melody for the time being. 

There had been a movement started to raise a subscrip- 
tion among the Light Guard boys with which to buy a 
present for Major Harrah, but because of his modest views 
about the giving of presents the matter was regretfully 
dropped. The major, however, told them he did not feel 
that it was necessary to express to him in this manner their 
regard for him as he had felt their closeness to him during 
the whole period of service. 

Since the work of preparing for muster out had begun 

315 



notices had been posted from time to time showing the 
amounts to be distributed to each company for commutation 
on allowances for coffee, flour, and rations in general, and on 
the 15th Lieut.-Col. Shubel, Major Harrah and Major Hunt 
submitted their report of the post exchange, showing net 
profits of $2,349.46. The sum was divided among the 
companies, as the exchange had been operated solely in 
their interest. Such surplus of money coming to the com- 
panies was used for the benefit of the men's appetites to a 
great extent, and they had such meals as they had never had 
before in camp. 

The last guard was mounted on the 16th, and during the 
day the colonel made a farewell address, and after telling 
them all the pleasant things he could about their record he 
said he would be pleased to meet any of them in civil life. 
In the evening the bugler took his post and sounded the 
last regular call of "Taps." The notes brought cheers from 
the boys, who were an excited lot, for they had before them 
the picture of home and knew that the next day would find 
them rapidly speeding towards that goal. In their excite- 
ment they did not pause to remember that this was "Taps" 
also for the Thirty-first Kegiment, Michigan Volunteer 
Infantry. 

Despite the fact that the jollification had been kept up 
during most of the forepart of the night, the boys were up 
at an unusually early hour and were in good shape to meet 
the paymaster, who began his work at eight o'clock. Lieut. 
Harris, the United States mustering officer, called the roll, 
and each man responded to his name and marched to the 
paymaster's tent, where they were handed their discharges 
by their captains and received the sum due them from the 
paymaster, and for the enlisted men the pay averaged about 
one hundred and ten dollars. Two months' extra pay was 
issued instead of giving two months furloughs, as that had 

316 



2. ? P 



2-" 3 



£2. 




worked rather unsuccessfully in the cases of the first regi- 
ments mustered out. 

The boys began to realize that which their excitement 
had prevented before, that this was the last day for the old 
Thirty-first, and a plan was started by some of the men to 
effect some kind of a regimental organization temporarily, 
to be further perfected a year later when a reunion would be 
held. Sergt.-Maj. Sanford Hunt fostered the plan, and 
through his energies it was carried out, and he was appointed 
secretary, and at the same time a red and white regimental 
pin was adopted. 

Col. Gardener was anxious to have the men proceed home 
as a regimental body and have a final parade and review in 
Detroit before dispersing for their various home points, but 
the officers and men did not relish the idea very much, for 
all but three of the companies lived at various places in the 
State, and they wanted to cut for home without any loss of 
time, as the citizens in their own towns had made prepara- 
tions for rousing receptions. There were other objections 
also, but while perhaps equally significant, it is not neces- 
sary to express them, as the point is sufficiently made. The 
Light Guard boys knew that great preparations were being 
made to welcome them back to Detroit, and since they were 
to be welcomed as the Light Guard Battalion, and not as the 
second battalion of the Thirty-first Michigan Volunteer 
Infantry, they insisted that only Light Guard officers and 
men should march in the parade. 

In Detroit a meeting of the committees having in charge 
the arrangements for the reception of the Light Guard bat- 
talion held a public meeting in the armory, presided over 
by Gen. Duffield. The veterans and the ladies were work- 
ing hand in glove, and the younger veterans of Company 
M were active assistants. Maj. Harrah had been advised of 
details regarding the manner in which the boys' personal 

317 



baggage would be taken care of, and he was requested to 
tell them that if they were anxious to see their home folks 
upon their return they could do so at the earliest moment 
by remaining in the parade until the armory had been 
reached, where they would find their folks awaiting them 
in seats set aside for their use. 

Mayor May bury was in ifew York, and on the(16th wired 
to Vice-President Taylor for latest information concerning 
the home-coming of the boys, and on the 18th a meeting 
was held at noon in the office of Gen. Dufiield, where all 
details were finally perfected. 

After the boys had gotten their stuff packed up and pur- 
chased their tickets, the battalion assembled in the after- 
noon to board the train, and as it pulled out, at about four 
o'clock, they waved their hands in a last farewell to the large 
concourse of admirers and friends who had assembled to 
give their final expression of their regard. The train 
speeded through a region of great natural beauty, and the 
boys had a glimpse of Biltmore, the Vanderbilts' famous 
mountain mansion. Major Harrah dispatched a telegram 
to Vice-President Taylor at various points so that the re- 
ception committees could have constant information re- 
garding the exact whereabouts of the soldiers they were 
anxious to welcome. While the train was stopping at Hot 
Springs, ]^. C, the camera was brought into service for the 
last time, and a picture was taken of the train with a large 
steamer attached to the side of the coach, announcing its 
identity. Knoxville was reached at noon on the day after 
leaving Savannah. The railroad people wanted to continue 
the train without more than a short stop, but a general kick 
— headed by the major — ^brought the concession of a two 
hours' lay-over. The people of Knoxville had been await- 
ing the train all forenoon and they threw their arms open 
to the boys, giving them a foretaste of what they might ex- 

318 



pect at Detroit. Old acquaintances were renewed and good 
dinners eaten, then they were off again at two o'clock, and as 
the train pulled through the suburbs the boys got a glimpse 
of the old camp ground. The train arrived in Cincinnati 
at five o'clock the following morning, and the other two 
battalions of the old regiment came in shortly afterwards. 
A yard inspector found something wrong with Company I's 
coach and condemned it, and to the noise of much grumbling 
among the fellows as they shifted their packs and got off, 
another coach was substituted, after which the train pulled 
out at seven o'clock. At Dayton coffee and sandwiches 
were freely offered and lunch was had at Lima. At Toledo 
the boys met with a hearty reception at the station, and in 
little less than an hour's run Monroe was reacehd at five 
o'clock. This was the home of Company M, and as the men 
alighted they were immediately lost in the sea of friends. 
The boys now began to experience that little feeling of hys- 
teria, always aroused by the knowledge that a long hoped 
for goal is about to be attained, and a sangfroid bearing was 
only maintained at the cost of an effort. It was this effort to 
maintain a quiet demeanor which called forth a little im- 
promptu speech from the conductor, who announced to them 
that of all the troops he had handled, it gave him much 
pleasure to state that for gentlemanly behavior they had 
excelled all the others. At the wayside stations whistles 
and cheers greeted the train as it passed swiftly on to 
Detroit. 

By pre-arrangement, the arrival of the train at Wyan- 
dotte was loudly signalled to the next points and taken up by 
vessels and the factories in West Detroit until the glad noise 
sounded to the farthest limits of the city, while the Cana- 
dian side, in emulation, emitted a continuous welcoming 
roar as far as Walkerville, where the big distilleries vied 
with the factories opposite on the American side. "Great 

319 



Scot !" Jim yelled through his hands to Bill beside him as 
the train rushed through West Detroit at six o'clock, "the 
town's broke loose." Bill answered with a little hysterical 
laugh, for conversation was impossible. So the boys sat and 
gloated over the fleeting landmarks with the city's welcome 
dinning in their ears and a happy light in their eyes until 
fifteen minutes later the train had finished its run. 

When the Light Guard Battalion made its spontaneous 
response to the call to arms a little more than a year before, 
Americans were feeling a thrill of patriotism never yet 
experienced by the younger generations, but for the ma- 
tured, such as had filled their lives not quite half a century 
before. Detroit sent away her young men in blue to bear 
the brunt of an international issue. Christianity, Civiliza- 
tion and l^ational Honor had held the bugle to the lips of 
the nation's leaders as the notes of the "First call "sounded 
from shore to shore, and to the uttermost boundary line. 
The climax had hardly cast its shadow before, in the 
thoughts of the majority, ere the martial notes convinced 
them that the sword was to leave its scabbard and the mus- 
ket was to be loaded with ball cartridges. Business men 
left their offices; tools lay idle in the shops; schools were 
closed; homes were deserted. Education and the workaday 
life crowded to the curb 'neath a canopy of tri-color and 
swept the departing column with a deluge of patriotic enthu- 
siasm, and then slowly returned to routine life vdth the 
great residue of their sentiment, and in the long days that 
followed devoted much time to spelling out the whirlwind 
of the war's intelligence. ]^ow how would those people 
treat those same troops as they tramped back through the 
same streets with the name of no battle inscribed on their 
colors? Would they feel as the President had, when, in his 
annual message, he divided the glory of those who fought, 
with those who steadfastly worked on the drill fields, uphold- 

320 



ing there, as the others had on an alien soil, the integrity 
of the nation's colors and the nation's policy. Would those 
who went first and returned last be welcomed as they had 
been speeded? Of course the families of the boys would 
hail again their own, with perhaps a wilder tugging at the 
heart's strings, but would the same others understand the 
sacrifices these boys had manfully made, and that although 
no heat of battle had come to them, would they appreciate 
what it meant to have bitter disappointment consuming 
hope, and eating, always eating at the heart while Death 
drew his sickle among them? Would they know that hero- 
ism and gallantry might be more than a night blooming 
cereus ? That it was a flower difficult to keep in blossom for 
a twelvemonth? That privations and hardships, and not 
dangers, best prove a man ? Read and you will know, imless 
perchance you saw. 

As for the families and the friends of the boys, and the 
home guardians of the Light Guard, these who had not 
ceased to follow from afar, there was yearning, a new beat- 
ing of the heart, an impatient cry against time, love, sym- 
pathy and fellowship as they made preparations for the 
return of their own. 

The day had come, and their mecca was the armory. A 
transformation scene was being enacted. 

The Ladies' Society, the Veteran Corps and Companies 
M and X are the official collective titles of those who worked 
and waited. The nimble fingers of the younger ladies per- 
formed the garlanding of nature's contributions, while the 
matrons carried out the duties more suited to their sphere, 
and with the aid of the veterans and younger members, and 
Tom Swan, "the soldiers' steward," the hour found the 
long tables ranged like a "close column of masses," cov- 
ered with white linen and all the appurtenances of a feast; 
the platform rising from a tropical garden, bedecked with 



the flora of our own clime, and overshadowed by a close 
bower of the cloth of the nation, verily more pleasing than 
the cloths of gold they tell us of in mediaeval history. And 
there was also some cloth of green for the eye of Captain 
Sink and his band. Memory was sought over that the 
idiosyncrasies of none of the awaited ones might be missed, 
and even the old letters of the companies were shaped in 
greens to bear company on the tables with the letters they 
had borne for a year. The Tiger quitted his lair in the 
veterans' parlor with eager step and took station on the 
platform and through'the palms, steadfastly trained his eyes 
in waiting upon the door. 

Outside, Mayor Maybury was speeding from New York; 
Gen. W. S. Green just arrived, issued orders as chief mar- 
shall ; after dinner the business men, the workers, the stu- 
dents, young and old, and the housekeepers began to crowd 
the curb, and waited. The Citizens' Committee began to 
form; the G. A. R. Veterans and local military organiza- 
tions were assembling. And Governor Pingree was get- 
ting ready to meet "his boys." 

A troop train has never been known to be on time, but 
two hours is not a wide miss, and when the locomotive 
charged up to the bumpers in the Michigan Central depot 
the hearts of the welcomers were grateful that the en- 
gineer had tried to do his best for the boys. 

If you desire to know again every detail of that station 
scene, look up the files of newspapers and read on the first 
and succeeding pages, for the scribes performed their task 
well — their product was a veritable type-set biograph. 

Before the engineer had throttled his steam to the last 
notch and applied his brakes, the coaches wore an unbroken 
fringe of heads, emitting first a volley of cheers and then 
cheers "at will" as the boys caught sight of General Duf- 
field, the familiar faces of the detail of veterans — Cash P. 



Taylor, as color sergeant, holding the Light Guard's silken 
colors, Dr. Wm. M. Harvey and John A. Dick, with the 
old furled battle and time worn flags of the Guard, then 
the mayor and the governor, and ere they got through won- 
dering who the gentlemen in the citizens' reception com- 
mittee were, the sudden jolting apprised them of the end, 
and as they swung off with packs and parrot cages the Light 
Guard band greeted them with the sympathetic strains of 
"Home, Sweet Home," which was history repeated from 
1861. Outside the escorting column was waiting. 

Hasty greetings were exchanged on the platform with the 
foremost and the longer welcoming talks were deferred, 
for the people were waiting with pent up ardor, so Colonel 
Gardener, taking a seat beside the governor in a carriage, 
with the mayor and citizens, and city fathers following also 
in carriages. General Green, with the assistance of his chief 
aide, who was an old hand with such affairs, Major K. "W. 
Jaeklin, Light Guard Veteran Corps, got the escorting col- 
umn in motion, with the mounted police and the Seventh 
U. S. Infantry band from the fort leading. 

Truly it was good to have been a Light Guardsman on 
that day. 

Arthur Moore, "Snowball," mascot and general factotum, 
appeared through the station door loaded with cages contain- 
ing parrots, and was promptly received into the arms of the 
multitude. 

The mounted officers came forth, Maj. Chas. W. Harrah 
and his adjutant, Lieut. Cassius C. Fisk, and quartermaster, 
Lieut. Walter G. Rogers, and sprang into their saddles 
amidst the cheers of the crowd; had they been returning 
fresh from the hills of Caney or San Juan the ovation could 
not have been greater. 

When the band finished playing "Home, Sweet Home," 
on the platform, the boys heard the peremptory notes of 



"Assembly" ring out, and when they saw who the bugler 
was a wild dash was made for him — it was Clyde M. Web- 
ster, called "Babe" by the boys, but demonstrations had to 
be curtailed for the appearance of the column was clamor- 
ously awaited outside, so the companies were hastily formed 
and, marching out of the station, fell in behind the Veteran 
Corps and Companies M and X, and with the Light Guard 
Band playing "When Johnnie Comes Marching Home," the 
start was made over the crowded streets with the long es- 
corting column in advance. 

As this was a historic moment in the life of Detroit it is 
fitting to record the composition of the escorting column 
and also the escorted, and the record will always be a matter 
of pride to Light Guard members. 

Platoon of Mounted Police, Capt. Spillane, commanding. 
Chief Marshal, Gen. W. S. Green; Chief Assistant, Maj. B. W. 
Jacklin; Second Assistant, Lieut. Dan W. Smith. 

First Division— Ralph Phelps, Jr., commanding. 

Seventh Regiment Band, U. S. I. 

Detroit Naval Reserve, Strathearn Hendrie, commanding. 

Co. M, Thirty-third M. V. I. Veteran Society, President commanding. 

Maybury Light Guard, Capt. H. A. Kelly. 

Hubbard Light Infantry, Capt. J. G. Rankin. 

Second Division— Maj. Thos. H. Reynolds, commanding. 

Detroit Grays' Band. 

Veteran Corps, Detroit Light Infantry, Capt. Henry B. Lothrop. 

Company K, Detroit Light Infantry, Capt. Walter Barlow. 

Company L, Detroit Light Infantry, Capt. W. W. Wilcox. 

Montgomery Rifles, Lieut. Cotter, commanding. 

Company I, Scott Guard, Capt. Max Kean, commanding. 

Parke, Davis & Co. Band. 

Detroit Post, G. A. R., Commander F. C. Trowbridge. 

Fairbanks Post, G. A. R., Commander S. A. Widrig. 

Detroit Newsboys' Band. 

Citizens' committee. Board of Aldermen and all city commissioners-, 
and officials, George W. Fowle, commanding. 

Carriages containing the following: Col. Gardener, Thirty-first; 
Michigan Regiment; Mayor Maybury, Gov. Pingree, Gen. Henry M.. 
Duffield, Aid. Wm. H. Beamer, President Board of Aldermen; William 
E. Quinby, Capt. Hodgsdon, Capt. John Newton, U.S.A.; Lieut. Winans, 
U. S. A.; Capt. C. H. Gillespie, Chicago; Col. E. M. Coates, Seventh 
Infantry, U. S. A.; Capt. Young, U. S. V.; Rev. Nehemiah Boynton^ 
Rev. C. B. Newman, Hon. E. Boynton, Boston. 



The third division (Detroit Light Guard) was under com- 
mand of Col. Sidney R. Dixon and made up as follows : 

Light Guard Band. 

Company M, D. L. G., officered by Capt. Geo. C. Waldo and Lieut. 
Wm. J. Laurence. 

Veteran Corps, commanded by Col. Wm. A. Butler, Jr. 

Company X, officered by Capt. F. L. Abel and Lieuts. Val. R. Evans 
and Henry W. Busch. 

Maj. Chas. W. Harrah and staff, Lieuts. W. G. Rogers and C. C. 
Fisk. 

Company I, Thirty-first M. V. I., officered by Capt. Duncan Hender- 
son and Lieuts. Wm. A. Campbell and V. M. Dumas. 

Company K, Thirty-flrst M. V. I., officered by Capt. Wm. H. Sink 
and Lieut.John G. Miller— Lieut. Fisk was battalion adjutant. 

Company L, Thirty-first M. V. I., commanded by Second Lieut. 
Emil A. Laurence— Capt. Chas. S. Baxter and Lieut. John S. Bersey left 
their company at the station because of pressing matters. 

In order that an incident which happened during the 
parade may be understood, the composition of Company X 
should be explained. During the period of service of the 
Thirty-first M. V. I, quite a number of the members of the 
regiment received honorable discharges because of physical 
disabilities and home requirements, and about eighty of the 
Light Guard Battalion came home at different times for 
those reasons. These members desired to take part in the 
welcome home of their old comrades, so they selected Capt. 
F. L. Abel and Lieuts. Y. E. Evans and H. W. Busch as 
officers, and set to work to drill. When the great day arrived 
they donned their old service uniforms and the famous red 
neckties, and took their position in the column immediately 
preceding the three home-coming companies. 

When the three companies marched out of the station and 
took their places in the parade, as has been stated, a rush was 
made upon their little column by relatives and friends, who 
relieved the boys of some of the articles they were over- 
burdened with. This continued over the whole line of 
march, and before the division had marched two blocks the 
excited people closed in on it and its further progress was 
checked for a few minutes, when aide, Lieut. Dan Smith 
galloped back to find the escorted. A double quick brought 



the division up to its place in the column again and the 
march proceeded. 

Oh, but it was good to be back in old Detroit again, even 
though the entry cost a mile's march. They had paraded 
in Knoxville and received fame; they had paraded in Savan- 
nah and their fame had been added to, and now they deter- 
mined this parade would be their best — ^if only the friends 
would be patient and not make it difficult to maintain the 
formation. 

Up Griswold and Washington the column moved between 
flag-hung buildings and cheering masses, who would not let 
the bands be heard a minute, yet the people were a little 
bit mystified as to just who among the many companies 
might be the Light Guard boys, so they cheered continu- 
ously lest they might be missing those whom they had com« 
out to see. The companies which had been in the Thirty- 
second M. V. I. looked, in their service uniforms, as if they 
might be the boys, so the people became more and more 
sorely puzzled until Company X came into view wearing the 
famous red neckties, and the crowd instantly recalling all 
they had heard about those same neckties yelled "There 
they are !" and cheered their hardest. Yet the mistake was 
not a mistake after all, for the men in Company X were of 
the same service as the returning companies and they had 
not been publicly received before, so that it was well it 
happened as it did. The crowd seemed to feel a little im- 
posed upon, however, when Major Harrah appeared with 
the three companies whose identity was unmistakable, but 
the people literally let themselves loose upon the boys. 
As the battalion turned into Washington avenue the en- 
gineer of the Cadillac Hotel, who had rigged up an im- 
mense steamboat whistle, set it going at full blast and kept 
it booming a noisy note of welcome until long after the 
parade had passed. 

32« 



"Look at Dick's house," Jim muttered through his teeth 
to his comrade as they swung onto Adams avenue. It was 
indeed a pretty sight. Comrade John A. Dick, of the Vet- 
eran Corps, had decorated his place of business, the large 
residence and the veranda with a profusion of flags and 
bunting, and from every window and every space on the 
veranda and steps appeared eagerly strained feminine faces; 
they belonged to the mothers, wives and sisters of the boys, 
and some of them broke into tears of joy as the sight of a 
face anxiously looked for in the column turned the strained 
expression into one of overpowering happiness. As the last 
rank passed, the ladies hurried through a by-way to the 
armory. 

"Column right. March," and the boys were on Wood- 
ward avenue with the dusk rapidly falling. 

"Kook at that !" Jim excitedly whispered to Bill as they 
came in sight of the City Hall. "WELCOME OUR BOYS" 
flashed out in brilliant electric letters in red and white and 
blue. Those letters spelled the key note of the day; the 
words appeared upon the committee badges and were given 
prominence among the decorations everywhere. 

On they tramped, acknowledging with port arms the sa- 
lute of the escorting column lined up on Jefferson avenue, 
and marched through the darkness and surging crowds into 
the brightly lighted armory. "Thank God!" exclaimed 
Bill. 



The galleries were crowded with spectators, while on the 
floor, a little apart from the four long tables, were grouped 
the relatives of the boys, entitled to their positions by virtue 
of the badges they wore. Every face of the latter bore an 
eager look and all ears were strained to catch the first sound 
of the colmun's approach. 

327 



"Dinna ye hear the slogan?"; the Light Guards are com- 
ing ! — the situation was in a manner analogous of that fa- 
mous final moment in the Siege of Lucknow. The martial 
music grew upon the waiting hearing — it was at the very 
door and suddenly it was in their midst, where it continued 
to fill the space with the sympathetic notes of "There's 'No 
Place Like Home" and "Auld Lang Syne." 

General Dufiield appeared with Mayor Maybury and the 
cheering began as they slowly made their way to the plat- 
form with Governor Pingree and Colonel Gardener follow- 
ing. Companies X and M entered, then the Veteran Corps, 
bearing the historic colors, and when Major Harrah ap- 
peared upon the scene, the uproarous greeting got so into the 
blood that some of the boys immediately behind the major 
caught him up and pushed to the front and placed him before 
the great crowd which instantly went wild — then the band 
became infected and changed to "A Hot Time." 

Meanwhile the time established discipline held the boys 
steady as they filed down the sides of the long tables and 
took station behind the chairs, but just then the plans of the 
committees vanished like thin smoke in a strong gale ; the 
mothers, the fathers, wives and sisters could remain no 
longer where they were and see the faces of those so dear 
returned after a long absence and not embrace them, so in a 
twinkling a stampede started and there ensued a scene that 
held the spectators spell bound — a display of human emo- 
tions such as to even enlist their sentiment and play upon a 
responsive chord of sympathy as they watched mothers 
encircled by blue clothed arms, with moist eyed fathers and 
sisters eagerly awaiting their turn; wives with heads pressed 
against broad shoulders weeping joyous tears. 

A thousand people swayed by the strongest of emotions — 
the greeting of one's own blood and life after long absence 
amidst dangers — thought nought of speeches, for their 



senses were centered within a close radius, but the gentle- 
men on the platform were also anxious to say welcoming 
words to the battalion, so General Duffield arose to com- 
mand attention, but no mortal voice could have individual- 
ized itself in the midst of the noise of that one thousand 
people. The general had a bugler come forward and sound 
"Assembly," but it took the assistance of two more buglers 
to at last attract some attention; even then. Rev. C. B. New- 
man's invocation was unheard near the rear. The command- 
ing figure of General Duffield, however, attracted a little 
larger measure of attention as he said: "Every heart in 
Detroit tonight rejoices at your return, brave boys of the 
Thirty-first. If there were any in Detroit who did not re- 
joice, we would turn them out of the city's gates. We are 
proud to welcome you to your new home in this armory; 
proud to have you back again in our dear old State." After 
saying that the speeches would be short as he knew they were 
hungry and wanted to eat, he gave place to Governor Pin- 
gree. Governor Pingree ? — yes, they were pleased to know 
that he had come to say something, which they felt would 
be nice, but Bill cared more to talk to his mother and sis- 
ters, and the captain was not through greeting his wife. It 
was so when the mayor and Bishop Foley spoke. 

A hearty voice bawled "Hello Jim !"; Tommy's face wore 
a bashful but contented smile as he talked to a pretty girl 
he had known a long time ; the "Deacon" was the center of 
a group of those who had kept his mail large ; the "Unfor- 
tunate" — he was faced towards the platform, and with a 
hand shielding an ear and his face set with wrapt expres- 
sion, listened to every word of the speakers; it was the cli- 
max of his dream; the heroics touched his very soul and it 
did not enter his sensibility to feel lonely because he had no 
one to greet him. After it was all over he would go back to 
his clerk's life and dream on into old age. 



It was a pity that circuinstaiices lost the speeches to the 
boys' ears, for they came from the same gentlemen mostly 
who had stood upon the platform and speeded their depar- 
ture a little more than a year before, but the reporters heard 
every word, and many a fellow has, stowed away among his 
possessions, copies of the papers containing the addresses 
of welcome they could not listen to that night. 

Eev. i^ehemiah Boynton was determined to be heard, and 
he succeeded fairly well. He said, "Where are your colors ?" 
and as Company K had been the color company in the 
Thirty-first, the color sergeant moved forward with the flag 
amidst wild cheering — had it been battle worn it could not 
have been more enthusiastically cheered. He proceeded: 
^^ovr, soldiers, I know how glad you are to get home. You 
must remember, though, that we are glad to see you and we 
have to do a little talking at you. I want to say that we 
welcome you from the bottom of our hearts." 

The gentlemen on the platform were at last satisfied, for 
they knew the boys were hungry. The arrangements in- 
cluded a table for Company X, the members of which were 
also being publicly received, as has been mentioned. 

General Duffield arose and let the full volume of his 
voice roll out in one simple command — "Eat." The order 
was obeyed with alacrity, but it was difficult to fill an empty 
stomach with the mouth performing its full functions and 
have several voices behind the chair all asking questions at 
once, and now and then some one reaching down to shake 
hands in greeting. 

The "women folks" began to feel restless and waited ner- 
vously for the end when they could retire to their homes 
with their returned absentees and reunite the family circles. 

Gradually the noise of chairs being pushed back grew in 
volume, and then some one started the Light Guard yell. 

The departure for home began, punctuated with "good 



nights" shouted from comrade to comrade, and then, not 
long afterwards the lights went out and hid the remains of 
the feast and a tumbled up sea of chairs. 

The family circles were reunited, but so also was the 
Light Guard, and the latter's "Welcome Our Boys" even yet 
remains in a conspicuous place in the armory as a token of 
the day and the night. 

In concluding this account of the tour of the Light Guard 
Battalion in the United States Volunteer Army, it is well 
to polish off with the two following incidents : 

The work of the Inspector-General's Department was of 
the very gravest character and most actively performed, as 
it had to do with the Army in all its many ramifications. 

Maj.-Gen. Breckinridge remained at the head of the In- 
spector-General's Ofiice for several months after receiving 
his new commission as major-general of volunteers until he 
assumed supreme command at Camp Thomas in August, but 
even after that he continued to inspect United States forces 
at various stations. It was his policy to hold battle exer- 
cises and reviews and immediately after inspecting thirty 
thousand men at Camp Thomas during the first days of June, 
he wired his report to Maj.-Gen. Miles, Commanding the 
Army, while en route to Tampa, Fla., June 4th, 1898. The 
report is notable as it is the only one he ever made during 
the whole period, containing mention of any command 
smaller than a brigade. Following approval of the manner 
in which Major Parker (captain in the Fourth Cavalry U. 
S. A.) handled his battalion of the Twelfth N. Y. he stated, 
"and Colonel Gardener's training of the Thirty-first Michi- 
gan, though unarmed, deserves similar notice." If the 
reader will pause and consider, it will be readily understood 
that the responsive body of men composing the regiment was 
mostly responsible for this comment. 

Immediately after assuming command at Camp Thomas, 

331 



General Breckinridge prepared to hold a grand review, to 
which he invited President McEanley and other high offi- 
cials by wire on August 10th, but the next day brought 
"regrets" from the President, accompanied by many appro- 
priate expressions, among which was : "The highest tribute 
that can be paid to the soldier is to say that he performed his 
full duty; the field of duty is determined by his government, 
and wherever that chances to be, is the place of honor." 

Thus even without a battle record, the boys came home 
with honors attested by officialdom and recognized by all 
civilians. 




CHAPTER XIV. 

Events at Home During the Period Between the Return of Com- 
pany M and Companies A, B and P (I, K and L, Thirty-first 
M. V. I.) — Muster Out of Company M — Ceremonies Over the 
Remains of Miss Ellen May Tower, etc. — Welcome to General 
Alger — Winter Circus — Reorganization — Presentation of Por- 
traits and a New Parlor — Reunion of the Thirty-first M. V. I. 
— Finale. 

Now that it has been told how the three companies of 
the Active Corps filled a page of history away from home, 
it must also be shown how those at home filled up the other 
side of the leaf. What was written on the page at home 
while the entire Active Corps was away will be mostly set 
down in that part of this volume devoted to the Ladies' 
Association and the Veteran Corps. 

When the members of Company M woke up after a 
long, refreshing sleep the day following their return, on 
September 3rd, they began to take stock of their situation. 
They had been given a sixty day furlough, at the end 
of which time they would be mustered out of the service 
of the United States and final settlements made with them 
by the government. Most of the fellows who were well 
took a season of rest, and were the interesting centers of 
many a group of friends as they listened to the tales the 
young veterans had to tell. Some got back into the har- 
ness of civilian life immediately, but there were some 
whose furloughs expired before they were able to leave 
their hospital beds. 

The first event after the return of Company M from 
their service was the public welcome of the Detroit com- 
panies in the Thirty-second M. V. I. on September 24th, 
1898, and not only did Company M, with a strength of 
fifty-four, represent the Light Guard, but the Veteran 
333 



Corps and the Band also appeared, immediately following 
the l!s'aval Reserves, who had the right of line. 

The next occasion upon which Company M turned out 
was the 13th of the following month, when the remains 
of Captain Ed Rode, of the Scott Guard, were escorted 
to the Crematorium by a column of about four hundred 
military men and civic societies, and the Light Guard Band 
furnished the music. 

The time began to draw near when the members of 
Company M were to assemble for muster out. The mus- 
tering officer. Captain Irvine, arrived, and preparations 
were made to muster the company out in the Light Guard 
Armory. It was not a very smooth affair, however, for 
twice while the company was in Cuba the clothing of the 
men had been destroyed by some one's order for reasons 
of health, but of which the company had no record. This 
arbitrary destruction of the property they had been 
charged with did not seem to them to accord with justice, 
so protests were properly formulated and forwarded to the 
War Department. Another matter which was a source of 
complications was the absence of all company records, 
which had been lost, together with a large amount of bag- 
gage when the lighter sank in the harbor of Santiago upon 
the first attempt to embark the Thirty-third on board the 
Harvard for the return to the United States, but finally 
all differences were adjusted, and upon the 16th of ITovem- 
ber Major Pickett, the paymaster, effected a full settlement. 

The company had planned to have a reunion upon the 
occasion of the anniversary of the Detroit Light Guard, 
and as no general celebration of that event was to be held 
— ^because of the absence of the other three companies — 
the members of Company M arranged an affair for them- 
selves. After attending the theater as a party, they ad- 
journed to the banqueting hall in the Cadillac Hotel, which 

334 



had been tastefully decorated with the national colors. 
General Duffield presided as toastmaster, and there were 
several army officers present as guests of the company, 
and also some of the veteran members of the Light Guard. 
Songs' speeches and stories mingled with the smoking of 
the after-dinner cigars until past the midnight hour, but 
before the party broke up the boys enthusiastically ac- 
cepted a hint from General Duffield that they hold a regu- 
lar annual mess, and a month later they held a meeting 
and organized as a society of veterans of the Spanish- 
American War. 

The original Company M had received many additions 
to its ranks at the time it endeavored to enter the volunteer 
service, and these additional members — according to the 
by-laws of the Light Guard organization — ^were not mem- 
bers of the Light Guard, but they were taken into mem- 
bership in regular manner and the company was in shape 
to be reorganized. 

On the 29th of December thirty-two members of Com- 
pany M were accepted into membership in the Veteran 
Corps, and on the same evening the new officers of the 
company were selected. George C. Waldo was elected 
captain — a fitting expression of the high regard in which 
he was held by the members because of his manly and 
soldierly conduct during the period of service. William J. 
Laurence was elected second lieutenant from the first ser- 
geantcy — also a popular expression of approval by the 
boys. Several weeks later Lieut. Cowley resigned his 
membership in the Light Guard, and as Company M was 
not in the State service, his resignation, of course, took him 
out of the company altogether. 

A private had died in the service of his country and the 
remains were deposited in the national cemetery at Arling- 
ton, Ya. He had been a member of Company C of the 



Thirty-third Michigan, having enlisted in one of the out-of- 
town companies. His home was Detroit, though, and the 
members of Company M were of the same regiment. Com- 
pany M had brought no dead for the city to mourn, and so, 
when arrangements were made to have the remains brought 
to Detroit for interment the boys of Company M felt that 
a comrades' duty devolved upon them to act as escort and 
accord the military honors. Mayor Maybury had interested 
himself, and a plan had been set in motion to have the Sun- 
day school children of the city contribute their mites 
towards a fund to defray the expenses. On the 7th of Jan- 
uary the Light Guard Band, an honorary battalion of Light 
Guard veterans, commanded by Major Jacklin, and mem- 
bers of Company M assembled, and escorted the remains to 
the church, where the minister brought consolation and 
cheer to the heart of the bereaved mother by his eulogy of 
the singleness of religion and patriotism. Wrapped in the 
soldier's shroud of Stars and Stripes, and weighted with 
clusters of roses and a wreath of laurel, six men in blue de- 
posited the casket in the grave and fired the salutes in last 
recognition of all that was material of Private James E. 
Sills. 

The historian has reached the date of a notable event in 
the annals of the city, and the State as well, and one in 
which the Light Guard took a prominent part and has 
placed memorials of upon the walls in the armory. Some 
of the great illustrated weeklies also took cognizance of the 
affair and devoted much space to recording it in type and 
their artists' work. 

She was called a "Ministering Angel" because she left 
her work as supervisor of nurses at Grace Hospital in De- 
troit and followed Uncle Sam's beckoning to Porto Rico to 
help take care of his soldier boys. From the moment Miss 
Ellen May Tower reached her new post of duty upon a dis- 

336 




Miss Ellen May Tower. 



taut shore in September, 1898, her efforts to make easy the 
long painful hours of the stricken soldiers, permitted her to 
bestow but a minimum of attention upon herself until it 
happened one day that a sickness came upon her, and when 
finally the daily questions of her convalescing charges in 
the hospital were met with the announcement that death 
had come, each fellow sighed deeply in his heart. 

She was buried, but that foreign grave was not to be the 
last receptacle of the wasted form of a noble soul. The soul 
was beyond the honor of the world, but there was left the 
memory of it, and that which had once encased it and been 
glorified by it, and so the body was removed from its alien 
bed and conveyed back to the city by the waters, from 
which but a small segment of Time's cycle before the de- 
ceased had departed in the full strength of womanhood. 

News of the ship's arrival at New York was awaited from 
day to day by the governor, the mayor, a citizens' commit- 
tee and every one associated with the Detroit Light Guard, 
for the casket containing the clay was to rest in the Light 
Guard Armory while many men would stand up to honor it. 

At one o'clock on Sunday afternoon, January 15th, 1899, 
a train came into the city with a burden in one of the ex- 
press coaches long awaited outside by many people. A 
detail from Company M, Detroit Light Guard, lifted the 
flag-covered burden, and passing through police held lines 
of uncovered spectators, placed the casket in the hearse. To 
the accompaniment of the slow, mournful, muffled drum 
beats of the detail from the Light Guard Band, the hearse 
proceeded to the armory under the escort of Company M, 
commanded by Sergt. Dan W. Smith, and a detachment 
from the Veteran Corps, under command of Capt. F. L. 
Abel. 

The casket was placed upon the platform, converted 
into a bower of green and blooms by the loving hands of 

337 



the ladies of the Light Guard, and members of Company 
M shared the guard during the day and night with details 
from the Light Infantry, Scott Guard, Montgomery Rifles 
and Detroit Grays. 

During the afternoon thousands of persons passed by the 
casket, but if any had a desire to view the remains they 
were disappointed, for the health department did not grant 
permission to open the casket until the morning of the 
17th. 

Dennis S. Donahue and H. S. Pingree, Jr., who had both 
waved last farewells to the deceased as she and her sister 
nurses stood upon the deck of the ship which took them to 
the new posts of duty, presented as their silent tribute a 
beautiful flag of flowers, and the nurses of Grace Hospital 
remembered their old co-worker with a massive pillow of 
lillies, and many other like tributes increased the mass of 
silent expression. 

The ser^dces were held on the following evening, but it 
would require an extravagance of space and a finer pen to 
set forth all that was said and done so that the heart of the 
reader might be touched as were the hearts of those who 
were present. 

The father, and sisters and brother of the dead woman, 
who had gathered from their scattered homes to mourn in 
the presence of her body, occupied a place specially ar- 
ranged for them in close proximity to the casket, and the 
rest of the forward chairs were reserved for friends and the 
military representation, while the remaining space and gal- 
leries were filled with serious faced spectators. 

Suddenly there broke out upon the still atmosphere from 
a corner of the great auditorium the tremulous voices of 
young lads, mingling with the matured voices of the older 
members of the choir. The subdued voices of the singers 
coming from obscurity ladened the atmosphere with a 



spiritual sweetness that pierced to the heart of each specta- 
tor. The beautiful sounds grew louder, and as they who sat 
turned their ejes in the direction from which the sounds 
came they saw a little procession slowly emerging from one 
of the corner rooms and proceed towards the center aisle to 
the lagging cadence of a dirge played by the Light Guard 
Band stationed near the platform. 

Maj. R. AY. Jacklin, president, and Mr. Cash P. Taylor, 
second vice-president of the Veteran Corps, headed the 
little column, side by side, immediately followed by Capt. 
Geo. C. Waldo and Lieut. Wm. J. Laurence, of Company 
M, as escorts to Rev. Chas. L. Arnold, of St. Peter's Epis- 
copal Church, on the arm of Mayor Wm. C. Maybury, 
and Reverend^ J. M. Thoburn, pastor of Central M. E. 
Church, and E. J. Baskerville, of Cass Avenue M. E. 
Church. The full surpliced choir of St. Peter's followed, 
and merging mth the white vestments, appeared a group 
of nurses from Grace and Harper Hospitals, about twenty- 
five from each, in the full uniforms of their respective in- 
stitutions, with the military bringing up the rear. 

The affecting sound of the dirge; the slow, quiet steps 
and the complexion of the procession held the people en- 
rapt, and then when the center aisle had been reached- 
and the four leaders separated and permitted the ministers 
to proceed to the platform and the others to take their seats, 
the full sig-nificance of it all seemed to burst upon them, 
and sobs became audible from all directions. 

The drapery of national colors and men in uniforms gave 
a semi-military effect; the vested choir brought a cathedral 
air; surgeons from the two hospitals added dignity, and 
ministers of three pastorates called down the Grace of God. 

Reverend Thoburn's invocation was caught up by the 
choir and sent to every nook and corner of the vast hall. 

Reverend Arnold had made an early offer of himself and 



the choir for the services and the Veteran Corps had grate- 
fully requested him to take charge, but when later the 
other ministers had asked to share in the ceremonies, he 
assigned parts to them, so, delivering a brief address of 
much beauty, he gave way to Reverend Baskerville, who 
proceeded to tell his hearers of God's ways; he remarked 
that all phases of life had assembled to pay tribute to the 
memory of one who had embodied all the traits of good 
womanhood. Mayor Wm. C. Maybury, whose versatile 
mind and speech makes him sought for to grace such events, 
as well as those of other character, because of his knowledge 
of and responsiveness to the pathetic in life, touched the 
hearts of his hearers as he spoke of the true woman who had 
lost her life in the trenches of the noblest of duties. Mr. 
Donahue quietly told of his promise given upon the Eastern 
shore to Miss Tower that, should she meet death in Porto 
Rico he would surely see that her grave would be among 
her kin. Rev. Charles L. Arnold, of St. Peter's Episcopal 
Church, uplifted the hearts of the mourners with a powerful 
benediction upon the flag covered body — the soul was in 
His Hands — and those assembled to do it reverence, and 
then the people moved quietly out to their homes, leaving 
the guards to preserve the spirit of the services. 

The undertaker opened the casket on the morning of the 
17th for the formal purpose of identification, and the re- 
mains were found to be in a perfect state of preservation 
owing to the effective embalming by the army undertaker 
in Porto Rico; if a little coloring had been added to the 
face, the dead would have appeared as if in natural sleep. 

. This formality having been accomplished, the casket 
was closed again and removed to the train to be taken to the 
place where the family's dead were buried at Byron, Mich. 

When the train reached Byron a great concourse of peo- 
ple were found in waiting. Company G, Thirty-third 

340 



1 . 




M. V. I., and four G. A. R. posts, with delegations from 
Women's Relief Corps from several towns, were present, 
and in fact the whole country side had assembled. Busi- 
ness was suspended, and half-masted flags and draperies pro- 
claimed a mourning spirit. 

The casket was conveyed to the opera house, where 
touching services were held. The gray haired minister of 
the town. Rev. Mr. Joslin, performed his oflice half blinded 
with tears; friends from Detroit, the town and the state 
spoke of the departed soul, and a lengthy telegram from 
Governor Pingree enhanced the balm that was being 
poured upon the bereaved father and the son and daugh- 
ters. 

To the solemn time of the funeral dirge, played by the 
Light Guard Band, the funeral procession wended its way 
to the little cemetery amidst flurries of snow. The detail 
of pallbearers drawn from Company M, with Sergt. Dan 
W. Smith in charge, was composed of H. J. W. Simpson, 
Francis Avery, Harry J. Pearson, William Allen, IST. E. 
Winstanley and Geo. O. Goward — men who had had the 
fever in Cuba and knew what the blessing of nursing meant, 
and some of whom had felt the kindly touch of the dead 
woman in life as she ministered to them upon troublous 
beds at Camp Wikoff, for she had been one of the party of 
nurses sent to Montauk Point by the governor to take care 
of the sick of the Thirty-third and Thirty-fourth Michigan 
Regiments upon their arrival from Santiago. 

Immediately following the hearse marched the firing 
squad and Company M, with full strength at port arms, 
under command of Capt. Geo. C. Waldo. The Veteran 
Corps followed in regulation overcoats and black hats, led 
by Capt. F. L. Abel. 

Company G, Thirty-third M. V. I., the members of 
which were old comrades of Company M's boys in Cuba, 

341 



inarched next, with the G. A. R. posts and citizens making 
up the balance of the long column. 

At the grave a scriptural passage and a short prayer pre- 
ceded the military salute of the firing squad and the beau- 
tiful sound of "Taps," and the earthly remains of a good 
woman had found rest in the midst of a loving people. 

The reader may ask why so much detail has been used in 
recounting this sad event. The answer is that a woman 
sacrificed her life to sooth the pain racked bodies of our 
country's soldiers; that that woman belonged to Michigan, 
as was testified to from the humblest citizen, to Michigan's 
chief executive; that her memory was sacred to the Detroit 
Light Guard, because her father, Capt. Samuel S. Tower, 
served from October, 1861, to July, 1865, in the Tenth 
M. V. I., which was recruited and commanded by the be- 
loved old warrior. Col. Charles M. Lum, around whom so 
many of the cherished Light Guard memories cling, and 
that, last but not the least, it was the third time in the his- 
tory of the country, and the first time in the State that a 
woman's body was buried with full military honors. 

It will be remembered that Captain Henderson, who 
commanded Company I in the Thirty-first M. V. L, was 
first lieutenant of the same company when it went to Island 
Lake for mobilization, and at the same time also captain of 
Company M, but it was not until in the fall of 1898 that 
his resignation as captain of Company M was handed in, 
so that although Captain Cowley had served through the 
campaign as captain of the company, yet he had not that 
status in the Detroit Light Guard. The fact that the mem- 
bers of the company preferred Lieutenant Waldo to com- 
mand the company as its captain was due to one of those 
situations which often occur in a military organization in 
which a change of heart figures. However, Lieutenant 
Cowley's resignation was accepted on the Yth of February 

343 



and Second Lieutenant Laurence was elected to fill the 
vacancy, and Dan W. Smith, who had labored hard as the 
quartermaster sergeant during the tour of service, was 
elected second lieutenant, and this order has been main- 
tained with happj results ever since. 

General Joseph Wheeler and Secretary Alger came to 
town on the 29th of February and were given a public 
reception and parade, and a thing to be noticed about the 
event was the fact that the local military organization 
participating was the Detroit Light Guard, consisting of the 
Band, the Veteran Corps and Company M. 

We have now reached the time when the long absent 
majority of the Active Corps returned to take its place in 
the ranks at home again. The armory, with its club attrac- 
tions and the desire to discuss matters, drew the boys within 
its walls and around its entrance, and while they were thus 
going over the pedigrees of ofl[icers and picking out the 
flaws here, or commending there, those same officers were 
devoting much time to considering ways and means of 
accomplishing a reorganization of the battalion. Of course, 
the entire State militia would have to be reorganized, but 
the military board did not seem to be in a hurry to take up 
the matter, so because of that, and also owing to the sum- 
mer season and the fact that the boys wanted a rest from 
militarism, attempts to reorganize the battalion were de- 
ferred, and it was also thought best to wait until fall, or 
when the reorganization of the National Guard would as- 
sume some shape. 

On the 30th of May the veterans of two wars marched in 
the same column and participated in the same ceremonies 
in memory of their dead comrades. The Light Guard Bat- 
talion turned out with the Band, under command of Major 
Harrah, and after the parade, which was under command of 
Major E. W. Jacklin, as chief marshal, the final ceremo- 

343 



nies of the day were performed in the closely packed audi- 
torium of the armory. It was a new kind of a day for the old 
veterans, and many and gracefully hearty were the saluta- 
tions exchanged by the survivors of the wars of '61 and '98. 

On June 18th, the last day of the legislative session, a 
bill was passed containing provisions looking towards a reor- 
ganization of the militia, but it met its death in the gover- 
nor's office. 

Although we were at peace again, yet we were still at 
war, for when our peace commissioners returned from 
Paris in December of 1898 they brought with them and 
presented to the IS'ation a present, the care taking of which 
called for an expense of blood and wealth. True to the 
President's reiterations after the signing of the protocol 
that where the Nation's flag had been placed by the Na- 
tion's soldiers, there it would remain, we found ourselves 
preparing the enlargement of the regular army to take the 
place of the tired volunteers in the Philippines, and among 
the first of the new regiments there was one named the 
Thirtieth, and placed under command of Colonel Gardener, 
who at once looked to Michigan for the best of his rank and 
file. He was not disappointed, for afterwards the statistics 
of the war department showed that Michigan came fifth in 
the list of States in filling up the new regiments, there being 
seven hundred and sixty-eight men whose homes were in- 
scribed on the muster rolls as being in Michigan. Quite a 
number of members of the Light Guard who had served in 
the volunteer army joined that and other regiments, and 
among the twelve officers appointed from Michigan was 
one with a record of Light Guard membership — Captain 
Duncan Henderson, of Company A, which had been Com- 
pany I in the Thirty-first M. V. I. 

It was along in July that the kettle of National Guard 
affairs began to simmer preparatory to boiling. The new 

344 



regiments were outlined and showed a number of radical 
changes in the make up according to companies. It had 
always been the desire and the hope that Company M might 
find a place in the National Guard, and every chance was 
watched and every influence exerted to accomplish that 
under the reorganization, but the desire has not been realized 
yet, although the hope and the endeavor still lives, and the 
Light Guard is anxiously awaiting the results of the tardy 
tour of inspection by Inspector-General Green in the belief 
that some of the old companies in the State will be recom- 
mended for disbandment, when it is hoped to find one of the 
vacant berths for Company M. 

On August 2nd, 1899, Detroit welcomed back to Michi- 
gan the citizen who had been called from his home to Wash- 
ington a little more than two years before to assume heavy 
responsibilities. 

If any person who stood upon a crowded sidewalk or 
forced a passage through the streets upon the afternoon of 
that day recalled the wild criticisms hurled by indiscrim- 
inate judges through the newspapers at the Secretary of 
War, he must have shuddered at the enormity of the injus- 
tice. Sensible people would not suffer the inconveniences 
and hardships of a crowd and stand for hours defending 
their little foothold for the sole purpose of seeing a neigh- 
bor return to his home if they did not honor and have 
confidence in him. The least that can be said regarding the 
welcome extended to Gen. Russell A. Alger by his fellow 
citizens en masse is that newspapers and illustrated periodi- 
cals made it a theme of national gossip — and the mud 
slingers dropped their pails and ran. 

The general's son. Captain Frederick M. Alger, was 
with his honored sire, as was also another esteemed citizen, 
Maj. Geo. H. Hopkins, who, with an active Civil War 

345 



record, did much to assist Gen. Alger in the work of the 
War Department. 

The Light Guard Battalion, under command of Major 
Harrah, formed a conspicuous part of the parade, and the 
Veteran Corps had several representatives on the marshal's 
staff, its president, Major Jacklin, acting as chief, and Gen. 
Duffield led the citizens composing the escort of honor. 

Should the general read this, and then pause and recall 
the day and the night, he will glow again over the great 
popular manifestation of friendship and esteem. 

There was much to criticise in the manner in which the 
re-equipping of the reorganized guard was carried on, but 
the foundation of the trouble was not discovered until, in 
December, 1899, a grand jury discovered irregularities in 
the Quartermaster General's Department. A legislative 
commission had conducted an investigation some months 
earlier, but the report found nothing to condemn, which 
was rather singular in the light of the grand jury's dis- 
closures, which culminated in the hasty disappearance of 
the quartermaster general, whose whereabouts still remain 
unknown. The disclosures nearly caused the dissolution of 
the entire military board, but Adjt.-Gen. Case was found 
to have clean hands and he was acknowledged as honest by 
being retained. 

!N"ow it came to those at the helm of the Light Guard 
that here was an opportunity to assert itseK as an organiza- 
tion in the affairs of the National Guard. General Duf- 
field, as president of the organization, issued an invitation 
on the 27th of December, 1899, inviting the ofiicers of the 
Naval Reserves and all local militia companies to meet in 
the Light Guard armory to select some man, competent and 
sure of unanimous support, to be recommended to the gov- 
ernor for appointment on the military board as quartermas- 
ter general. Colonel Sidney R. Dixon was the popular 

346 



choice, and a committee composed of Major Chas. W. 
Harrah, Lieut.-Com. Strathearn Hendrie of the Kaval Ke- 
serves, Capt John S. Bersey, Capt, Wm. H. Sink and 
Capt. Geo. C. Waldo of the Light Gnard, and Capt. Walter 
Barlow and Capt. W. W. Wilcox of the Light Infantry, 
Capt. M. A. Kean of the Scott Guard and Capt. Barrett of 
the Montgomery Kifles, was appointed to wait upon the 
governor and urge Col. Dixon's appointment, but the gov- 
ernor met the committee with a statement that he had par- 
tially promised the appointment to another man, which 
finally proved to be the case, but if the effort accomplished 
nothing specific it had the effect of bringing somewhat more 
closely together the oflacers of local organizations who in 
the past had opposed Light Guard projects, for on this occa- 
sion they were working with a will for a man with a long 
Light Guard record, and the failure to secure Colonel 
Dixon's appointment was a disappointment shared equally 
by all. However, the appointment fell to an old member 
of the Light Guard — O'Brien Atkinson — whose career in 
the Light Guard was marked by much energy, and recog- 
nition of his ability won him the office of first lieutenant of 
Company F and a place on the board of directors, but his 
busy life began to encroach upon the time devoted to his 
military duties so that he felt compelled to sever his con- 
nection with the old organization in 1894. Since taking 
charge of the State Quartermaster's Department he has 
performed his duties to the entire satisfaction of the offi- 
cers and members of the Michigan National Guard and the 
Light Guard hopes the coming change of State administra- 
tion will not call for his resignation of the office. 

In March, 1899, Company M, with the assistance of the 
directors and civil officers of the Light Guard, essayed a 
novel entertainment for the pecuniary benefit of the organ- 
ization. The entertainment consisted of an aggregation of 

347 



circus talent, and the production was called "A Comedy 
Circus," and while the financial returns were not very 
large, owing to the fact that professional management had 
to be called in, thereby entailing a division of the receipts, 
yet it had been demonstrated to the organization that an 
indoor circus might become a very popular institution with 
the people of Detroit, and so, with the same original object 
in view, plans were laid to produce a winter circus in Jan- 
uary, 1900, which would eclipse the former production both 
in the quality and volume of the entertainment, as well as 
in the returns. Through the success of the efforts to obtain 
financial patronage from the public during the preceding 
fall, the organization found its treasury in shape to enable 
the entire handling of the entertainment to remain with the 
organization, and thereby reduce the division of the profits. 
The pick of the talent of the great summer shows was made, 
and upon the night of January 29th the doors of the ar- 
mory were thrown open, displaying all the appurtenances 
of a complete one ring circus. It was newsboys' night, and 
the Kttle chaps were there in full force, with quite a fair 
attendance of older persons. The performance was pro- 
nounced to be of a very superior character, but owing to the 
fact that the mercury in the thermometer remained in the 
neighborhood of zero during the entire week, the profits 
were cut down to a very small figure. 

The reorganization of the State militia crept along at a 
snail's pace and elicited in the columns of the newspapers 
from time to time suggestions and criticisms from various 
prominent military men, but it seemed that no influence 
could be exerted upon the matter in that way, but matters 
finally got around to the point where it became necessary 
to have all the companies and regiments properly officered, 
so elections were called for that purpose. All of the local 
companies, consisting of the two of the Light Infantry, the 



Scott Guard, the Montgomery Kifles, and three of the 
Light Guard companies, and one each stationed at Monroe, 
Ann Arbor, Tecumseh, Ypsilanti and Port Huron had been 
assigned to what was called the First Regiment under the 
reorganization, thereby making it a three battalion forma- 
tion. The election for colonel of the regiment was ordered 
for February 23rd, and with votes to spare. Major Chas. W. 
Harrah was elected to the command and Captain Sink of 
Company B, Detroit Light Guard, was elected to command 
the second battalion. The records of these two officers, as 
shown upon the last pages of this volume, will clearly indi- 
cate their fitness for the rank and duties they were selected 
to assume. 

The companies of the Detroit Light Guard began work 
in earnest about the first of the year, and the Union Trust 
Company, which has always been a patient financial mentor 
to the organization, approved the remission of monthly 
dues up to the first of January, 1900. Vacancies among 
the company officers also had to be attended to, and elec- 
tions held for the purpose produced the following results : 

COMPANY B. 
Walter G. Rogers, elected first lieutenant December 1st, 1899. 
Victor M. Dumas elected second lieutenant December 1st, 1899. 
Walter G. Rogers elected captain April 24th, 1900. 
Victor M. Dumas elected first lieutenant April 24th, 1900. 
George Barger elected second lieutenant April 24th, 1900. 

COMPANY B. 
Henry W. Busch elected second lieutenant December 6th, 1899, 

and elected captain April 28th, 1900. 
Edward T. Clark elected first lieutenant April 28th, 1900. 
Henry R. Lord elected second lieutenant April 28th, 1900. 

COMPANY H. 

John S. Bersey elected captain December 1st, 1899. 

Bmil A. Laurence elected first lieutenant December 1st, 1899. 

Val. R. Evans had remained second lieutenant. 

Company F's letter was changed to H in the reorganization, 

849 



Colonel Harrah adopted a broad and fair policy in mak- 
ing the appointments on the staff of the new regiment. He 
determined to scatter the representation over the whole 
regiment as much as possible and consistent with efficiency 
in the matter of residence. 

It is a fine thing for the Light Guard boys to know that 
the armory is now a regimental headquarters, and it is an 
important period in the life of the organization to have at 
last such prominence in the affairs of one of the three regi- 
ments of the Michigan ]*^ational Guard. It is therefore :fit- 
ting that the roster of field and staff — commissioned and 
non-commissioned — and line should find space in the last 
pages of this history. 

The plans of the armory building provided for a gym- 
nasium, and when the builders finally announced the com- 
pletion of the work there was found to be a room, which, 
when fitted with the proper equipment, would make an 
ideal gymnasium of moderate size, but the organization had 
no means at hand with which to obtain the equipment, for, 
in view of the large financial obligations, all income from 
rentals, dues and State allowance is turned over to the 
Union Trust Company, to be used in the maintenance of 
the property and the reduction of the general indebtedness 
if any surplus remains. Because of this arrangement, de- 
plorable because of the existence of the necessity for it, any 
needs in the matter of furnishings and improvements not 
classed strictly under the head of maintenance can only be 
secured through an appeal to the members or the public for 
subscriptions, or should an entertainment be essayed in the 
auditorium during the renting season, the organization 
must pay the regular rental to the Union Trust Company 
out of the proceeds before a profit can be figured, thus it 
happened that, when the receipts from the winter circus, 
held for one week, beginning January 30th, 1900, fell 



below the outlay, and the program proceeds netted a gain 
of only $230 — as explained in another part — the amount 
was claimed by the Trust Company as part payment of the 
rent for the week. I^ow, it had been planned to use the net 
profits from the circus for the purchase of much needed 
furnishings and a complete outfit for the gymnasium, but 
the way the affair resulted left the plans high and dry. 

It was at this moment that the Ladies' Association came 
forward with very material assistance. The sum of fifty 
dollars was voted by the ladies to start the fund, and they 
agreed to secure the balance. They issued an appeal to the 
active members with the result that each company col- 
lected pledges in the neighborhood of twelve dollars each, 
but before the ladies could carry out the balance of their 
plans, the Union Trust Company kindly offered to remit the 
entire week's rental, and also returned the profit men- 
tioned so that the gymnasium is now well equipped and 
much used by the boys, but there is no doubt but that the 
work of the ladies had some influence upon the decision of 
the Trust Company in meeting the representations made 
upon the subject by Messrs. Dr. Wm. M. Harvey and Cash 
P. Taylor, constituting the House Committee. 

I have two stories to tell which will serve as examples to 
show the activity of the Light Guard in public matters pecu- 
liar to its sphere, and also the co-operation of all classes of 
its members in making such events completely successful. 

A battalion of the Fourteenth U. S. Infantry was return- 
ing from two years' service in the Philippines, but more 
than that, its destination was Fort Wayne. They were just 
regulars, but they had mothers and sisters the same as 
volunteers, only, with but several exceptions, they were 
far away from Detroit, and so the Light Guard did not wait 
to be asked to take part in the welcome planned by the 
mayor and citizens, but made an early offer of an escorting 

351 



body and the free use of the armory for the reception to be 
extended the battalion. 

The long journey of the battalion was completed over the 
Michigan Central Eailroad late on the night of May 10th, 
and next morning the train pulled in from the yards to the 
station, where Mayor Maybury, with a committee of citi- 
zens, greeted the officers and men. 

It was a gray day, and the rain fell mercilessly at times, 
but the escort under command of Maj. E. W. Jacklin, con- 
sisting of a detail from Fairbanks Post and «the Loyal 
Legion, and a hundred members of the Light Guard com- 
panies in two detachments, commanded by Captains Bersey 
and Rogers, with the Light Guard Band — the only local 
military organization to turn out — defied the weather, but 
Major Jacklin cut short the route to the armory out of 
mercy to the soldiers' bodies and appetites, for they were 
to breakfast at the armory. 

A long table awaited the charge of each company ; tables 
loaded with strawberries and cream, good meats and bread, 
and at eech plate cut flowers kept company with knife and 
fork, and what warmed the very depths of their hearts, 
good coffee; all to the accompaniment of the attentions of 
the ladies and veterans of the Light Guard. 

Appetites became satisfied, and at the command "Atten- 
tion!" from the platform, each bronzed warrior gave his 
chair a right or left face and gave ear to the jovial welcom- 
ing speeches filtering towards them through the smoke of 
their cigars. 

The speeches and many interesting- incidents might be 
mentioned, but the author has told enough of the affair to 
establish the point, and now the next event follows. 

The veterans had long been plotting a certain event to 
take place upon the anniversary of the return of the Light 



Guard battalion of the Thirty-first M. V. I., and the ladies 
had been taken in as fellow conspirators. 

The active members were informed of the character of 
the affair upon the issue of the invitations, but I will tell it 
as it occurred upon the evening of May 19th. 

General R. A. Alger was on the program to make a 
speech, and with military precision was one of the earliest 
arrivals at the armory, but it was not very long before the 
chairs became occupied by invited guests, and the ladies, 
veterans and active members. 

The Light Guard Band rendered enjoyable music and 
then the affair — ^which first comprised a series of presenta- 
tions of three portraits — was opened by General Alger, who 
presented a portrait of General H. M. Duffield in service 
uniform, accompanied by a pleasant speech, congratulating 
the Light Guard upon its efforts "in keeping up such a mag- 
nificent organization, in providing a splendid armory, and 
in, by its example, teaching love of country and respect to 
the Stars and Stripes." (The sum presented by General 
Alger and his deceased partner, M. S. Smith, to help the 
organization build the armory formed an extremely large 
fraction of the total amount raised.) The general also ex- 
pressed the hope that General Duffield might "live long to 
bless the Detroit Light Guard and to honor the city of 
Detroit." 

Hon. Alfred Russell, the veteran with silver tongue fame, 
presented the portrait of the late Judge Alfred G. Boyn- 
ton, and said : "When Judge Boynton arrived in this city 
the first thing he did was to join the Light Guard, and he 
immediately went to work helping to form companies of 
troops to participate on the Union side in the Civil War. 
His sunny disposition and co-operative spirit made him 
many friends, whom he held throughout his long and use- 
ful career. His f airmindedness and love for humanity were 



manifest not only in his work as a lawyer and jurist, but 
in his earnest efforts in journalism." 

The two pictures had been received with applause, but 
when Mayor Maybury stepped forward and examined the 
portrait of Colonel Chas, W. Harrah preparatory to deliver- 
ing his thoughts upon the subject, the boys seemed to make 
just a little more noise in the general applause, but the 
mayor could not think of anything to tell his hearers about 
the colonel that they were not already closely familiar with, 
but the cheering of his remarks attested the pleasure it gave 
them to hear a repetition of the enumeration of his virtues 
and soldierly qualities. 

These portraits had all been prepared by the Veteran 
Corps as part of its scheme to preserve a likeness of each 
member who has performed prominent achievements, and 
the presentations were simply gracious little ceremonies, 
as was also the acceptance of all three by Major Jacklin, 
president of the corps. 

It was a pleasant little program all the way through; 
Miss Emma McDonald's " 'cello solo " became plural ; 
Major Elderkin was as lusty as ever with the bugle, and 
everyone was reluctant to let Messrs. Homer Warren and 
Eobert Murray stop singing the "Sword of Bunker Hill." 

The Veteran Corps had never had a flag of its own, and 
one of the members having recovered a long lost little metal 
head of a tiger, it was decided to have a silk banner made of 
blue and gold and the head regilded and mounted on the 
top of the staff. The banner was made by the Ladies' Asso- 
ciation, and President Mrs. Abel, in presenting it to the 
corps, said : "In behalf of the Detroit Light Guard Ladies' 
Association I present to you this flag as a token of our es- 
teem and admiration for your valor in planting — so many 
times — that old and tattered banner in the fertile fields of 
the vanquished enemy — then little dreaming that it would 

354 



blossom anew aniidst the hands of loving friends, who with 
all their hearts present it to these noble men, whose giant 
strength strangled the a^vfnl dogs of war that Freedom's 
Angel could at length peal forth sweet peace forevermore." 

The following little speech, also made by Mrs. Abel to 
the old veteran who has been first sergeant of the corps ever 
since its inception, is self-explanatory: 

"Sergeant David R. Pierce : The Veteran Corps and 
Ladies' Association of the Detroit Light Guard present to 
you these flowers in appreciation of your kindness and gen- 
erosity in coming forward in a time of need, proving to us 
once more that in you the Light Guards have a loyal and 
noble friend." 

Refreshments and a general reception followed the plat- 
form pleasantries. The guests massed in the veterans' 
round parlor and had a closer view of the three portraits 
and were delightedly interested in the collection of por- 
traits, pictures and mementos of other days displayed upon 
the walls, an account of which will be found in the Veteran 
Corps' History, but the crowning event, especially for the 
active members, was the presentation to them by the ladies 
and veterans of a parlor and reading room — a thing they 
had not had since the old armory was left. 

When I had last passed through the long room 
it was barren save for a few pictures and long coils of black 
steam pipes, and a few scattered tables for checkers and 
cards. I had heard that it was to be furnished upon the 
plans of Mr. Cash P. Taylor, of the House Committee, who 
originated the idea, but when I entered the room upon that 
evening I found a wonderful transformation had taken 
place — so many furnishings and decorations had been added 
that the eye was bewildered, and even a single tour of the 
crowded room failed to reveal everything. 

The brilliant illumination coming from new clusters of 

355 



electric lamps suspended by artistic fixtures glinted upon 
silvered steam pipes and the glass fronts of many pictures. 
A large library table invited writers as well as readers, with 
its supply of materials and numerous periodicals. Old 
fashioned high-backed and sided seats covered with com- 
fortable home-made upholstering beckoned one to stop 
awhile and select a book from the well stocked little corner 
library. A fireplace filled one end of the long room with 
the surmounting cabinet work done in the Light Guard 
colors of blue and white, in which was set a mirror, gath- 
ering and redischarging myriad rays of light, thereby add- 
ing another touch to the general brilliance of the scene. 
Sergeant Alma Lake had, as the fruits of much hard work, 
installed along one of the side walls a copy of each picture 
he had taken with his camera during the tour of service, 
placed in four tiers with neatly inscribed titles set beneath, 
presenting an almost panoramical history of the battalion 
while in the Thirty-first M. V. I. The curtains at the little 
high-up windows betokened the industry of feminine fin- 
gers, and the heavy door draperies proclaimed the purchas- 
ing skill of a connoisseur. Checker and card tables at- 
tracted the enthusiasts of such games, and the comfortable 
arm chairs looked almost irresistible, but the crowd kept one 
moving. However, visits to the parlor since that evening 
have revealed additional attractions, and the least testi- 
mony that can be given as to the boys' appreciation is to say 
that the room is vacant only during the hours when the 
building is closed. 

The importance of such a room can hardly be estimated, 
for it offers an attraction to a respectable class of young men 
such as can only be found in expensive club rooms, and 
this, with the billiard room, bowling alleys and gymnasium, 
is being counted on as one of the strong features in holding 
the interest of the actives. 



The "Red Necks" assembled in Detroit on May 17th to 
attend the first annual reunion of the Veterans' Association 
of the Thirty-first M. V. I. 

The Light Guard boys hustled every incoming comrade 
up to the armory, where in the afternoon the business meet- 
ing was held. 

Sergt.-Maj. Sanford Hunt was elected president; In- 
spector-Gen. Fred S. Green, formerly first lieutenant in 
the Ypsilanti company, was elected vice-president; Capt. 
Walter G. Rogers of Company A was chosen treasurer, and 
Sergt. E. O. Schairer of Ann Arbor was made secretary. 

Greetings were sent to the First Georgia, and the citi- 
zens of Knoxville and Savannah, and Colonel Gardener 
and Captain Henderson, and the boys with them in the 
Philippines, were similarly remembered. 

The evening was given over to the pleasures of reminis- 
cences and speeches. The officers filled the mellow atmos- 
phere of the good fellowship of old comrades-in-arms, with 
their contributions of various recollections, and Colonel 
Harrah, who had just returned from an extended trip 
through Cuba, told the boys of how he had visited the old 
camp site at Amaro and found the path to the canteen ap- 
pearing just as though a night, and not a year had marked 
the time since last they traveled it. He also said that he 
stumbled over some tent pegs which the boys had evidently 
driven too deep upon the approach of some storm, to pull 
out with the means at hand when they had broken camp 
for home. 

Hearty hospitality is a marked characteristic of a sol- 
dier, and the entertainment extended by the Light Guard 
boys to their comrade-guests was of the very heartiest 
kind, and the whole event will remain a thing to enthuse 
over and be added to at each subsequent reunion. 

The last matter to record is the visit of Inspector-Gen. 



Green, who began his tour of inspection with the Light 
Guard companies upon July 9th. 

Company M — independent — was included in the inspec- 
tion, and the impression made is likely to accomplish the 
long contained desire of the whole organization to have the 
company entered in the State service. 

What results the inspections will reveal cannot be 
learned for some time to come, but the boys repeat among 
themselves numerous little rumors that have started around 
that General Green said so-an-so about the Light Guard 
companies. Just a little natural vanity that is not at all 
improper. 

The historian is relaxing his hold upon his pen in the 
week just prior to the state encampment to be opened 
August 7th, 1900. Many of the boys going into camp wear 
upon their sleeves gilt stripes piped with white, denoting 
war service, while many of their comrades are wearing the 
same stripe upon distant shores, but the wearers of un- 
adorned sleeves are of the same metal of which the veterans 
were made, for recruiting has been carried on with great 
care. 

History is piling up fast during these days, and the author 
wishes for a glance into the magician's crystal globe so that 
he might finally drop his pen with a sigh of greater satisfac- 
tion, but circumstances and the printer are becoming im- 
patient for the last sheets. 

The Glory of the Light Guard has been the inspiration of 
the historian in all his thoughts and arrangement of words 
in this record, and he nears the close of this general account 
feeling — although at times somewhat over fatigued — that 
the task has been one of absorbing interest to him, but now 
that he may almost write the word finale, yet he must first 
make up my mind as to just what kind and how many joss 
sticks it may be seemly to burn ere 'tis done. 



Upon the great shield of our country you will find an 
olive branch and a sheaf of arrows; the former symbolizes 
what is dearest to Americans as a people — Peace — but the 
arrows mean that we are most mighty in War, though we 
officially and spontaneously qualify the latter by our na- 
tional, pious motto — "In God We Trust." Wonders have 
followed this combination of self assurance and dependence 
upon a Higher power, until the United States of America 
holds a prominent place in the highest classification of 
Powers. 

The great division of opinion regarding the late war has 
been, and still remains, a deplorable thing. "Expansion" 
is a good word and is in good taste when descriptive of a 
proper growth. "Imperialism" belongs not seriously in the 
vocabulary of a republic, yet some of our race use it over 
much. 

Do those who point the finger towards Washington and 
scream "Imperialists !" then find no fault with the terrible 
Civil War ? Do they say it was not because territory was 
seceding, but that in the name of humanity the slaves had 
to be freed, and yet thousands of men continued to counter 
slay long after the slaves were emancipated? 

Look you, you crier of "Imperialism," and show cause 
why you should not be treated with contempt. Read over 
the pages dealing with the President's attempts to hold up 
the fair countenance of Columbia, unblushing before the 
world; how he was driven to call for assistance from his 
fellowmen; how they responded; how a far reaching and 
untried path was eagerly set foot upon and successfully 
traveled save for the few who were taken by the hand of 
Death; how the world was turned upside down at the 
strength and sweep of the Eagle's wings. 

No! the crier of imperialism is but a dreamer of wild 
dreams, and narrows his vision as if looking through a re- 
versed field glass. 

359 



"And the flag now there is not the Flag of Tyranny, it is 
the Flag of Liberty, and wherever the Flag goes. Character, 
Education, American Intelligence, American Civilization 
and American Liberty go." The War President has ac- 
complished some of his declaration in Porto Rico ; the eye 
does not have to strain to see it budding in Cuba; westward 
it is in full flower in Hawaii, but passing on from the 
pleasantly ordered household of Guam — ^well, how can you 
save several millions of under developed, evilly civilized 
and helpless humans from a few crafty leaders who first 
turned traitors to their educators and then broke every 
promise made to those they sought help and protection 
from, unless you keep about 65,000 good soldiers in the 
Philippine Islands to track and capture the leaders, and 
teach the natives about the wonders that will swoop down 
upon them in clouds of beneficence under America's pro- 
tecting hand? 

Exports from the Islands reached a valuation of 
$33,000,000 annually under Spain's liberal policy. When 
we have them reordered that figure will not only multiply 
rapidly, but American capital will build such a state of 
expansion as will cause the "anti-imperialist" to forget his 
old yell and change to the cry of "Monopoly" perhaps. 

No ! the history of our nation contains a record of con- 
stant expansion. Even Jefferson contradicted his most 
deep set principles of conservatism and rejoiced over the 
Louisiana Purchase, which took our boundary line from the 
Mississippi almost to the Rockies, Jackson, in replying to 
the general violent opposition to this deed, stated in Con- 
gress : "In a century, sirs, we shall be well populated, and 
prepared to extend our settlements, and that world of itself 
will present itseK to our approaches, and instead of the 
description given of it by the honorable gentleman, of mak- 
ing it a howling wilderness, where no civilized foot shall 
ever tread, if we could return at the proper period, we 



should find it a seat of science and civilization." Rise up 
prophetic Jackson and witness the verity of thy opinions. 

The nation's greatest thinkers are agreed upon the pres- 
ent policy of the E'ational Government, though it necessi- 
tates the far flinging of our battle lines. We may not live 
within a laager for the police duties of the world are thrust 
upon us. 

A large army will finally bring allegiance to our flag in 
the Philippines, and then troops will be withdrawn, just as 
they have been from Porto Rico, and are now being retired 
from Cuba. History records no errors against us, and we 
are too christian a nation to lightly shoulder our national 
responsibilities. 

This is common knowledge with our people, hence the 
always ready and willing strong arm of the Volunteers. 
They may heed politicians upon some subjects, but that 
class of semi-public men can never persuade our fighting 
population that the day of the Volunteer is past for the 
requirement of their aid in upholding the Nation's institu- 
tions, and that instead, they can only be called upon to per- 
form a mission of conquest and subjugation. The fame of 
the American Volunteers will never become a dream or an 
old song because of any such reason, but if peace keeps the 
Volunteer in a state of quiescence, then will it be an honor- 
able peace, all the more easily maintained because of the 
world's knowledge of the potentiality of American Patriot- 
ism. 

About a year ago the Czar of Russia invited his friends 
to meet in Holland to determine how war might be avoided. 
He asked them to kindly throw the breech blocks 
of their guns into the sea and draw the projectiles from 
their shells. It was a hefty and polite sitting and a rather 
formal plan was arrived at so that all might return home 
with dignity, but the white dove of Peace will ever go 



spotted with the uncleanness of exploding gunpowder, un- 
less it betakes itself to the frozen l^orth. It was not long 
after the "Friends" left the realm of the young queen that 
one of the powers entered upon a bloody war, which has, 
so far, recorded the mortalities above 50,000, and just now 
all the other powers are glad they did not tamper with their 
ordnance and ammunition. 

We, as a nation, have become confronted with a deplor- 
able situation in the far East, but the evidence has been 
before us all that our country is acting wisely and with a 
proper conservatism, yet vdthout weakness, for our dead 
have been lifted up from an extremely sanguinary Asiatic 
battlefield, but circumstances take from the author any 
opportunity to record the further performance of our duties 
in the premises, and the ultimate outcome — it is only left 
for him to vouch for the active members of the Detroit 
Light Guard should the President raise his voice to ask for 
volunteers, for the men of the Light Guard have always 
responded promptly and will continue ay to do so. 

The Detroit Light Guard, beginning with its early pre- 
decessor, is now sixty-four years old, and it has been the 
endeavor to tell the general reader of the life of this organ- 
ization, with something of national fame, and of the 
achievements for which it takes pride unto itself, but it is 
especially mindful of the generous pecuniary assistance 
received from the many citizens who have entries upon their 
cash books of sums presented to the organization, and it is 
also appreciatively conscious of the applause accorded it 
upon public occasions, for both kinds of generosity gOQS 
quickly to the heart of a good soldier, as they are both 
potent factors in the blue-clothed life of the Citizen Soldier. 

On behalf of the comrades of the Veteran Corps, the 
ladies of the Ladies' Association and the "boys" composing 
the four companies of the Active Corps, I bid the reader 
Adios. 



PART II. 



Veteran Corps. 



EVERAL attempts were made to perfect the or- 
ganization of a Veteran Corps, 
' but none were ever successful 
'y the following call was issued : 



^HSfe ganization of a Veteran Corps, notably in 1877, 
vv«A*-?f^'-' 1^^^ none were ever successful until 1880, when 



DETROIT LIGHT GUARD. 

Detroit, E'ov. 6th, 1880. 
Twenty-five years ago we responded to a call for the or- 
ganization of a Military Company to take the place of the 
Brady (Grayson) Guard. The result of that call was the 
organization of the Detroit Light Guard, whose record is a 
matter of state, and perhaps national history, to which we 
point with pride. Our active connection with it has long 
since ceased, but our interest in its welfare is as keen as ever. 
We feel that those who were its promoters and members in 
the past should continue to be identified with it, and suggest 
that the Quarto-Centennial Anniversary, the 16th inst., 
would be a suitable occasion to manifest the interest and 
pride we feel in the old company, and to that end we would 
be pleased to meet you at the armory of the Detroit Light 
Guard, Fireman's Hall, on Friday evening, the 12th inst., 
at eight o'clock sharp, to arrange for the organization of a 
Veteran Corps, and a suitable celebration of the anniversary. 
Very respectfully, 

WM. D. WILKINS, JOHN J. BAGLEY, 

JAMBS E. PITTMAN, ALFRED RUSSELL, 

JEROME CROUL, T. W. PALMER, 

JOHN ROBERTSON, J. LOGAN CHIPMAN, 

F. W. SWIFT. E. J. SMITH, 

WM. A. THROOP, CHAS. M. LUM. 



In pursuance of the foregoing call, a meeting of the Vet- 
erans was held at the Detroit Light Guard Armory on Nov. 
12th, 1880. 

Col. "Wm. D. Wilkins presided, and the motion was im- 
mediately adopted that an organization of the Corps be 
perfected, and that it participate with the Active Corps in 
the twenty-fifth annual parade and reunion. 

1' or many it was almost a novelty to find themselves step- 
ping out again to the strains of martial music beneath the 
colors of the Old Guard, and a goodly and good sized com- 
pany there was of them — thirty-eight — under command of 
Gen. Jas. E. Pittman. 

The original Koll of the Association of the Veteran Corps 
bears the date of K'ov. 16th, 1880, and the following super- 
scription and signatures : 

"The undersigned Veteran members of the Detroit Light 
Guard, desiring to preserve our connection with the com- 
pany, of which it has been our pride and pleasure to be mem- 
bers, and to perpetuate, in so far as in us lies, its history, its 
records and its associations, do hereby, by this act of signa- 
ture, having obtained thereto the full consent of the active 
membership of the present company — ^the legal custodians 
of the title — enroll and declare ourselves as the Veteran 
Association of the Detroit Light Guard under such articles 
of organization as may hereafter be agreed upon between us. 

"Dated at Detroit, Mich., the 16th day of IlTovember, 
1880, being the twenty-fifth anniversary of the organization 
of the Corps." 

(Signed) 

WM. D. WILKINS, JAMES C. LATHAM, 

JNO. J. BAGLBY, D. R. PBIRCE, 

J. W. SUTTON, EDWARD LAUDERDALE, 

R. R. HOWARD, OLIVER GOLDSMITH, 

EDWARD J. SMITH, SMITH R. WOOLEY, 

WM. A. THROOP, HENRY H. HODGSON, 

F. W. SWIFT, JOHN J. SPEED, 

366 



C. M. GARRISON, 
CHARLES M. LUM, 
A. F. R. ARNDT, 
JOSEPH O. BELLAIRE, 
H. F. EBERTS, 
SIMON S. WERTHEIMER, 
EDWIN JEROME, 
WM. H. HOOPER, 
FERDINAND C. ULRICH, 
WM. A. BUTLER, JR. 
JNO. ROBERTSON, 
CLARKSON C. WORMER, 
WM. A. C. MILLER, 
ZIBA DEWEY, 
WM. N. BURRILL, 
GEO. B. FRENCH, 
JAMES E. PITTMAN, 
ALFRED RUSSELL, 



JOHN B. PRICE, 

HERMAN C. FECHEIMER, 

WM. HANNA, 

JOHN F. MCMILLAN, 

WM. K. KYDD, 

A. H. HAWES, 

ROBERT A. LEGGETT, 

JAMES G. COOTS, 

ERVIN PALMER, 

A. J. DENEKE, 

CHAS. G. BAIER, 

SOLOMON COHEN, 

WILLIAM BOND, 

J. LOGAN CHIPMAN, 

E. H. BUTLER, 

J. W. DAVIS, 

EUGENE ROBINSON, 

JOS. G. STANDART. 



Others who had not been able to be present signed later 
as follows : 



HENRY C. PENNY, 
FRANK C. TROWBRIDGE, 
HENRY A. NEWLAND, 
J. I. HAIGHT, 
JAMES E. TRYON, 
E. WILLIAM COBB, 
A. P. T. BENITEAU, 
GEO. M. CHESTER, 
NORMAN JOHNSON, 
L. H. BALDWIN, 



THOMAS CRANAGE, JR.. 
JACOB HULL, 

D. PARRAND HENRY, 
FRED E. BUTLER, 
HENRY M. DUFFIELD, 
JOHN S. DICKSON, 

E. J. ENSIGN, 
CHAS. S. BAXTER, 
CHAS. H. SALTER, 
L. W. TINKER. 



After completing the organization the meeting adjourned 
without electing officers, the lack of which was felt at a 
meeting called through the newspapers for Wednesday, 
August 3rd, 1881, the event being the natural sequence of 
the death of ex-Gov. John J. Baglev, who was one of the 
organizers of the Detroit Light Guard. There was a large 
attendance, and Alfred Eussell was made presiding officer. 

Great was the grief of the gathered Veterans, and much 
expression of same was made bv word of mouth and fol- 
lowed by resolutions couched in most beautiful language. 



367 



An extract from the resolutions here given indicates the 
sentiment running through the same: "A manly man; a 
natural gentleman; an American of the highest type, he 
shone like a diamond cut in many facets." 

The colors of the organization were ordered draped in 
mourning for thirty days, and the comrades of the deceased 
mounted as a guard of honor as the remains lay in state in 
the corridors of the City Hall, and followed them to their 
last resting place, in company wdth the Active Corps. 

'No meetings took place after this date until April 1st, 
1882, when the veterans again assembled to do sad honor to 
another old departed comrade. Col. Wm. D. Wilkins. Rep- 
resentatives of the veterans of the Mexican War and the old 
Fire Department were also in attendance, as the deceased 
had been a veteran of both of these organizations. Gen. W. 
W. Duffield, who had served in the Mexican and Civil Wars, 
was chosen to preside. 

Joint resolutions were formulated and concurred in by 
the representatives of the organizations mentioned. 

The deceased had had marked military instincts from his 
boyhood up, and it grew in brilliancy as he matured to man- 
hood, and found magnificent expression in the amount of 
service he performed in the two wars. 

Upon his return from the last military campaign, his 
value became felt in the community through the ability he 
had to organize military bodies and keep them up to a 
standard of high efficiency. This, of course, can only be 
appreciated by military men, who understand what a dearth 
of men fit for the commanding rank, are to be had at a 
moment's notice in this liberty and peace loving republic. 

The deceased had spent considerable of his life in the eye 
of the public as a civilian, also, but it was said of him that 
his heart was ever where the morning drum-beat and the 
bugle call were heard. The interment of the remains of a 



man of such character was such as to tend to assuage the 
grief of the veterans left behind. Upon that occasion the 
Veteran Corps turned out fifty strong, under command of 
Gen. F. W. Swift. 

The next meeting of the Corps was upon the occasion of 
the twenty-seventh anniversary of the Detroit Light Guard, 
Nov. 16th, 1882. The joint parade of the Active and Vet- 
eran members was followed by the usual banquet and cele- 
bration. 

The next entry in the minutes of the Corps, which was 
under date of 'Nov. 16th, 1883, makes the announcement 
that the twenty-eighth anniversary was not observed by the 
Veteran Corps, and that there is no record of any meeting. 

On Oct. 3rd, 1884, a meeting of the Veterans was held in 
the armory to take action on the death of another dear com- 
rade. Gen. Wm. A. Throop, who, when the war broke out in 
'61, responded promptly for service and was mustered in 
with the Michigan First-Three Months as second lieutenant 
of the Detroit Light Guard, and who, after muster out of 
the three months organization received the rank of lieuten- 
ant-colonel of the First Michigan-Three Years, and con- 
tinued in service. 

Appropriate resolutions were passed, and another old 
Veteran had gone to join the "Immortals of the Blue." 

Up to this time the corps had never elected officers, and 
had also been without a constitution and by-laws, but at a 
meeting held Oct, 7th, 1884, the latter, which had pre- 
viously been formulated, were adopted. Colonel Lum occu- 
pied the chair during this meeting, and his comrades, having 
always in mind the great amount of military service the 
colonel had performed during the full period of hostilities, 
and believing that he had reached the age when his wounds 
would begin to affect him in the course of any physical 
exertion, passed a resolution that the chairman should be 

369 



specially excused from rising when having any remarks to 
make. This was a touching indication of the regard in 
which he was held by his comrades, and had it not been that 
his wounds were beginning to afflict him, he would have 
been compelled to accept the presidency of the Corps, and 
thus be its first presiding officer, even as he had been the 
first commanding officer in the dark days of "First Bull 
Run." He was, however, made First Vice-President, and 
the office of President imposed on Gen. James E. Pittman, 
one of the noblest of those associated with Detroit Light 
Guard achievements. 

On ISIovember 13th, 1884, a special meeting was held, 
with President Pittman in the chair. The purpose was to 
select a monthly meeting night, and to consider an invita- 
tion of the Active Corps to participate in a parade and recep- 
tion to be held upon the celebration of the twenty-ninth 
anniversary. Asa motion to provide uniforms for the Corps 
had been laid aside at a previous meeting, the Veterans 
thought it best not to appear in the parade; civilian attire 
upon such an occasion not being to their taste. 

Upon the evening of Nov. l'7th, 1884, the Corps held 
what was to be known ever after as their annual meeting. 
The same officers were re-elected and new members were 
enrolled. One interesting event was the enrollment of 
James D. Elderkin, a veteran of the Mexican, Florida and 
Civil Wars, and who for twenty-seven years had been ac- 
tively connected with the Light Guard as drummer and 
armorer. 

At this meeting another very interesting event took place, 
Captain Henry H. Hodgson presented the original parch- 
ment upon which was inscribed the pledge of the reorgani- 
zers of the old Brady Guard, which became the Detroit 
Light Guard. Other old documents connected with that 
organization and having considerable historical value, were 

also presented by Captain Hodgson. 

1 
370 



All li\T[ng veterans of the Brady Guard not already vet- 
erans of the Detroit Light Guard, were invited to accept 
honorary memberships in the Veteran Corps Association. 

Another important event in this meeting was the appear- 
ance of a number of Detroit Light Guard Veterans who had 
not yet taken up membership in the Veteran Corps Associa- 
tion, and these were duly elected : 

R. A. BISSELL, GEO. S. DAVIS, 

WM. HULL, PHIL PORTER, 

CASH P. TAYLOR, ABRAM SPANN, 

WM. W. ABBOTT, JAS. L. EDSON, 

JAMES NALL, JR., SAMUEL HEAVENRICH. 

F. G. SMITH, WM. A. MOORE, 

GEO. L. FIELD, A. G. BOYNTON, 

JOHN L. HARPER, GEO. L. MATTY, 

M. P. THATCHER, J. D. STANDISH, 

JNO. MERRILL, ROBERT S. MASON 

From this time on the Corps made a start at holding 
monthly meetings. The first one took place Jan. 6th, 1885. 
Colonel Lum presided, and in fact the beloved old veteran 
seems to have filled the chair at almost every meeting. 

At a special meeting on Jan. 10th, 1885, arrangements 
were made to join mth the Active Corps in a proposed levee 
in honor of Governor E. A. Alger. 

Meetings were held on March 3rd and Sept. 1st, 1885, 
but nothing of moment transpired. At the meeting of Oct. 
6th, 1885, two more veterans were enrolled — Fred E. Farns- 
worth and Chas. R. Baxter. 

On the afternoon of Isov. 16th, 1885, forty veterans 
represented their Corps in the annual parade of the Active 
Corps in celebration of the thirtieth anniversary. The cele- 
bration was continued that evening by the Veterans at the 
Biddle House. The regular annual business meeting and 
election of officers came first — Gen. Jas. E. Pittman and 
Col. Chas. M. Lum being re-elected to the offices of Presi- 
dent and Vice-President respectively, both of whom, how- 

371 



ever, were absent, the former because of absence from the 
city, and the latter because of illness. 

Col. Lum was to have recounted the interesting events in 
the life of the Detroit Light Guard, but because of his ina- 
bility to be present he sent a very interesting written ac- 
count. 

The family of George Doty oifered to deliver to the Corps 
some valuable records and papers of the Brady Guard, and 
Lieut. Fred E. Famsworth presented old records of the De- 
troit Light Guard. Such a collection of valuable documents 
had been received by this time that it was decided to procure 
a "strong box" for their safe keeping. 

The banquet followed with a goodly table of sixty-five, 
and toasts and good cheer abounded, until twelve o'clock 
found the appetite for reminiscence and good old battle 
song almost insatiable. 

The Corps was invited by the Active Corps to attend the 
presentation by Col. Eugene Kobinson on behalf of Hon. J. 
Logan Chipman of a portrait of Gen. Henry L. Chipman, 
on June 21st, 1886, and also to visit them at camp in July. 
L. D. Harris, Chas. F. May and Geo. A. Sheley were elected 
to membership on this date. 

On July 18th the Corps, in fatigue uniform, assembled 
and took a special coach to Camp Alger to visit the Active 
Corps then engaged in a tovir of camp duty by the State 
Militia Brigade. It was the first time in years that most of 
the veterans had stepped upon a tented field, and what mem- 
ories and emotions were awakened are only to be guessed at 
by historian and reader, but were they of a pathetic nature 
the royal reception extended them afforded little time for 
such a mood, and with the sounding of "mess," and the gath- 
ering together of the seniors — godfathers to the younger 
members of the old company — the cup of Auld Lang Syne 
was enjoyed to the dregs. The occasion was made still fur- 

872 



ther happy by the welcome extended by Governor Alger and 
staff, and other general officers, so that the Corps returned 
home in high good spirits and with the more sober thought 
that the honor and fame of the old company still shone with 
its original brilliance. 

On October 5th, 1880, Henry W. Jessopp and Geo. H. 
Reed were elected to membership, and on Nov. 4th, 1886, 
L. E. Johnson was enrolled, and John Patton, a veteran of 
the old Grayson Guard, was elected to honorary member- 
ship. 

Upon invitation from the Active Corps, the veterans held 
their annual meeting in the parlor of the armory, with forty- 
one members present. Gen. H. L. Chipman, a former cap- 
tain of the Active Corps, was present and voted an honorary 
membership. The records show that Col. Lum was present 
at nearly every meeting held since the organization, and he 
was at this meeting chosen President. 

As a special mark of respect to the old hero, his comrades 
invariably greeted his appearance by instantly rising; the 
act was not a specially premeditated one, nor prescribed by 
any resolution, but rather the result of individual inspiration 
begot of respect and admiration. 

The veterans had participated in the parade in the after- 
noon under command of Col. Lum, and were dined by the 
Active Corps that evening, and to show the good fellowship 
existing between the two associations, a resolution passed by 
the veterans is here given : 

"Resolved, That this Corps tender its most sincere thanks 
to the Active Corps for the use of its parlors during the year 
past, and particularly for the entire surrender of the parlors 
and many other courtesies on this anniversary. 

"That we recognize with much pride the prosperous con- 
dition of the Active Corps, and we assure you, gentlemen of 
the Corps, of our hearty interest in your welfare." 

373 



The death of W. A. Burrill, a member of Company A, 
First Michigan Volunteers (Detroit Light Guard) and a 
member of the Corps, occurred on Dec. 15th, 1886. 

Ed H. Patterson was elected to membership on Feb. 1st, 
1887. 

A special meeting of the Corps was held on March 21st, 
1887, to take action upon the death of Gen. John Robertson, 
who had been Adjutant General of the state continuously 
for twenty-six years, and arrangements were made to hold 
memorial services at the regular meeting on April 5th, 1887. 
Floral tributes were ordered, and the Corps, in company 
with the Active Company, attended the interment upon the 
following day. Death's Reaping-Hook left a vacancy in 
military circles hard to fill, for the deceased had been Adju- 
tant General of the state in the dark days of the civil strife, 
and his marked executive ability had placed the Michigan 
contingent of volunteers so promptly in the field that it was 
in the van of the first invasion of southern territory, and his 
continued and able grasp of military affairs won renown for 
the successive Michigan contingents, and after the deplor- 
able war was ended he vigorously prosecuted the organiza- 
tion of the State Militia until it had attained the highest 
state of efficiency. "Michigan In the War" came from the 
pen of this able man, and showed his complete knowledge 
of military affairs, and his ability to handle them. 

At the regular meeting resolutions, teeming with such 
expressions as only old comrades-in-arms know how to say 
from the heart, were formulated, and a copy sent to the fam- 
ily of the deceased brought a grateful acknowledgment. 

The deceased was promoted from the ranks of the Detroit 
Light Guard to be second lieutenant on Jan. 12th, 1857, 
and first lieutenant on Jan. 17th, 1860, which post he held 
until his appointment to be adjutant general, Feb. 18th, 
1861. 



374 



Ired AVoolfenden was elected to membership on May 
3rd, 1887, but the addition was offset by the death on May 
15th, of Comrade Wm. Woodbridge Abbott. It is pathetic 
to read the expressions which well-up from the hearts of old 
comrades-in-arms when the death of one of their number is 
made known to them, and the sentiment is all so tenderly 
put, but the real pathos appears in the invariable use of the 
old military terms, and the acknowledgment among them- 
selves that the "Reaper" is waiting to ever perform His 
office in the midst of those remaining. The memory of 
Comrade Abbott was fittingly hallowed by the appreciative 
sentiments of those yet to answer the same summons, but 
the summons is always awaited with as steady and unflinch- 
ing ranks as when they stood together upon field of battle 
when the heyday of their youth was upon them. 

At the regular monthly meeting on June 7th, 1887, an 
amendment of the by-laws was adopted to read that "Any 
ex-members of the Detroit Light Guard who shall have been 
honorably discharged therefrom, shall be eligible to mem- 
bership in the Veteran Corps, provided he shall be reputa- 
ble and of good character." A copy of this was sent to the 
Captain of the Active Company. 

On June 10th, 1887, occurred the death of Robert A. 
Leggett. He had been Captain of the Company in 1875, 
and one of the most popular officers to ever serve in that 
rank. The remains were interred in Elmwood on the 11th 
with appropriate ceremonies by both Corps. 

On Oct. 4th, 1887, the membership was added to by the 
enrollment of C. L. Hunt, and on I^ov. 1st, 1887, C. L. 
Williams, son of Gen. A. S. Williams, who was first captain 
of the company and affectionately called "Pap" Williams. 

At this meeting an invitation was formulated to the com- 
pany, requesting it to be the guest of the Corps upon the 
occasion of the celebration of the thirty-second anniversary, 

875 



and an invitation was accepted from Comrade E. W. Cobb, 
manager of the Casino Theater, to attend a reception to 
Mrs. Gren, Tom Thumb — what memories the reading of 
this must awaken. 

On Nov.' 16th, 1887, the thirty-second anniversary was 
celebrated by the regular parade, which consisted of thirty- 
five members escorted by seventy-eight members of the 
Active Company — the largest demonstration yet made — 
and in the evening the Corps entertained the active mem- 
bers, which was a very graceful expression of the good fel- 
lowship existing between both organizations. 

Col. Lum was elected to succeed himself as President, and 
it seemed that he must always remain at the head, even as he 
had first led his comrades to do brave things in the older 
days. 

Seven regular monthly and three special meetings had 
been held during the year, and the Colonel had occupied his 
post at every one. 

On Dec. 6th, 1887, seven applicants were received into 
membership : E. E. Mathews, T. L. McGregor, Sidney R. 
Dixon, Wm. V. Heidt, Gr. Jay Vinton, Geo. W. Corns and 
P. J. Kinnucan, and in addition, recorded as entered under 
date of :N'ov. 16th, 1887: Sands F. Moore, W. Chaney, 
Chas. Dupont, H. W. Coleman, Jr., Wm. F. Cooper, Wm. 
F. Crowe, R. C. Allen, C. H. Ketcham, John B. Whelan, 
Walter Buhl, J. W. Leggett and Samuel A. Murphy. 

On Jan. 3d, 1888, J. C. Linton, J. M. Jones, Jr., and 
James H. Glover were elected to membership, and on Feb. 
7th Chas. A. King, Alfred K. Kiefer, Harry D. Wylde, 
Ed. T. Bliss, John A. Dick, Ed. T. Ives, Jas. A. Knight, 
Chas. J. Termote, David L. Bostwick and Ed. C. Suckert, 
and on March 6th Wm. G . Latimer, Simeon L. Miner, Fred 
H. Turrill, Frank iN". Sweeney, John W. Carter and Harry 
B. Page. 

376 



The matter of securing additional room in the armory 
building for the use of both branches of the Detroit Light 
Guard had been agitated for some time, and the result 
found the Corps holding its March meeting in new parlors, 
the expense of which was to be shared with the Active 
Corps. It was resolved at this meeting that the Corps 
should hold three annual reunions, respectively upon May 
2nd, the date of the Detroit Light Guard's departure for 
Washington in 1861; July 22nd, 1874, the date of the 
Company's departure for duty in connection with the iron 
miners' strike ; and Nov. 16th, the date of the regular an- 
niversary celebration. 

The death of Comrade Albert J. Deneke, which occurred 
on a Southern Pacific railway train near Yuma, Arizona, 
upon Feb. 10th, was fittingly remembered by personal re- 
marks and written resolutions. 

W. A, C. Miller and Albert W. Allen were admitted to 
membership on April 3rd, 1888, and on May 7th Phillip 
Porter was enrolled. H. E. Palmer made another addition 
on June 5th. 

The Corps arranged with Comrade Captain M. P. That- 
cher to give a "War Talk," and the financial result was that 
thirty-six dollars was presented to the Active Corps. 

Every successive meeting seemed to find one or more ap- 
plicants for membership, so that the Corps prospered contin- 
uously in numbers and finances. R. C. Wallace was ad- 
mitted on Oct. 2nd, 1888. 

An order was issued by Wm. A. Butler, Jr., Captain of 
the Corps, requesting the members to assemble at the armory 
at 3 : 30 p. m. on Nov. 16th to escort the Active Corps in the 
regular annual parade in commencement of the celebration 
of the thirty-third anniversary. It is recorded that some of 
the veterans stepped not quite so briskly as in former days — 
that is to their glory. 

377 



At the banquet seniors smiled good fellowship across the 
board to their juniors. The atmosphere was mellowed with 
fragrant smoke, and the brilliant responses to the commands 
of the toastmaster bore witness to the quality of the "cheer." 

The most pleasureable incident of these reunions was the 
reading of letters of regret received from comrades scat- 
tered afar. They never failed to make the hearers feel the 
joy of their own ability to be present; the writers plaintively 
named over the old comrades they remembered so well, and 
recalled how they marched elbow to elbow with this and 
that old comrade; they always spoke lovingly of the "old 
flag," and expressed their feeling of assurance that their 
younger comrades would always uphold the fame and honor 
of the old company, and they never failed to mourn those 
who had been mustered out of life's ser\dce. But the most 
impressive event of these reunion banquets was when the 
final toast was reached — this was to the "Departed," and it 
was drunk in silence, standing. 

At the close of the banquet on this anniversary that good 
old song of the World's brotherhood of man, Auld Lang 
Syne, thrilled the very atmosphere as it flowed from voices 
of many complexions, but hearts beat the time, and fellow- 
affection made of it a symphony. 

The annual meeting was held upon conclusion of the day's 
celebration. Geo. M. Chester, of '54, and John T. Smith, of 
'65, were received into membership. 

One special and nine regular meetings had been held dur- 
ing the year, and Col. Lum always in his presiding place, but 
the record had cost him an almost unbearable effort, for 
battlefield wounds had begun to dog the old warrior, and the 
Corps must needs relieve him from his post, and so Captain 
Wm. A. Butler, Jr., was selected to be president. 

The announcement at the January (1889) meeting of the 
deaths of Lieuts. Wm. Kydd, in Detroit, on Dec. 23rd, 1888, 

378 



and Simon S. Wertheimer, in Chicago, on Dec. 25th, 1888, 
was communicated in a letter from Col. Lum as follows : 

Detroit, Jan. 8, 1889. 
Mr. President: 

In announcing the recent deaths of Wm. Kydd and of 
Simon S. Wertheimer, whose names have been upon the 
rolls of the Detroit Light Guard Veteran Corps, and who 
were members of Company A (Detroit Light Guard), First 
Regiment Michigan Infantry, in 1861, 1 wish, as comman- 
der of that Company, to say that during their term of enlist- 
ment they were good and faithful soldiers, whether in camp 
or on guard or picket duty, and I also wiUingly testify to 
their coolness and bravery during the battle of "Bull Run," 
July 21st, 1861. 

Respectfully submitted, 

CHAS. M. LUM. 

Meetings had been held on Feb. 5th, March 5th, April 
6th and May 7th, 1889, but no important event is recorded. 

Chas. W. Godfrey was enrolled on Oct. 1st, 1889, and 
Chas. F. Fairbairn and John J. Ease, of '86, were admitted 
on iNovember 5th. 

It is recorded that an unusually successful joint celebra- 
tion by the two Corps of the thirty-fourth anniversary took 
place on Nov. 16th of this year, and in the annual meeting 
Captain Wm. A. Butler was re-elected President. The 
membership was added to upon this occasion by the admis- 
sion of Guy W. Vinton, John O. Manx, Fred L. Abel, Wm. 
H. Allison, John A. Suckert and Samuel Warrick, Jr. It 
was decided upon request from the Active Corps to assist it 
in its efforts to secure Honorary Memberships, which would 
afford it a much needed additional income. This shows the 
responsiveness the Veteran Corps have always exhibited 
upon the reception of a petition from the Company. 

Hon. Wm. C. Maybury, who had been a member of the 
Detroit Light Guard from 1882 to 1887, was, upon his appli- 
cation, elected to membership on Dec. 3rd, 1889. 

379 



The Corps was pleasantly entertained by the Active Com- 
pany on Jan. 27th, 1890, and in return the corps, at its meetr 
ing on Feb. 4th appropriated twenty-five dollars to the Com- 
pany, with the request that it use same in providing an enter- 
tainment with the Veterans as the hosts, and thus, as they 
plaintively put it, let the ''old fellows" pay for and "have 
some fun," without the labor of preparing it. The Com- 
pany, appreciating the pathetic humor of the affair, carried 
out the request on March 4th, the event taking the place of 
the Corps regular meeting. 

The enjoyment of the occasion was augmented by an ac- 
count given by Comrade Col. H. M. Duffield of the Battle of 
Chickamagua, with maps of the field in reference. Those 
present can vividly recall the impression made by the event, 
as they intently listened to the quiet, measured tone of the 
speaker's voice, which, contrasting with the graphic charac- 
ter of his words, made the recital so intense that his hearers 
verily lived through the scenes and incidents described. His 
comrades wanted to know who was the staff officer who rode 
on special duty like Sheridan would have ridden, but just 
because "Henry" wouldn't tell, that did not prevent them 
from adding another to the list of sparsely known levents 
which had filled Comrade Duffield's long period of active 
and exciting war service. 

On Oct. 7th, 1890, C. G. Pease was received into mem- 
bership. 

It had become the desire of the Veterans, and therefore 
the custom, that the celebrations of the anniversary and re- 
unions be always in conjunction with the Active Corps, and 
the Veterans would each year hand over to the Juniors a 
good sized sum to be used in defraying expenses; this year 
seventy-five dollars was appropriated, and they were ready 
to increase the amount if necessary. 

The Corps held its annual meeting on the evening of Nov. 

380 



17th, 1890, with fifty members present. The Secretary's 
report revealed the interesting fact that only three members 
had been recorded present at each one of the meetings dur- 
ing the year. They were Comrades Taylor, Salter and 
Cobb; the latter was Secretary of the Corps; Comrade Sal- 
ter's war record would have made him to seem inconsistent 
had he missed being on time at every meeting; Comrade 
Taylor's character contains a quality of intenseness of a fibre 
of remarkable tenacity. It is needless to say that the per- 
sonality of these members was felt, and in all that stream of 
constant activity, with its eddy here and eddy there, which 
makes up the complexion of an organization and proclaims 
its degree of vitality and importance. Comrade Taylor was 
one of the chief builders of the dams to smooth the eddies 
and deepen the shallows that the channel might admit of 
heavy draught purposes and results. Thus it came about 
that this Comrade became the fourth President of the Corps 
— mark the list: Gen. James E. Pittman, Col. Chas. M. 
Lum and Capt. Wm. A. Butler, Jr. The sequence con- 
tinues : Comrade Salter was re-elected Financial Secretary 
and Comrade Cobb, Secretary — and thus the harness was 
readjusted for another cycle of twelve months. 

That each Corps should continue to appreciate intensely 
the varied interests of the other, it was necessary to keep a 
constant touch, and the veterans agree that the mutual 
understanding and regard which existed could not have been 
maintained had not Captain Sidney R. Dixon, commanding 
the Active Company, and Chas. C. Kellogg, President of 
the Active Corps for the four years preceding January, 
1893, given their heartiest co-operation. 

John L. Tompson, John II. Walshen and L. C. Hammer 
were elected to membership upon this date. 

It is recorded that the banquet and reunion of this, the 
thirty-fifth anniversary, was the same cordial affair of pre- 



vious celebrations; the tie between the two bodies still held 
tight. 

A unique souvenir of this celebration was issued. It was 
in shape and coloring a representation of an army knapsack. 

On Dec. 9th, 1890, Gen. Friend Palmer, John N. Bagley 
and L. B. Young were admitted to membership. 

An entertainment committee had been appointed at the 
annual meeting, and it was its office to provide a social period 
for the members at the close of each monthly meeting. Now 
it seems that the chairman of the committee could not figure 
out just what was expected of him, and he himiorously 
exi)osed his incapacity for organizing a cheerful affair by 
presenting to the meeting a tin plate containing a small piece 
of cheese, some hard-tack, and a small canteen filled with 
Mt. Clemens water. Perhaps the latter was the most un- 
pardonable, but there was a suspicion that the chairman of 
tiie committee was a joker, however, the balance of the com- 
mittee overcame the baneful effect the sight of these articles 
made, by announcing lunch, cigars, and cards. 

At the meeting on Jan. 6th, 1891, the death of Comrade 
'C. W. Godfrey was mourned. 

The Corps had, conjointly with the Active Corps, made 
elaborate arrangements for a levee to Gov. Winans and staff 
on Feb. 10th, 1891. It was a brilliant affair, and eclipsed 
all previous events of a like character. 

On Feb. 23rd the death of Comrade C. H. Wetmore oc- 
curred, and the Corps attended the funeral in a body and 
observed appropriate ceremonies. The Comrade had been 
one of the original members of the Detroit Light Guard, and 
his name was transferred to the roll of the Veteran Corps 
when it organized. 

On March 3rd another loss occurred through the resigna- 
tion of S. Warrick Jr., but both losses were made good in 
numbers by the addition of Wm. Borgman and H. H. Mears. 



At a special meeting on June 16tli, 1891, it was learned 
that Comrade Geo. M. Chester had died, and appropriate 
resolutions were made in memoriam. 

A special meeting was called on Aug, 11th, 1891, to take 
action upon the death of Comrade Fredrick AVoolfenden by 
drowning at Orion Lake. The resolutions recorded of him 
that he was "one of the truest soldiers ever borne on our 
rolls," and that "he was Sans Peur et Sans Keproche." 

On November 4th, 1891, A. O. Gray was admitted to 
membership. At this time the Corps had become rather 
particular about the admission of applicants, and unless the 
applications w^ere correct in all the details required in the 
application forms, they were not acted upon until they were 
made so. 

At this meeting arrangements were discussed looking 
towards the celebration of the thirty-sixth anniversary, in 
company with the Active Corps. It is amusing to note the 
spirit of profligacy with which the members made their 
financial plans. A motion was made to appropriate one 
himdred dollars for the Active Corps' use; Captain Hodgson 
attempted to raise it to one hundred and fifty, but prudence 
prevailed against him. Then a motion was made that every 
person should pay one dollar extra, but Captain McMillan 
succeeded in having it raised to one dollar and fifty cents. 

On the afternoon of ^ov. 16th, 1891, the Corps assem- 
bled to begin the celebration of the thirty-sixth anniversary 
by taking part in the usual parade with the Active Corps, 
and in the evening fifty-seven veterans sat down to the fes- 
tive board as the guests of the Actives, and the Veterans 
found that their one hundred dollars had been judiciously 
spent for them. 

It had been discovered that business and pleasure could 
not be well mixed in the space of one short evening, so the 
regular annual meeting had been separated from the annual 



celebration by having the former take place in December; 
and so on Dec. 9tli, 1891, it transpired that the Corps looked 
and saw that the burden haulers had hauled well, and they 
hastened to let the harness remain — that is, upon the three. 
The Secretary was made the hostler, and he had to cast the 
ballot that kept himseK to another haul — and it is a fact that 
the veterans' eyesight could still perceive a good hauler. 

John G. Deitz was admitted to membership at this meet- 
ing, and on Jan. 6th, 1892, C. C. Starkweather was received. 

On Feb. 3rd, 1892, eligibility to membership was changed 
to read, "Any ex-member of the Detroit Light Guard who 
shall have been honorably discharged therefrom, after at 
least four years active service in the State Troops," and with 
the same other qualifications as originally provided. 

Upon March 23rd Death played the hostler and removed 
the harness from one of its faithful wearers. Comrade 
Chas. H. Salter was lost in person to his fellows, but the 
poor clay was glorified as the funeral dirge moved the steps 
of those to whom it brought not bitterness — ^just wholesome 
sorrow, and tethered the life in the feet of the younger 
Actives who faced always to the morrow. The Comrade had 
been a member of the old Company when it led the Federal 
forces southward, and he had remained his country's sol- 
dier until the country had told its champions their task was 
ended, and it placed a laurel wreath upon him — "conspicu- 
ous gallantry" had won him promotions, and the brevet of 
Major of Volunteers. 

On May 4th, '92, Geo. W. Thayer, of Grand Rapids, was 
elected to membership. 

It is recorded that the Corps arranged for and held its 
banquet at the Wayne Hotel upon the occasion of the thirty- 
seventh anniversary. Just why the Veterans separated their 
celebration from that of the Active Corps is not quite clear, 
although both Corps had paraded together in the afternoon. 



"Was it decline of fellowship? Events have hardly proved 
so, but many of both Corps were — well, say a little disap- 
pointed, and there are some yet who remember it occa- 
sionally. A mistake had been made, but it has been recti- 
fied upon the date of every subsequent anniversary. 

One of the two haulers still left in the harness balked 
at the annual meeting on Dec. 7th, whether because of ex- 
haustion, or modesty, it is not known, but the same harness 
was reluctantly shifted to another broad, sympathetic back 
and Comrade Hon. T. W. Palmer became the President of 
the Corps. This left one of the three original haulders, and 
Comrade Cobb was left to yet feel the chafing which comes 
from long wearing of something taut about the person — 
such as assumed duties. 

The close of 1892 recorded the loss by death of a true 
comrade and a good soldier, whose mettle had been proved 
upon the battlefields of God and Man — Comrade William 
Hull. 

The close of the year also found one hundred and forty- 
nine members in good standing, and three more were added : 
J. R. Sterling, Fred B. Harper and W. C. Cahoon, Jr., and 
on Feb. 1st, '93, C. H. Green, John Heffron and J. H. 
Koenig were entered. 

On April 5th, '93, C. C. Kellogg, with an active service 
of nine years, was enrolled. 

On June 7th, '93, Charles C. Hinchman and Edward 
D. Ellis of Philadelphia, Pa., were elected to membership- 
The latter was, at this time, an officer in the Third Regi- 
ment ISTational Guard of Pennsylvania, and the writer was 
a member of the same regiment in 1895, '96 and '97, and at 
that time Mr. Ellis was senior battalion commander, and 
accounted one of the very best field officers in the States'^ 
service — that is the highest militia standard in the country. 



Col. John Winder, formerly a member of the Brady Guard, 
was elected to Life Honorary Membership. 

The following letter was received from Col. Lum and 
read at this meeting : 

Detroit, May 20th, 1893. 
Hon. T. W. Palmer, 

President of Detroit Light Guard Veteran Corps: 

My Dear Comrade — Several years ago I was honored 
with a request from a member of the Detroit Light Guard 
for a portrait of myself to be placed in their armory. I 
promised them that on some day in the future I would com- 
ply wdth their request. 

Today I fulfilled that promise by placing into the hands 
of the Secretary of the Veteran Corps a portrait painted by 
J. M. Stanley in August, 1863. It has been handsomely 
reframed by the Veteran Corps, and I respectfully ask the 
Veteran Corps to do me an additional honor and kindness 
in presenting the portrait to the Detroit Light Guard, at 
such time as they may elect. 

My further request and wish is that, in case the Active 
Corps should by any reason or under any circumstances be 
disbanded or cease to bear the name 'Detroit Light Guard,' 
that the portrait shall be returned to the officers and mem- 
bers of the Veteran Corps of the Detroit Light Guard and by 
them — through the Quartermaster-General, Michigan State 
Troops — be placed in the State Military Museum at Lan- 
sing. 

Sincerely yours, 

CHAS. M. LUM. 

On July 24th, '93, the Corps was placed on "the extreme 
right of the line," and acted as the escort of honor in Cadillac 
Day parade. Special preparations had been made by the 
Corps for the occasion under the efficient military super- 
vision of Comrade Eberts, who was the captain of the Corps, 
and under his command a turn-out of eighty-three members 
justified the conspicuous position assigned the Corps. 

On Aug. 20th, '93, a special meeting found the members 

386 



mourning the death of Comrade J. Logan Ohipman. He 
had been one of the organizers of the old company, and his 
name and companionship had always added a lustre to the 
organization which Death itself could not dim. Comrade 
Chipman had endeared himself to his fellow-members of the 
Corps from the first time he had entered the ranks of the 
Detroit Light Guard, when his comrades were yet young 
enough for active service, and in later years his simple and 
democratic character, although having been called to high 
places in national statesmanship, made him an ideal com- 
panion both with his old comrades and a great circle of 
fellow citizens. Thus, although his death was deeply 
mourned by the veterans, the great train of other mourners 
bore testimony of what the man had been. The noblest 
thing in life is such a companionship that makes men stop 
and consider the flight of another soul. 

Sept. 28th brought the Veterans together to sorrow again 
over the loss of another comrade. H. A. ^Newland had met 
a tragic, midnight death in a railroad wreck. The whispered 
consolation was that the response had been instantaneous 
with the first note of the sounded "taps." They reverently 
followed the remains to the grave, and placed upon the bier 
the last little vanity — God bless the vanity though — a floral 
design of a knapsack with the inscription, "Veteran 1855- 
1893" — surely a record surcharged with the quality of con- 
stancy. 

On I^ov. 1st, '93, Gilbert G. McDuff, Marshall H. God- 
frey, Frank J. Engels, F. W. Bliss, Chas. K. Cox and Adam 
Zetzing were elected to membership. 

On :N'ov. IGth, '93, the most successful and satisfactory 
celebration was begun in the afternoon by a joint parade of 
the tw^o Corps. It was the tliirty-eighth year of the Detroit 
Light Guard, and the Veterans turned out with a strength 
of sLxty-two, attired in the regulation army overcoat, black 

387 



felt hats and white gloves, and each one carried a cane — for 
a nrnsket is a heavy thing when vou have to carry it. 

One hundred and ten members of the Active Corps 
escorted the Veterans, who were preceded by the rourth 
Regiment Band in dress uniform. It was declared to be the 
largest turnout ever witnessed in Detroit since 1880. Con- 
spicuous in the ranks of the Veteran Corps was a something 
carried by Color Sergeant Oliver Goldsmith. That thing 
had once blazoned forth in all its original freshness, the 
beautiful theory of the equality of man; it had moved men 
on to heroic deeds, and its pattern had become an imprint 
upon their hearts, and now that powder-smoke had discol- 
ored, and shot had ruthlessly torn its beautiful folds to tat- 
ters, the old love which its bearers had for it was still as 
fresh and beautiful as when it was first unfurled and flung 
to tlie breeze and became the monitor of a nation's cham- 
pions. That old flag had been the first to cross into the coun- 
try of the enemy of its principles, and during the six weeks 
that the old company held the post of Cloud's Mill, Vii'ginia, 
in June and July, 1861, the flag was always there, floating 
aloft in quiet dignity, and then when suddenly arose the din 
and precipitation of the first fight, the flag was lifted and 
moved forward, and each man, as he raised his eyes to it, 
thrilled mth the just dawning recognition of his ability to 
do some heroic thing. Into the face of hot fire, where death 
grew like a weed, and the living had no time to tally the 
count; here and there, over this fence, and across that 
stream, and in the wild charge down upon the enemy, there 
it was, but the sad tale runs of a weaker power striving 
against a higher in point of force; an unsupported small 
column against a stronger defended position, and then, "we 
gathered what we could about the old flag and walked out 
of that fearful fire up on the hill, and there gathered the 
men as we could." But the flag was only worshiped the 



more — adversity always strengthens the tie of comradeship. 
This then was that something which was so conspicuous in 
its lack of brilliance, and glorious in its honorable disfigure- 
ment. 

The banquet which followed the parade was honored by 
the presence of a brilliant assemblage of prominent civilians 
and military ofiicers : G ov. Rich and staff, Mayor Pingree, 
Brig.-Gen. Bowen and staff. Gen. R. A. Alger, Captain 
Vernon, 19th infantry, U. S. A., and many others. During 
the speeches. Comrade Hon. Alfred Russell unveiled and 
presented the portrait given by Col. Lum of himself, and 
as the drapery was withdrawn the entire company arose as 
one man and hailed with cheers, "which greatly affected 
Col. Lum," as it is chronicled. 

It is interesting in the light of latter day events to read 
a remark made by Gen. Alger during his speech. He stated 
that he had for his guest a foreign gentleman who came to 
this country to attend the World's Fair. He had never been 
in this country before, and while he was impressed with its 
magnitude, and wondered at its growth, he wondered yet 
more at the absence of a considerable regular army. ''I told 
him," said Gen. Alger, "that we did not have to have one; 
that the United States was able to take care of itself with- 
out a large standing army, and if needs be, would have 500,- 
000 men ready for battle at the shortest notice; that 5,000,- 
000 men were ready if called to the field for three months; 
that this country was too large, too intelligent, and too patri- 
otic to need a standing army to guard it. There is in every 
state of the Union a national guard, which is ever ready, if 
needs be, to respond to their country's call. I told my visitor 
that if he did not think this to be so, all they have to do is 
to set 'em up against us." 

The spirit of goodfellowship at this reunion was of such 
a character as to indicate the strengthening of ties between 

389 



the Seniors and Juniors to a degree of intensity never at- 
tained to before, and when the toastmaster, in dismissing 
the gathering, called for the old familiar song of Auld Lang 
Syne there was a strange light upon the face of e very- 
singer, and many a voice quavered and grew husky. 

The death of Wm. Crowe made a record of another loss. 

On Dec. Gth, the membership numbered one hundred 
and fifty-five, sixteen being non-resident, and four honorary 
members. 

At the previous annual meeting Comrade T. W. Palmer 
was elected president, but at none of the thirteen meetings 
held during the year was Comrade Palmer found at his post, 
and there seems to be no record of a leave or leaves of ab- 
sence having been granted, but much as "Tom's" presence 
would have been appreciated and enjoyed, yet they knew 
that he M'as not a stranger to the Corps proceedings, and his 
comrades had delighted to know that he was their president, 
as it but added to the flavor of the Association's prestige, and 
he well knew how to grace its public assemblies. 

John A. Dick was made the new president. Comrade 
Cobb was still kept to his load, and the other old hauler was 
continued in the task of moving various committees, as his 
peculiar ability to do that kind of work had been discovered 
and carefully fostered, and to this day Comrade Taylor has 
not iieen permitted to seek a pasturage of rest. 

On Jan. 20th, upon the recommendation of the Grievance 
Committee, the distasteful duty of dropping seven delin- 
quent members was performed. The members were very 
backward about taking any radical action in connection 
with their comrades, and only persued the drastic measure 
of dropping when there was nothing else left for them to 
do. It seems that upon this occasion a revulsion of feeling 
arose, and a graceful thing was done to honor their old 

390 



leader, in the passage of a resolution that the dues of Col. 
Lum be remitted for life. 

Geo. H. Carlisle was enrolled on Feb. 7th, '94. 

On April 4th, '94, arrangements were finally consum- 
mated for the purpose of making the Veteran Corps, to a 
greater extent, part of the corporation known as the Detroit 
Light Guard, and to emphasize the connection, the Veteran 
Corps decided to have their dues payable to and collectable 
by the general treasurer, who was the fiscal officer of the 
corporation, but subsequent collections under this arrange- 
ment proved to be rather tardy, and so, an additional 
arrangement was made later, whereby the treasurer of the 
Veteran Corps was to collect the dues, and then turn them 
over to the treasurer of the corporation. 

On April 9th, '94, the Veterans followed the remains of 
Comrade E. W. Cobb to their last rest. He had been the 
best secretary the Corps had ever had, and his loss was keenly 
felt, but not alone because of his efficiency, for his had been 
a pleasant sympathetic spirit, before which men hastened to 
drop their barriers. He was gifted with a marked energy 
and intelligence, before which, task after task, capitulated. 
His share of years had not been lived, by a considerable 
margin, but the Veterans hold in reverence the orders of 
their Great Commander-in-Chief ; and so they buried him, 
but not his memory. 

J. H. Walthew was elected on May 2nd, to fill the unex- 
pired term of secretary. 

On Nov. 16th, '94, upon the occasion of the thirty-ninth 
anniversary, one hundred and fifty members of the Active 
Corps escorted forty-five members of the Veteran Corps 
in the usual parade, and immediately after breaking ranks 
upon the return to the armory, they all sat down to the 
banquet. The hour was an innovation, but it was every bit 
as successful as it would have been if held at the regulation 

891 



banquet hour. Comrade Hon. T. W. Palmer — "Tom 
Palmer," or "Corporal," as the Veterans like to call him — 
presided as toastmaster, and his happy remarks gave the 
affair just the right kind of impetus to make it a thorough 
social success. The fact must not miss being mentioned 
that the redoubtable old Colonel was present in a post of 
honor. 

On Dec. 5th, '94, F. S. Smith was elected to membership. 
It being the annual meeting, Comrade John A. Dick was 
re-elected president. 

On July I7th, '95, the members were called together to 
mourn the death of Comrade Ferdinand H. TJlrich, and as 
a special mark of regard and sympathy, they participated in 
the funeral ceremony. 

A month later (Aug. 25th) the death of Comrade James 
L. Edson was announced. The bare record of the life of 
the deceased reads like a beautiful ode. He had lead a busy 
life in the commercial world, but he had never, as a conse- 
quence, abridged the slightest duty or obligation; thus it 
came about that others mourned his death as intensely as 
did his old Comrades-in-arms, and that his memory was 
fittingly hallowed. 

Another cycle had rolled around, and on the afternoon 
of Nov. 16th, 1895, the celebration of the fortieth anniver- 
sary was observed by parading and banqueting with the 
Active Corps. The banquet began at six o'clock and hap- 
pily conducted by toastmaster Comrade Hon. Alfred Rua- 
sell. "It closed with three cheers for the toastmaster and 
a God speed for all." 

On I^ov. 20th, 1895, Comrade Judge A. Gr. Boynton was 
elected President and Col. Fred E. Farnsworth was made 
Secretary. These gentlemen were in the prime of man- 
hood and their important positions in their respective fields 

392 



of activity reflected honor upon any duties assumed by 
them. 

At a meeting on Dec. 18th, 1895, a resolution was passed 
as follows : "That the President appoint a committee of two 
whose duty it shall be to ask of the incoming President of 
the Active Corps information as regards said Corps as to its 
standing and future plans." This was the first step taken 
by the Veterans in connection with the frequent speculation 
as to whether it would be possible for the Detroit Light 
Guard to build an armory. The subject had grown to be 
an imperative one, owing to the increase caused by the 
amalgamation with the Detroit City Grays in 1890, and the 
proposed admission of the St. John's Cadets on Jan. 9 th, 
1896. This committee reported on March 18th "that the 
membership of all the companies were in good condition," 
and that an armory committee had been appointed com- 
posed of the Veteran members Messrs. Duffield, Boynton, 
Whelan and Maltz, and the Trustees of the Veteran Corps, 
and it was further reported that "It was the wish of the 
Active Corps that the Veteran Corps take charge of all mat- 
ters appertaining to the new armory." 

On Feb. 24th, 1896, the Corps was invited by the Actives 
to attend a camp fire to be held in honor of Col. Lum, who 
presented to the Detroit Light Guard a painting of Cloud's 
Mill, executed by himseK. Comrade Eberts made the ad- 
dress, and a silver loving cup presented to the Corps by 
Comrades Duffield, Boynton and Maltz was freely used, 
adding to the good cheer of the event. 

Henry W. Skinner, Collins B. Hubbard, W. H. Brace, 
Harry Milward, D. M. Ferry and Wm. W. Magee, Jr., were 
elected to membership on March 18th, 1896, and on May 
20th Robert E. Mason, James E. Scripps and Herman C. 
Ralph were enrolled. 

On July 8th, 1896, the people of Detroit celebrated the 



first centennial anniversary of the evacuation of the city by 
the British. The interest centered mostly around the in- 
stallation of a bronze memorial tablet m the Tort street 
entrance to the postoffice, as that spot was where the flags 
had been changed in the old fort. The parade was very 
large, and although both the active and veteran corps had 
a large representation, yet their numbers were somewhat 
affected by the wholesale appointments of members of both 
to serve on the staff, there being nineteen from the Veteran 
Corps alone. Thus did this branch, like a group of prisms, 
keep forever flashing the colors of the Light Guard's fame. 

On Sept. 12th, 1896, occurred the death of Comrade 
Charles H. Leonard, who had been a charter member of the 
Detroit Light Guard. The remains were escorted to the 
Chicago train by the Corps with a detail from the Active 
Corps as pallbearers. 

W. H. Hopper, H. L. O'Brien, K. C. O'Brien, Charles 
Schwartz, Charles L. Siau, James Cranshaw, Jr., Henry 
B. Lothrop and F. F. Wormer were elected to membership 
on Nov. 12th, 1896. 

Upon IsTov. 17th, 1896, occurred the celebration of the 
forty-first anniversary and it was the most enthusiastic and 
successful celebration that any organization had ever held in 
Detroit. The interest of both Veterans and Actives had 
been keyed up to a boiling point of enthusiasm, particularly 
because there was before each man a picture of their beauti- 
ful new armory as it was to appear when completed. 

The parade formed a column headed by the Fourth Regi- 
ment Band with eighty-two members of the Veteran Corps 
following in platoons, and they made a handsome appear- 
ance in their blue army overcoats, black slouch hats and 
white gloves, and in their midst were borne the two battle 
flags of the old Guard. The Active Corps, one hundred and 
fifty strong, followed as escort. 

394 



The hour of the banquet was set at six o'clock, and there 
in the old quarters, which had been the scene of many inter- 
esting events, the most notable gathering which had ever 
congregated within its walls sat down to the banquet table. 
It was a soldier's feast in every sense, for every man present 
was a military man, from the several living charter mem- 
bers of 1855 to the recent recruits. The Regular Army, 
Light Infantry, and Naval Reserves were represented. 

There was a profusion of floral and military decorations, 
including a tent and flag-pole, at the base of which were 
strewn the trappings and sword of the lamented Major Fair- 
banks, who entered active service as the first lieutenant 
of the Light Guard. 

The toastmaster was Gen. Alger, and after he, with the 
invited guests and the Veterans had taken their seats, the 
four companies marched in and halted on a line, and as 
"Colors" was sounded by Comrade Elderkin, a hero of three 
wars, the flag was broken out on the pole and three volleys 
fired out of a window. The enthusiasm had now reached 
fever height. The gathering numbered two hundred and 
fifty, and the speeches were in a very happy vein. Com- 
rade Hon. Alfred Russell spoke of the birth and silver anni- 
versary, and longingly hoped to look upon the golden anni- 
versary in 1905. He said, "Some say that by that time 
there will be no war, but that arbitration will take its place. 
While I believe that wars will grow less, I say that no man 
can tell when a nation will be placed in that predicament, 
and there are many things worse than war, and that as long 
as we are a nation we must practice the maxim that in time 
of peace we must prepare for war." These were indeed wise 
and fitting remarks. 

The most beautiful speech of the evening was by C. C. 
Kellogg in response to the toast of "Wives, Sweethearts and 
'Babies' of the Light Guard." At the conclusion many eyes 



held a surplus of moisture, and Gen. Alger left his post and 
approaching the speaker, informed him that his remarks had 
gone to his heart such as none others in his memory had 
done. 

A fit finale of the event which had been particularly char- 
acterized by deep-felt emotions and sympathetic conversa- 
tion, was the singing of Auld Lang Syne. 

The Veterans should remember with an entirely pardon- 
able self commendation the fact that, through their active 
interest, the companies were permitted to enjoy the presence 
of such distinguished and brilliant guests, whose good fel- 
lowship came naturally with their presence, and their good 
fellowship having once been visited upon them, they con- 
tinue to enjoy much of its general benefit. 

On ]^ov. 27th, 1896, W. R. Candler and Maj. C. E. Rich- 
mond were enrolled. This was the annual meeting and at- 
tention was called to the fact that, at the previous annual 
meeting, a nominating committee had been appointed, which 
had resulted in the selection of good "material" for ofiices — 
this had the result of re-electing Judge Boynton to be Presi- 
dent. 

On Dec. 16th there were just four members present at 
the meeting, and it is humorously recorded that "This being 
a quorum for pedro, and not for the Veteran Corps, no 
meeting was held." 

Twenty-six members assembled to join the Active Corps 
in the ceremony of "breaking ground" for the new armory 
on May 31st, 1897. After several speeches. Col. Lum, 
with what grace; the now growing encroachments of the old 
battle wounds would permit, lifted the first shovelful of 
earth into a receptacle for preservation. His action was then 
repeated by many of those present. The old leader was yett 
to see greater things done for the organization his pride and 
interest were centered in, the next event beiing the laying 



of the cornerstone on Oct. 18th, 1897. (Editor's Note. — A 
full account of both these events will be found in that part 
of the history dealing with the subject of the armory.) 

To the measured cadence of muffled drum beats and 
solemn funeral dirge, the remains of Comrade Gen. Eugene 
Robinson were borne to their last resting place on the after- 
noon of Nov. 1st, 1897. It was the largest and most impres- 
sive funeral cortege ever witnessed in Detroit, and it was 
naturally made apparent th^t the deceased had bieen held in 
highest regard in many circles of association and comrade- 
ship by the magnificence of the ceremony provided. There 
was an impressive mingling of the brilliant and the sombre, 
gold braid and clinking swords of the military officers, the 
dull blue uniforms and polished muskets of the soldiery, the 
stately black of the War Veterans, and the striking chapeaux 
of the Templars. Templars, Veterans and Soldiers, in one 
long column, followed their favorite dead. In the rear of 
the funeral car followed that feature of ai military funeral 
which is rarely seen, but when it does happen to be a feature 
it stirs up all the feeling of pathos there is in the beholder; 
thus, when the eyes of the bystanders rested upon the dead 
General's favorite horse, saddled and bridled, \^ath a 
streamer of crepe floating from the pommel, and the boots 
reversed in the stirrups, the sense of one man having been 
removed from all things earthly went more keenly to their 
understanding. It would be impossible, in this space, to 
enumerate the various organizations appearing in the 
parade, and to recoimt what part peculiar to their rites they 
each performed in the general ceremony. It had been a 
long ceremony, and the twilight was dimming when the 
last specimens of nature's beautiful handiwork were heaped 
upon the new made mound, and it was dusk when the prelate 
began the final prayer, "I am the Resurrection and the 
I ighf," and as he finished the words, "dust to dust; ashes to 

397 



ashes," there rang out the volLejs which add the proper 
finale to the funeral ceremony of a departed soldier, and the 
multitude of mourners were thrilled by the most beautiful 
call ever sounded on an army bugle; the shrill notes of 
"Taps" announced that the lights were out for one more 
Comrade. The deceased soldier had been the first duty 
sergeant of the Light Guai-d Company when it entered the 
war, and promotions had followed rapidly. After he had 
been mustered out at the close of the war he had taken an 
active part in the reorganization of the Michigan National 
Guard, and to his phenomenal skill as a drill master, and his 
military executive ability, is largely due the present high 
standing of the Brigade. 

The celebration of the forty-second anniversary, on iN'ov. 
16th, 1897, is of more than usual interest, as i!t was the last 
reunion and celebration that took place, owing to the fact 
that the war with Spain began in the fore part of the follow- 
ing year, and the consequent continued absence of three of 
the companies in the volunteer service. It was specially in- 
teresting, because the speeches contained the usual patriotic 
expressions and descriptions of the true mission of a soldier, 
with mention of the conditions in Cuba. But little did the 
Veterans, in the usual admonitions to the younger soldiers, 
think that the latter were to be so shortly putj to the test. 

The afternoon par'ade was to be the last, until at the later 
date, the Veterans escorted the Active Companies as they 
marched off to war, just as the Veterans themselves had done 
thirty-six years before, and at the banquet there sat many of 
those who did not know that they were soon to don their 
uniforms and sally forth in the service of the jSTation. They 
talked then, but when the time came they acted as the true 
men they were. However, the loving cup passed around, 
and good cheer followed in its wake, 

A yerj finje specimen of a stuffed tiger belonging to H, A. 

898 



^Xewland & Co. had always been borrowed upon the occasion 
of the annual banquet, Now the tiger is the Detroit light 
Guard's emblem, and the members have aJso given that 
name to themselves, but the Veterans, having grown fearful 
that the object thev had become attached to might pass out 
of the hands of Newland & Co., and therefore bevond their 
reach, purchased the specimen, so that it might always 
grace the parlors of the organization, and the presentation 
ceremony aroused a great deal of enthusiasm. At the close 
of the banquet attention was called to the fact that this was 
to be the last anniversary celebration to be held in the old 
armory. Instantaneous with the announcement came a 
flood of memories to the old Veterans, for here had been the 
home of their soldier life during the many years since 
1862, and here had they met in reimion and grasped each 
other's hand with heartspun felicitations, but through the 
sadness came the rays of cheer begotten of the pleasant 
expectancy always aroused by the contemplation of a new 
home to come. 

At the annual meeting, Dec. 8th, 1897, came the informa- 
tion that the "sick call" had been sounded for Judge Boyn- 
ton, but that the matter was not considered to be serious sit 
the time was evidenced by the fact that he was re-elected 
President. The Secretary reported that M. G. Borg-man, 
John Hutchings, W. C. Hensler, Ed Souden and Edwin 
Atkinson had been carried on the rolls of the Treasurer, but 
that their names did not appear on the Secretary's roll as 
having been elected to membership. Kules were suspended 
and they were immediately placed in good standing. New 
members admitted were John W. Steiner, Chas. L. Clark, 
Henry C. Barton, E. O. Chase, Caspar H. Schulte, Chas. 
Camel, Geo. J. Kobinson and Gen. Henry E. Mizner. The 
latter is one of the charter members of the Detroit light 
Guai'd, and at the close of the war he was mustered out as 

399 



Colonel of the Fourteenth Michigan. He immediately re- 
entered service, and is now retired with the rank of Brigadier 
General in the Regular Army. 

On Dec. 30th, 1897, occurred the death of Comrade Capt. 
Henry H. Hodgson. He had entered the war a^ a member 
of the Detroit Light Guard, and continued to serve until 
mustered out as a First Lieutenant in the Fifth Michigan 
Infantry. On Jan. 2nd the Corps, accompanied by seventy 
Actives, with eight sergeants as pallbearers, gave the re- 
mains a military interment. 

It is hard for a historian to do full jusitice to the required 
recounting of such sad events, as they have numerously oc- 
curred in the history of the Veteran Corps. The sadness 
and sentiment felt at the loss of an old Comrade-in-arms has 
but a scanty wardrobe, and that is proper, for there is but 
one sentiment, and ostentation of expression does not bear 
the note of perfect sincerity, therefore, a fitting testimony is 
that Comrade Hodgson was sincerely mourned in the hearts 
of his Comrades. 

On Jan. 9th, 1898, Sorrow's wardrobe was again opened, 
and her garments carefully sought over, that a suitable garb 
might be found for the occasion of the demise of Judge 
Albert G. Boynton, who had enlisted in the Detroit Light 
Guard in ^N^ovember^ 1857. He had been a very brilliant 
man, and as President of the Corps had added to its import- 
ance and general welfare. 

One of the last requests Judge Boynton had made was 
that his old Company officiate at his funeral, and accordingly 
the interment was of a thoroughly impressive mili'tary char- 
acter. After the services in the church had finished, the 
beautiful notes of Chopin's Funeral March accentuated the 
pathos of the occasion, and to its strains eight sergeants bore 
the casket to the funeral car, and then walking four on each 
side with the Active Corps preceding, and the Veterans, with 

400 



a large company of honorary pallbearers, including some of 
the most prominent citizens, bringing up the rear, the cor- 
tege slowly wound its way to Woodmere cemetery. Here 
the last sad honors were performed, the volleys fired and 
"Taps" sounded. 

The Veterans had another season of mourning and they 
knew not who might be the next to fall before Death's 
reaping-hook, but with them Death had no sting, and the 
grave was without a victory. Surely it is good to have been 
one's Comrade-in-arms. 

There was now a sad task to be performed ; the President's 
chair must be filled, though a High Summons had but re- 
cently hallowed it, and so Comrade Capt. Geo. L. Maltz was 
selected to be President on Jan. 19th, 1898. He had been a 
diligent member, and occupied a conspicuous position in the 
commercial and financial world, and therefore a good man 
for the office. 

In order to have a more tangible memorial of deceased 
comrades, it was decided, upon the suggestion of one of the 
members in January, 1898, to have all resolutions in memo- 
riam printed and bound in book form. 

W. G. Squier and Capt. C. M. Eoehm were elected to 
membership on Jan. 19th, 1898. 

A number of the members, including Col. Lum, joined 
with the officers of the Active Company in the performance 
of the ceremony of laying the last brick on the Armory on. 
Feb. Yth, 1898. More of this will be found in the armory 
history. .. , 

About this time Col. Duffield, as President of the Corpora- 
tion, began the great task of strengthening the financial fea- 
ture of the new armory, and he suggested that the Veteran 
Corps appoint sub-committees from their number, and seek 
to raise $10,000 by selling second mortgage bonds. 



401 



On April 11th, 1898, the members laid to rest the remains 
of another dear old Comrade, William Hanna. 

'No entries were made in the minute book of the Veteran 
Corps after the date of April 11th, until IS'ovember 1st of 
the same year, when the following Avas set down : 

"Many important events have taken place in the organiza- 
tion's history during the past few months. 

"The finishing of the armory and its final opening with 
Sousa's Band. The spectacle 'The trooping of the colors' on 
April 29th, 30th and 31st, 1898. 

"The war with Spain and the sending to the front of three 
companies of the Detroit Light Guard, M. jST. G., and com- 
pany M, Detroit Light Guard, independent — Four Com- 
panies. 

"The exercises attending the leaving of the three M. K. 
G. companies, held at the new armory. Later Company 
M's departure and the return of Company M from the front 
and before Santiago. Also the reception given the war 
heroes at the new armory." 

Although no regular meeting of the Corps was held dur- 
ing the intervening period, yet that is no indication that the 
veterans were inactive ; on the contrary, the reader has been 
presented with statements showing that the veterans were 
continually engaged with the affairs of the organization at 
home, and not only looking after the members in the field, 
but they were the backbone of every military demonstration 
in Detroit. When the veterans conducted Companies A, 
B, and F to the yet incomplete new armory and then sent 
them off with a great farewell demonstration and earnest 
God speed, some of them were minded to attempt to follow 
the younger men, but the knowledge of certain rejection 
restrained them. The old soldiers knew what a battle was 
and all the hardships of a campaign, and although their 
actual knowledge was confined to the weapons of yesterday, 

402 



yet they understood that the scientific improvements in ord- 
nance of all classes which would go to make up the equip- 
ment of a modern army, were likely to play greater havoc 
than the old Springfield muskets of '61-'65. They knew 
also that as this was to be an international war, our troops 
would be taken from off their native shores to fight the 
enemy, so they set themselves to auspiciously speed their 
young successors in arms, and how that was done, and how 
the fourth company, Company M, was placed in the very 
front rank of the actual affray, the reader will have already 
found sufficiently stated in the general history, nor has there 
been omitted mention of the close touch maintained by the 
members of the Veteran Corps with the members of the 
Active Corps in the volunteer army. 

Of course, it is impossible for a man to perform a woman's 
work, but the veterans did all within their province, and 
upon reaching their limit, they helped the mothers, wives 
and sisters of the boys in the service to organize a relief 
society and the veterans stood ready to assist them in their 
undertakings at all times. The benefit of this co-operation 
has also been set forth, and it is further detailed in the sketch 
of the Ladies' Association. 

Aside from looking after the welfare of the Active Corps 
and conducting military demonstrations as occasion called 
for, the Veteran Corps had to shoulder the great burden of 
solving the problem in connection with the new armory, and 
reference to the account of the armory will tell of their work 
in this connection. To one who has gotten close to the 
record of the Corps' activity through the reading of authen- 
tic data, it is a marvel that so much was undertaken and 
that no vein of failure cropped up at any point. The Corps 
had the earnest co-operation of Mayor Maybury, but as Mr. 
Maybury is a member of the Veteran Corps, the co-operation 

403 



did not, except in a slight measure, deflect any Light Guard 
coloring from the whole performance. 

The Veteran Corps took such a Lroad stand in all matters 
connected with the war as brought home to Detroit, that it 
was looked to to act on all occasions on which its assist- 
ance would be helpful. The A^eterans welcomed and ex- 
tended hospitality to every soldier who straggled homeward 
burdened with ill health, whether his home was in Detroit 
or in other places, and even the home-coming dead were 
tenderly received and looked after by the Corps. It is inter- 
esting to note one expression of acknowledgment of such 
services, as here given. 

Executive Office, 
Detroit, Mich. 
William C. Maybury, Mayor. 
August 22nd, 1898. 
Capt. Cash P. Taylor, 

Detroit Light Guard. 
My dear sir : 

On behalf of the family of the late private, Samuel J. 
Stockwell, Co. M, 32nd Vol. Inf., I wish to tender sincere 
thanks for the kindly manner in which the Detroit Light 
Guard displayed their sympathy in having a representation 
by detail, at the funeral. 

I was much interested in the young man, knowing, as I 
did, his true worth as a son and man. Therefore I desire 
to express my personal appreciation for the services you 
have rendered. 

Yours very respectfully, 
(Signed) WILLIAM C. MAYEURY, 

Mayor. 

The business men of Michigan assembled in Detroit for 
the purpose of holding a three days convention, beginning 
August 23rd and finishing up with a grand parade on the 
25th, and the following reproduced letters will perhaps best 
explain the association of the Light Guard with the affair. 

404 



Chamber of Commerce 

of the City of Detroit. 
Detroit, Mich., 9/7, 1898. 
Detroit Light Guard, 

c/o C. P. Taylor, City. 
Gentlemen : — 

The Michigan Business Men's Association takes pleas- 
ure in presenting to the Detroit Light Guard the two flags 
and other decorations that were used in the Light Guard 
Armory on the occasion of the Convention, August 23-5. 

We are glad to aid your organization by renting the 
armory on that occasion, and we sincerely hope that the 
difficulties encountered in the preservation of the armory 
for your use will soon be removed. 

Hoping that the flags and other decorations may be of 
some service to you, we are. 

Very sincerely yours, 
O. K. BALDWIN, 
J. C. FERKY, President. 

Secretary. 

Chamber of Commerce 

of the City of Detroit. 

Detroit, Mich., 9/8, 1898. 
Detroit Light Guard, 

c/o C. P. Taylor, City. 
Gentlemen : — 

On behalf of the Executive Committee and Parade Com- 
mittee of the Michigan Business Men's Association, we 
desire to extend our thanks and express our appreciation to 
your organization for their kindness and courtesy in taking 
part in the parade of August 25th. The excellent appear- 
ance made by your organization added materially in making 
that parade the notable success it proved to be. 
Again thanking you, we are. 

Very sincerely yours, 

O. R. BALD^VIN, 
Chairman, Executive Committee. 
GEO. W. FOWLE, 

Chairman, Parade Committee. 

405 



In the general history it has been told how the news of 
the home coming of Company M was welcomed by the 
home guardians, and how their plans, carefully laid and 
as carefully followed out and attracting the attention of 
the whole city, gave to those fever worn young veterans a 
warmth of welcome they will never forget. It was with 
the same spirit and broad sentiment that the Veteran Corps 
assisted in receiving the Naval Reserves home and heralded 
the news of the homecoming of the Thirty-second M. V. I., 
a few weeks later, in which were four companies from 
Detroit. The Corps turned out in great strength, and 
Major Jacklin, the highest presiding officer of the Corps, 
represented it upon the staff of Marshal Ralph Phelps, Jr. 

It is recorded in the minutes of the Corps under date of 
]S[ovember 16th that "the forty-second anniversary parade, 
which should have taken place to-day, was abandoned, 
owing to the absence of the three active companies now in 
service as United States volunteers." In lieu of the regu- 
lar celebration, the veterans devoted the evening of the 
16th to the ladies of the Light Guard, who entertained 
them with cards. The veterans and the ladies had sent 
money and two barrels of cakes to the active companies at 
Knoxville to assist them in having as much of an anni- 
versary celebration as it was possible for them to have in 
an army camp, and this kind remembrance was acknowl- 
edged by the following telegram : 

Knoxville, Tenn., isTov. 16th, '98. 
Cash P. Taylor, 

Care Detroit Light Guard Armory, 

Detroit. 
Paraded to-day. Raining torrents, l^ow having ban- 
quet. Thanks and greetings. 

ROGERS. 



406 



The regular annual meeting of the Corps was held on 
the evening of December 7th, and Major R. W. Jacklin 
was elected president; Col. Fred E. Farnsworth, first vice- 
president; H. W. Skinner, second vice-president; C. C. 
Kellogg, secretary, and A. K. ffiefer, treasurer. Edward 
W. Bissell, S. S. M. Farquhar and S. A. Griggs were elected 
to membership. 

A movement was set on foot at this meeting to secure the 
portraits of all ex-captains of the Light Guard, to be hung 
upon the walls of the Corps' headquarters. 

An amendment offered at this meeting by Comrade Cash 
P. Taylor was made effective in the meeting on December 
21st. It was in relation to eligibility for membership in 
the Corps and read : "and all officers and soldiers in Com- 
panies A, B, F, and M that were in active service in the 
Spanish-American war, and all members of the Detroit 
Light Guard Active Corps that were active members, in 
good standing, April 21st, 1898." The latter portion was 
for the purpose of making a provision for the active mem- 
bers who were unable to enter the volunteer army because 
of home responsibilities or physical disability. Under this 
amendment there were received into membership of the 
Corps on February 15th, 1899, the following members: 
Wm. J. Battersby, Harry H. Castle, Jas. F. Freeman, Fred- 
erick W. Hanning, Frederick C. Marquardt, Willard M. 
Hopkins, Frank P. Tobin, John H. Smith, C. R. Cummings, 
Wm. Whalen, Clair A. Parrish, H. W. Agnew, Lewis F. 
Pagel, Geo. O. Goward, W. A. Smith, 1\". Winstanley, 
Frank J. Brady, Jr., Geo. F. Kearney, Albert Greenberg, 
G. E. Bleil, Thos. A. Lynd, F. W. Morrison, Chas. H. Fay, 
Lieut. W. J. Laurence, Lieut. Robert M. Kerr, Capt. Geo. 
C. Waldo, Lieut. Frederick Cowley, Carl G. Trebein, Chas. 
McCoight, Chas. F. Rich, Edward J. l^oonan, Frank H. 
Hammond. The following applicants were also duly en- 

407 



rolled : John J. Speed, Jr., Edward Telf er, C. E. James, C. 
R. Hamilton, Dennis S. Donahue and Ered D. Goldstone. 

At the meeting on April 19th, Shirley !N". Eisk, Wm. B. 
Wilbur, H. A. Young, W. H. Thomson, W. W. Eailing 
and Jas. W. McEwan, ex-members of Company L, Thirty- 
first M. V. L, and Arthur Low, ex-member of Company M, 
Thirty-third M. Y. L, were elected to membership. 

Of the five Michigan regiments mustered into the volun- 
teer service, but three were taken to foreign territory. The 
two. "unfortunate'' ones were the Thirty-second and the 
Thirty-fifth; the former returning home in September, 
1898, as has been stated, while the Thirty-fifth was retained 
in the service until mustered out in March, 1899. 

The Thirty-fifth arrived in Detroit on Sunday afternoon, 
April 2nd, and was greeted with a hearty welcome. The 
escorting column, under command of Chief Marshal Cash 
P. Taylor, with the Yeteran Corps and Company M form- 
ing the immediate escort, marched to the armory to the 
music of the Light Guard Band, where the members of the 
regiment were received and welcomed in a speech by Gen- 
eral Duffield and Mayor Maybury. 

There were two remarkable features about the parade 
which call for notice. The officers of the regiment did not 
arrive Avith it as in fact they had no longer any jurisdiction 
over it, so Major Jacklin, chief of staff, got the regiment 
marshalled into proper formation at the station and rode 
at its head in the parade. The other feature was the ro- 
markable character of the civilian escort, there being such 
prominent men as General Duffield, General Green, Ralph 
Phelps, Jr., and Mayor Maybury, who composed the first 
four. 

It was nearing the time for the muster-out of the Thirty- 
first M. Y. I., and the Corps had its attention earnestly 
directed towards perfecting arrangements for receiving the 

4C8 



Light Guard Battalion, and how much that affair was made 
memorable through the Corps' efforts, is to be found exten- 
sively recorded in the general history. After that event 
the veterans took a season of well earned rest until a sad 
command hurriedly brought them to "attention." 

Upon the morning of Sept. 18th, death came suddenly 
to one of the old veterans; a hero of many of the fiercest 
fought battles of the Civil War; the man who had led the 
Light Guard to fame in the early days of that great war, 
and whose home was in the heart of every one of his old 
comrades. The news of the death of Col. Chas. M. Lum 
spread rapidly over the city, shocking and horrifying as it 
sped. Had he lived six months more, death would have 
reached him at the age of seventy, but yet, under ordinary 
circumstances, this age would have found him reasonably 
looking forward to ten or perhaps more years of life, but 
the physical condition of the old soldier had been brought 
to but a feeble pass because of the wounds which had fallen 
to his lot in the service of his country. The members of 
the Veteran Corps were called through the afternoon news- 
papers to meet at the armory in the evening and make fitting 
arrangements for the burial of their deceased comrade's 
remains. The many little speeches of the veterans assem- 
bled at the meeting showed how deep had been the hold 
upon the affections of the veterans enjoyed by the deceased, 
for next to the older deceased veteran. Gen. A. S. Williams, 
Col. Lum had come second in regard, and afterwards filled 
the place of the old general when he died in 1878, as the 
idol of the Veteran Corps, and in fact, the whole organiza- 
tion. Early in the forenoon of the 21st, the casket contain- 
ing the remains were reverently borne by a detail from 
Companies A and B to the armory and placed upon the 
platform, which had been tastefully hidden by palms, and 
gracefully canopied with the nation's colors. The large oil 

409 



portrait of the dead warrior was placed upon the platform 
and draped in mourning. The old flags — too old to ever 
be unfurled — were placed in company with the new colors, 
also furled and tied with crape in honor of the dead. Many 
handsome floral designs were distributed on and near the 
casket. The designs came from the Light Guard and the 
Loyal Legion, Fairbanks Post and Union Lodge F. & A. 
M. Over the casket was draped the American Flag, upon 
which the colonel's sword reposed with a bunch of roses. 
A detail from the Active Corps mounted guard, while visit- 
ors came to pay their last respects to the deceased. The 
funeral services were held immediately after the noon hour 
and was a most impressive event. The services were con- 
ducted by Rev. Lee S. McCollester, and the oration was 
made by ex-Senator Thomas W. Palmer, who had been a 
very close friend of the dead. The casket was borne from 
the hall by the active pall bearers. Sergeants Barie, Perren, 
Evans, Barger, Kenton, and Dibble, and after placing their 
burden in the hearse, marched on each side to the cemetery. 
The honorary pall bearers were Hon. T. W. Palmer, Wm. 
A. Moore, Mayor W. C. Maybury, Oliver Goldsmith and 
Col. Fred A. Farnsworth, all veteran members of the Light 
Guard. The Light Guard battalion preceded the remains, 
with the Veteran Corps immediately following the hearse, 
then the survivors of his old regiment, the Tenth Michigan 
Infantry, and Fairbanks Post, G. A. R., Loyal Legion and 
L^nion Masonic lodge bringing up the rear. The cortege 
proceeded to Elmwood cemetery, where the remains were 
interred by the Masonic lodge, and the salute fired by a 
squad from the Light Guard battalion and taps sounded by 
Jas. D. Elderkin. Further mention of the deceased will be 
found in the pages specially devoted to that purpose. 

Eight days after the demise of Colonel Lum, another old 



410 



veteran, Jerome Croul, passed away after a prolonged 
illness. 

Colonel Croul was a charter member of the Light Guard, 
and at the commencement of the Civil War was appointed 
by Governor Blair as one of his aides to help him in the 
great task of supplying volunteers to the Government. He 
was one of the eight Light Guard members called by the 
Governor for that duty, and in January, 1862, his task was 
increased by appointment on the State Military Board. He 
also looked after the interests of the Light Guard at home 
while its members were in the field and continued his close 
connection with the organization until death beckoned him 
away. He had lived a busy and successful life, and his 
demise was mourned by many beside his old comrades. 

Death stalked again a month later and on October 28th 
took away a man beloved of his comrades and the com- 
munity at large. The historian has found it difficult to 
satisfy himself with his post-mortem expressions, for the 
flight of a soul means most to the gazers with whom that 
soul has been intimate with upon earth, and the death of 
the Hon. Martin S. Smith yet more embarrasses the writer 
in the attempt to fittingly record it, but since friends of the 
deceased may find his demise and the interment, amidst the 
hallowing expressions of many sad mourners, prominently 
chronicled in the records of the city, the writer will content 
this volume with but modest eulogy. 

Martin S. Smith was one of the early members of the 
Light Guard, and although his business ability caused his 
interests to rapidly multiply, yet their increasing demands 
upon his time and attention could not curtail his regard for 
the old Guard and the comrades. He watched the old 
Company grow and expand, and when the point was reached 
where larger quarters were needed and the ambition to 
build an armory blossomed, with his judicial manner of 

411 



considering matters calling for a dispensation from his store 
of wealth, he laid the case before his business partner, Gen- 
eral Alger, and knowing that the project merited more 
than a small sum and would fail if not intelligently sup- 
ported, a sum of money was presented to the Light Guard 
in the amount of a number of thousands of dollars, but the 
modesty respected in life deters the actual acknowledg- 
ment here. It was not the present alone that brought satis- 
faction to the members of the Light Guard, but the kind 
regard and consideration which was responsible for it, met 
with sincere appreciation. 

Resolutions ''In Memoriam" have a conspicuous place in 
the veterans' round room, and the name of Martin S. Smith 
wall never be found absent from the Eoll. 

It was the desire of the members of the Ladies' Associa- 
tion to indulge in some activity that would be of benefit to 
the Veteran Corps and so they planned accordingly to add 
to the furnishings of the veterans' parlor. 

It is a very interesting room now, for since the ladies have 
helped to make it a place of beauty and comfort, the veter- 
ans have been gathering together the things of memory, 
and portraits of the dead and living, until the space for 
more is very small indeed. 

It requires many pilgrimages, and more than a casual 
review of the mementos and pictures, before one of the 
younger generation of Light Guardsmen may become ac- 
quainted with the lore spelt out and realize the fullness of 
their organization's other days. 

Upon entering the room for the first time one hardly 
knows which to examine first. Of course, the portraits and 
pictures upon the wall naturally form the initial attraction, 
but as the eye roams around the circular wall, other objects 
appear just as interesting. 

Of the several portraits, the most striking are the large 

412 



oils with their heavy gilt frames, displaying the subjects in 
life size. Of the three oil portraits, one is of Gen, Alpheus 
S. Williams in the dress uniform of a Captain of the Detroit 
Light Guard. The other two are of Col. Chas. M. Lum; 
one in dress uniform as first sergeant of the company in 
1861, and under the other appears the inscription, "Dress 
Uniform Captain of Co. A, 1861-6-7. Col. 10th Mich." 
Keeping close company upon the wall with the latter por- 
trait are the sabre, sash and hat, and commission as colonel, 
and near these is the picture of Cloud's Mill, and a photo- 
graph showing the old colonel before the easel at work upon 
the picture ; and in addition, a certificate of his membership 
in the Army of the Cumberland, dated February 6th, 1868, 
at Cincinnati, forms a part of the group of what were once 
dear to the dead warrior. 

The writer cannot attempt to hang a drapery of words 
around the enumeration of each portrait and so he will con- 
fine his efforts to merely mentioning them as he has seen 
them. 

There is a large crayon of G overnor John J. Bagley, who 
was a charter member, and one of the early functions per- 
formed after the organization of the Veteran Corps was the 
reverently laying away to rest of the remains of this good 
man. Others whose portraits hang upon the walls have also 
departed from this world, as will be found noted upon pre- 
ceding pages. 

There is a colored crayon of David R. Peirce, who was 
one of the early first-sergeants of the old company, and who 
has refused any other office but that, in the Veteran Corps 
since its formation. There are two pictures of Henry L. 
Chipman, who was the second captain of the Light Guard ; 
one is a crayon and the other a photograph. 

One of the jolliest old veterans to be met with to-day, 
and whose happy nature made him a favorite with his com- 

413 



rades-in-arms, is H. Fred Eberts, a crayon portrait of whom 
shows one how lightly time lias touched him within the last 
ten years. There is a photograph of one of the good 
old captains, David E. Fox, and a colored photograph dis- 
playing the soldierly figure of Color Sergeant Yv". H. Allison 
holding the Light Guard colors, makes an artistic and strik- 
ing picture. A large photograph of Col. Eugene Eohinson 
hangs near by and the reader is referred to previous pages 
for acquaintance with his career. 

There are two small pictures which one is likely to pass 
without noticing, and that would not do, for they are the 
likenesses of two of the most prominent members in the 
history of the organization. One has left man's estate, but 
the other is still an associate of his old comrades. Capt. 
H. H. Hodgson had been a valiant officer in the Civil War, 
and when his services were no longer needed he returned 
home and entered the membership of the Light Guard. The 
military trappings of his office hanging near the small, old 
fashioned photograph announce his absence from this world, 
just as they proclaim his presence in the memory of his 
old comrades. The other small photograph is of Hon. 
Thomas W. Palmer- "Tom" is in the act of reading and 
with the angle pitched by the back of his easy chair, the 
picture gives one an impression of mellowness of years and 
comfort. 

There is another little aged photograph of a man whose 
memory is revered by all the old veterans — Major John D. 
Fairbanks. A mortal wound dropped him from his horse 
at Malvern Hill in 1862 while performing the dangerous 
duties of a high staff office. His sabre and other equip- 
ments bring the small picture into prominence. 

There are two more small photographs made years ago. 
One is of Col. John Winder whose death has been recorded 
upon these pages. The memory attached to the name and 

414 



picture is quite significant, for it was chiefly through his 
assistance that the Brady Guard was organized in 1836. 
The other is of one of the charter members of the Brady 
Guard, George Doty, and his signature appears not only 
upon the original roll of that organization, but also upon 
later rolls of the Brady Guard and upon the first roll of the 
Light Guard, and it is an interesting fact that he is still to 
be met with. 

There is a crayon portrait of Captain Wm. J. Speed, one 
of the charter members, and whose name also appears upon 
the roll of the organization's heroes as having been "killed 
in action at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1st, 1863." 

Before passing to later portraits, there should be men- 
tioned here a collection of five old photographs of uniform 
size and importance which have recently been brought to 
light by Comrade Cash P. Taylor, and which will soon 
appear upon the wall as a very interesting group of portraits. 
Some of the five are dead, but the story of their active mili- 
tary life seems as fresh as though it was but just told for 
the first time. Gen. Henry R. Mizner, Sergt. Oliver Gold- 
smith, Gen. Orlando B. Wilcox, Col. Horace Roberts, Col. 
Heber LeFavour. The readers may somewhat further ac- 
quaint themselves with the records of these veterans by 
referring to other pages in this volume. 

There is a little steel engraved portrait of the Hon. J. 
Logan Chipman. He was another pleasant comrade, and 
although his life was considerably taken up by his public 
position, yet he always found time to spare in the interests 
of the Light Guard. The reader may remember that at 
the time of the division in 1876 he was one of counsel to 
preserve the name and the life of the Detroit Light Guard 
for the ones who were entitled to possess it. He was a very 
brilliant man and the social affairs of the Light Guard 
always benefited by his presence. 

415 



There is a large photograph of Hon. Geo. L. Maltz in 
civilian attire, and in another old photograph he appears as 
first lieutenant in command of the old company while en- 
camped near Orchard Lake in 1867. 

Capt. A. P. T. Beniteau (one of the foremost drill cap- 
tains of the old company) appears in a photographic group 
with Col. Fred E. Farnsworth, who was first lieutenant at 
the time, when under their united efforts the company made 
such a remarkable record upon the prize drill field. The 
other figure in the group is that of Capt. S. A. Murphy, who 
succeeded Capt. Beniteau. There is also an individual pho- 
tograph of Col. Farnsworth in the dress uniform of a lieu- 
tenant. 

Col. Sydney R. Dixon was one of the very best captains 
the old company ever had but enough has been said upon 
other pages to give the reader an idea of the value of Col. 
Dixon's association with the Light Guard; and in the same 
class is written the name of Capt. Chas. Dupont. Large 
crayons of both these gentlemen are hung upon the wall. 

There is not enough space for all these pictures in the 
round room, but an adjoining card and checker room has 
been used for the overflow, and some of these pictures just 
'mentioned are to be found in the smaller room. In the divi- 
sion of the portraits brought about by the circumstance men- 
tioned, there has been no discrimination, and as further evi- 
dence of the truth of that, one should be stopped before the 
large photograph of Major R. H. Sillman, in the smaller 
room. When war began with Spain, Major Sillman, who 
had been on the staff of Gov. Rich and also Brig. -Gens. 
Hawley and Lyon until the summer previous, endeavored to 
organize a separate command for active service, but failing 
in that, he enlisted in the Astor Battery as a sergeant. Many 
know what remarkable and heroic work this battery per- 
formed in the early and fierce fighting around Manilla, in 

* 416 





Two Views of the Round Parlor of the 
Veteran Corps in the Tower of 
the Light Guard Armory. 



the Philippines, and of all the gallant members, none were 
more conspicuous than Sergt. Sillman, who had the honor 
to be wounded in action and receive promotion to higher 
rank. 

Another large photograph in the small room is of Fred 
Baglej, who was a lieutenant in the Detroit Grays, but 
shortly after the amalgamation with the Light Guard, Lieu- 
tenant Bagley resigned to remove to Chicago. He was an 
able officer and his going was much regretted. 

Comrade John A. Dick has always been a valuable mem- 
ber of the organization, and his generosity has endeared him 
to the veterans. One example of his interest in the organ- 
ization may be found by visiting the tower corner of the 
armory where one may see a tiger's head done in stone, and 
the artist's cast used as the sculptor's pattern, looks out from 
over the top of the large photograph of the comrade. 

The reader, no doubt, recalls the presentation of the 
three portraits of Comrade A. G. Boynton, Gen. H. M. 
Duffield and Col. Chas. W. Harrah and it is difficult for the 
author to add anything more to what has appeared and is 
yet to appear in this volume respecting the records of these 
gentlemen. 

Four large photographs are shortly to be placed upon the 
wall, presenting the likenesses of a quartet of members to 
whom the Light Guard owes much. Maj. E. W. Jacklin, 
Comrade Cash P. Taylor, Hon. John B. Whelan and Maj. 
Wm. M. Harvey, M. D., have been frequently presented to 
the reader, and in the armory account will be found mention 
of their activity as members of the Armory and Building 
Committees and how they successfully brought the building 
through its troublous financial period when the actives were 
in the volunteer army. 

Interspersed with the portraits are many pictures depict- 

417 



ing numerous events in the life of the Light Guard, and 
framed sets of resolutions and original muster rolls. 

There are some old company groups, and a large picture 
of the field, staff and line officers of the old Fourth Regi- 
ment, M. JT. G., and another of the non-commissioned offi- 
cers of Company A, made in 1890. Xot far away is an odd 
little oil color showing three figTires di-essed in the three 
styles of uniforms worn by the Light Guard in older days. 

Several photographs record important ceremonies per- 
formed in connection with the construction of the armory, 
and a portrait and three other photographs present the like- 
ness of Miss Ellen May Tower, and scenes connected with 
the interment of her remains. 

A time-dimmed picture showing the assemblage of the 
First Michigan Eegiment-Three Months, upon the Campus 
Martins, when the colors were presented just before the 
regiment departed for "Washington, in 1861, was presented 
by ~W. H. Hawke, and forms an important and interesting 
link in the pictorial chain of Light Guard History. 

Many of the veterans are members of Detroit Post G. A. 
E., and a group of them at an open-air feast has been added 
to the large collection. 

Pictures for adornment consist of a large steel engrav- 
ing of George Washington, steel engraved copies of famous 
paintings of warrior subjects hujig in the director's room, 
and in the assembly room the walls are made sightly by the 
twenty fine engravings of military subjects presented by 
Mr. Sidney B. Dixon, father of Col. Sidney E. Dixon, in 
1888, when the organization re-furnished its parlors in the 
old armory. 

The original muster roll of the Brady Guards, bearing 
the date of April 13th, 1836, and a later roll dated February 
2nd, 1843, both yellowed and wrinkled by Time's touch, 
keep company in neat frames. Then there are similarly 

418 



preserved the original pledge of the Light Guard signed in 
1855, and which, together with the original muster roll for 
service in the Civil War in 1861, is reproduced in this vol- 
ume. There are two other original rolls, one of the Light 
Guard dated July 1st, 1876, and that of the Veteran Corps 
upon its formation in 1880. 

The Light Guard visited the Cleveland Grays on July 
4th, 1872, and the latter returned the visit the following 
year. Resolutions were exchanged, and the set sent by the 
Grays is kept in a large and strikingly contrived frame of 
massive walnut, all bedecked with military accoutrements 
skillfully carved in miniature. There is draped above this, 
with canopy effect, a silk flag presented by Mrs. W. W. 
Dibble, at one time president of the Ladies' Association. 

The Continental Guards of 'New Orleans, La., visited the 
Light Guard in 1883, and upon their return home sent 
acknowledgment of the entertainment in the shape of a large 
set of resolutions, which has also been placed conspicuously. 

There is a square piece of paper giving evidence of having 
been much folded and pocket-worn at one time, but now 
safely framed and flattened behind glass. It is decidedly 
historic, for it was prepared by a certain active veteran and 
bears the scribbled names voted upon and elected to various 
offices in the latter part of 1896. This "slate" was the 
means of securing such prominent members in the various 
offices as to enable the armory project to become a success, 
and that was the object of the maker of the "slate." 

A list of the articles placed in the corner stone of the 
armory is also framed and the reader will find a copy upon 
another page. 

In a niche stands a small table bearing a large gilt bust of 
Abraham Lincoln and strewn about with relics; the gilt 
epaulettes and silver stars which once adorned the shoulders 
of Major John D. Fairbanks when he was an acting adju- 

419 



tant-general in the Civil War, the silver epaulettes of the 
old dress uniform of a private, and a square box with 
sacredly kept locked heavy glass lid through which may be 
seen the first spade-full of earth removed from the site of 
the armory in 1897. Resting in the two co'rners of the 
niche as if to keep guard, are two old Springfield rifles 
bearing the names, "First Sergeant Wm. J. Lawrence" and 
"Sergeant Clarence R. Cummings"; two members of Com- 
pany M who, while in the Thirty-third, M. V, I., carried 
and discharged these rifles while in the volunteer service in 
Cuba. The Active Corps, as part of the ^tate troops, are 
now armed with a modern magazine rifle, but there will be 
a time when the "Springfield" will be as much a relic as 
the old flintlocks are now. 

Punctuating the things upon the walls of the two periods 
— before and since the late service in the volunteer army — 
are two interesting relics. One is a little, uneven and 
ragged square of soiled yellow bunting, presented to the 
Corps as a portion of the first Spanish flag captured in the 
war with Spain. It comes from the hand of a member 
of the naval reserves, who served on board the U. S. S. 
"Yosemite," and was acquired while performing dangerous 
duty upon the southern coast of Cuba. It is a matter of 
pride to Comrade H. Fred Eberts to see this memento upon 
the walls as coming from his son Alfred E. Eberts. JSTear 
this uniquely framed relic is one of another character,, 
although similar in size and shape. It is a piece of the 
white flag of truce, specifically called "The Surrender 
Flag," and which was used upon the day that the Spanish 
forces in Santiago Province capitulated to Gen. Shafter's 
army. Prosecuting Attorney Allan H. Frazer presented 
the little relic, accompanied by an aflidavit as to its char- 
acter. 

Among the relics of the late war presented to the Veteran 



Corps by the actives, is a Spanish sword which J. D. Furniss 
of Co. A (Co. I, 31st, M. V. I.) brought home, and an anec- 
dote has already originated in connection with it. Upon 
the occasion of a recent formation of the battalion, the 
sergeant-major discovered that his sword was not at the 
armory, so he hit upon the idea of using the Spanish article, 
which is in shape and size similar to a non-commissioned 
officer's sword, and thus the imagination may weave a fanci- 
ful military romance about the Spanish blade. 

In the only corner, which breaks the perfect curve of the 
wall, are suspended the tools used in the ceremonies con- 
nected with the building of the armory, a sketch of which 
may be seen accompanying the initial letter of the armory 
account. They are nickel plated and came as presents at 
the time. The shovel was presented by Comrade Cash P. 
Taylor, the trowel by Col. Chas. W. Harrah and the pick 
by Capt. Walter G. Rogers. 

Mementos of old, and recent years, are kept in a state 
of preservation through the binder's art. There is an old 
register in which may be found the autographs of some 
very famous men, and equally as interesting are several 
books containing autograph letters in acknowledgment of 
invitations to the various governors' levees. They are from 
all over the country, and sent by many notable men, even 
including several of the country's chief executives. 

A massive album contains photographs of veterans and 
actives, proclaiming the fellowship existing between seniors 
and juniors. A well bound copy of an album published 
after the late war containing reproductions of photographs 
made of Michigan's volunteers in many camps and in which 
Light Guard members appear prominently, is kept as a 
memento of that period. 

When the Light Guard Battalion in the 31st, M. V. I., 
returned home in May, 1899, the families of the boys were 

421 



invited to apply for badges entitling them to seats in a re- 
served space in the armory, and the book containing the 
names to whom the badges were issued, was turned over to 
the Corps by Mrs. V. K. Evans, who had had the care of it 
— time will make it also an interesting relic. 

It has become a recently established custom with the 
veterans to preserve in book form the resolutions adopted 
upon the death of a member, and there are now six padded 
black leather covered books in memory of Col. Eugene 
Eobinson, Hon. Michael Martz, Capt. H. H. Hodgson, Col. 
Chas. M. Lum, Col. Jerome Croul and Hon. Martin S. 
Smith. 

Comrade J. D. Elderkin has been mentioned before in 
these pages as a veteran of the Mexican, Florida and Civil 
Wars, and a copy of a book of camp anecdotes recently pub- 
lished by him keeps company with the others mentioned, as 
does also a bound set of resolutions of regret autographi- 
cally expressed to Lieut. Val. R. Evans by the members of 
his company at the time he resigned at Camp Thomas, 
Chickamauga Park, as has been mentioned in the general 
history. 

Through the enterprise of Comrade Cash P. Taylor, a 
search is being made for more relics and pictures so that 
an early date is likely to find the Corps' rooms a veritable 
museum of the Detroit Light Guard. 

There remains finally, a mention of the ornaments of 
significant character. 

Perhaps the first thing to be noticed upon entering the 
room is the massive grey marble fireplace and mantle, sur- 
mounted by a large French plate mirror extending to the 
ceiling. Upon the mantel and in the centre, is a handsome 
clock, to which is attached a small metal plate bearing the 
statement that it was presented by Gen. Russell A. Alger 
upon l^ovember 16th, 1882, which was the twenty-seventh 

422 



anniversary. Flanking the clock upon each end of the 
mantel are two almost life size busts of Moorish subjects 
cast in heavy bronjze and delicately colored. They were 
the present of Chas. G. Pease, a former lieutenant. 

Upon the floor, and occupying a place under the large 
centre table, is a rug which was made — under the care of 
the Ladies' Association — ^from old pieces of carpet which 
had once covered the floor of Col. Lum's room. 

There remains to mention but one more object, and 
which is perhaps the most striking; it is the large stuffed 
tiger; the totem of the Light Guard, and significant of the 
Light Guardsmen's nickname. 

It had been a long year for the veterans: a year filled 
with innumerable public functions calling for the activity 
of the Corps, and the veterans were minded to close the 
year without a break in the tune, but when the 16th of 
ISTovember, 1899, rolled around to register the forty-third 
anniversary, there came a great disappointment not only to 
them but to the actives as well, for the new home stood so 
deeply in debt as to make it impracticable to attempt to hold 
a celebration that would be in any degree near the time 
established standard, and so the event was sadly passed, but 
with the vow that the next anniversary would not so suffer. 

The annual meeting was held on December 6th, and 
officers were selected for the ensuing year as shown in com- 
pany with the roll of members. ISTo attempt has been made 
to note the full list of civil and military officers of the Corps 
from year to year, but there is here given a complete roll 
of the Presidents and the Captains, and the list of those 
holding offices at the present time. 

PRESIDENTS. 

October 7th, 18S4 JAS. E. PITTMAN. 

November 17th, 1884 JAS. E. PITTMAN. 

November 16th, 1885 JAS. E. PITTMAN. 

November 16th, 1886 CHARLES M. LUM. 

423 



PRESIDENTS- (Continued). 

November 16th, 1887 CHARLES M. LUM. 

November 16th, 1888 WM. A. BUTLER, JR. 

November 16th, 1889 WM. A. BUTLER, JR. 

November 17th, 1890 CASH P. TAYLOR. 

December 9th, 1891 CASH P. TAYLOR. 

December 7th, 1892 HON. T. W. PALMER. 

December 6th, 1893 JOHN A. DICK. 

December 5th, 1894 JOHN A. DICK. 

November 20th, 1895 , A. G. BOYNTON. 

December 18th, 1896 A. G. BOYNTON. 

November 27th, 1897 A. G. BOYNTON. 

January 19th, 1898 GEO. L. MALTZ. 

December 7th, 1898 MA J. R. W. JACKLIN. 

December 6th, 1899 MA J. R. W. JACKLIN. 

CAPTAINS. 

October 7th, 1884, to ) 

November 16th, 1885 f ^^^^- ^- ^^^• 

November 16th, 1886 WM. A. BUTLER, JR. 

November 16th, 1887 WM. A. BUTLER, JR. 

November 16th, 1888 H. H. HODGSON. 

November 16th, 1889 H. H. HODGSON. 

November 17th, 1890 JOHN l\ McMILLAN. 

December 9th, 1891 JEROME CROUL. 

December 7th, 1892 H. F. EBERTS. 

December 6th, 1893 C. C. STARKWEATHER. 

December 5th, 1894 MAJ. R. W. JACKLIN. 

November 20th, 1895 GEORGE L. MALTZ. 

December 18th, 1896 GEORGE L. MALTZ. 

November 27th, 1897 CHARLES DUPONT. 

December 7th, 1898 SIDNEY R. DIXON. 

December 6th, 1899 SIDNEY R. DIXON. 

CIVIL OFFICERS OF THE VETERAN CORPS. 

MAJ. R. W. JACKLIN, President. 

COL. FREDERICK E. FARNSWORTH, First Vice President. 

CASH P. TAYLOR, Second Vice President. 

CHAS. C. KELLOGG, Secretary. 

A. K. KIEFER, Treasurer. 

Trustees. 
COL. WM. A. BUTLER, JR. GEN. RUSSELL A. ALGER. 

HON. D. M. FERRY. J. G. STNDART. 

HON. WM. C. MAYBURY. 



424 



Military Officers of the Veteran Corps. 
COL. SIDNEY R. DIXON, Captain. 

COL. WM. A. BUTLER, JR., First Lieutenant. 

CAPT. HARRY G. MILWARD, Second Lieutenant. 

Sergeants. 
LIEUT. DAVID R. PEIRCE, First Sergeant. 
LIEUT. ROBERT S. MASON. HON. ALFRED RUSSELL. 
GEN. JAMES E. PITTMAN. 
CASH P. TAYLOR, Color Sergeant. 

H. FRED. EBERTS, Commissary Sergeant. 

WILBUR G. SQUIER, Quartermaster Sergeant. 

Corporals. 
HON. WM. A. MOORE. HON. THOMAS W. PALMER. 

HON. EDWARD H. BUTLER. OLIVER GOLDSMITH. 
WM. H. BRACE. FRANK G. SMITH. 

THOMAS CRANAGE. COL. WM. G. LATIMER. 

Life Honorary Members. 
GEN. RUSSELL A. ALGER. HON. DON M. DICKINSON. 

J. L. HUDSON. *HON. M. S. SMITH. 

C. J. WHITNEY. S. P. CONKLIN. 

*0. W. SHIPMAN. COL. CORNELIUS GARDENER. 

HON. D. M. FERRY. MAJ. MERRILL E. WEBB. 

HON. JAMES McMillan. 

ROLL OF THE VETERAN CORPS. 

ABEL, F. L. BENITEAU, A. P. T. 

AGNEW, H. W. BETZING, ADAM 

ALBERTSON, F. L. BISSELL, E. W. 

ALLEN, A. W. BISSELL, R. A. 

ALLEN, R. C. BLEIL, GEO. E. 

ALLISON, W. H. BLISS, F. W. 

ARNDT, A. F. R. BLUM, EDWARD 

ATKINSON, E. BORGMAN, M. G. 

BAGLEY, JNO. N. BORGMAN, W. M. 

BALDWIN, L. H. BOSTWICK, D. L. 

BARTON, H. C. BRACE, W. H. 

BATTERSBY, W. J. BRADY, F. E. 

BAXTER, C. R. BRADY, JNO. J. 

BAXTER, JNO. A. BUHL, WALTER 

BECHESTOBIEL, A. BUTLER, E. H. 

BELLAIR, JOS. O. BUTLER, F. E. 



425 



ROLL OF THE VETERAN CORPS-(Continued). 



BUTLER, W. A., JR. 
CAMPBELL, CHAS. 
CAHOON, W. C. 
CANDLER, WM. L. 
CARLISLE, GEO. H. 
CASTLE, HENRY H. 
CHANEY, WILLARD, DR. 
CHASE, E. O. 
CHESTER, JNO. W. 
CHIPMAN, H. L. 
CLARK, CHAS. L. 
COHEN, SOLOMON 
COLEMAN, H. W., JR. 
CONANT, J. F. 
COOPER, W. F. 
CORNS, GEO. W. 
CATTON, A. G. 
COX, CHAS. R. 
CRANAGE, THOS. 
CRANSHAW, J., JR. 
CUMMINGS, C. R. 
DAVIS, GEO. S. 
DAVIS, JNO. G. 
DAVIS, J. W. 
DEWEY, ZIBA. 
DICK, JNO. A. 
DICKSON, JNO. S. 
DIETZ, JNO. G. 
DIXON, S. R. 
DONAHUE, DENNIS S. 
DOTY, GEO. 
DUFFIELD, H. M. 
DUNN, S. D. 
DUPONT, CHARLES 
EBERTS, H. F. 
ELDERKIN, J. D. 
ELLIS, EDWARD D. 
EVANS, VAL. R. 
FAILING, W. W. 
FAIRBAIRN, CHAS. T. 
FARNSWORTH, FRED E. 
FARQUHAR, S. S. M. 



FAY, CHAS. H. 
FERRY, D. M. 
FIELD, G. L. 
FISK, SHIRLEY N. 
FREEMAN, JAS. F. 
FREIBERGER, CHAS. F. 
FULLER, GEO. H., JR. 
FULLER, S. L. 
GARRISON, C. M. 
GLOVER, JAS. H. 
GODFREY, M. H. 
GOLDSMITH, OLIVER 
GOWARD, GEO. 0. 
GRAY, A. O. 
GREEN, CHAS. H. 
GREENBERG, ALBERT 
GRIGGS, S. A. 
HAIGHT, J. I. 
HAMMOND, FRANK H. 
HAMILTON, C. R. 
HANMER, L. C. 
HARDY, J. C. 
HARPER, FRED B. 
HARPER, JNO. L. 
HARRIS, L. D. 
HARVEY, W. M. 
HEAVENRICH, SAMUEL 
HEFFRON, JNO. 
HEIDT, WM. V. 
HENRY, D. FARRAND 
HENSLER, W. C. 
HINCHMAN, C. C. 
HINCHMAN, J. M. 
HOPPER, W. H. 
HOWARD, C. C. 
HUBBARD, C. B. 
HUNT, C. F. 
HUTCHINGS, J. 
HONNING, FRED'K W. 
HOPKINS, WM. M. 
IVES, EDW. T. 
JACKLIN, R. W. 



426 



ROLL OF THE VETERAN CORPS-(Continukd.) 



JANES, C. E. 
JEROME, EDWIN 
JESSOP, HENRY W. 
JOHNSON, L. E. 
JOHNSON, NORMAN 
JONES, J. M., JR. 
KANE, CLAUDE D. 
KEARNEY, GEO. F. 
KELLOGG, C. C. 
KERR, ROBERT M. 
KETCHAM, CHAS. H. 
KIEFER, ALFRED K. 
KINNUCAN, P. J. 
KNIGHT, JAS. A. 
KOENIG, J. HENRY 
LATIMER, W. G. 
LAURENCE, W. J. 
LAWRENCE, FRANK 
LEGGETT, JNO. W. 
LINTON, J. C. 
LOWE, ARTHUR 
LOTHROP, H. B. 
LYND, THOS. A. 
MAGEE, W. W., JR. 
MALTZ, G. L. 
MARQUARDT, FRED'K C. 
MARX, J. 0. 
MASON, ROBERT E. 
MASON, ROBERT S. 
MATHEWS, E. R. 
MAY, CHAS. F. 
MAYBURY, W. C. 
McCOIGHT, CHAS. 
McDUFF, G. G. 
MCMILLAN, JNO. 
MEARS, H. H. 
MENDELSOHN, I. 
MILLER, W. A. C. 
MILWARD, HARRY 
MINER, S. L. 
MIZNER, HENRY R. 
MORRISON, T. W. 



MOORE, WM. A. 
MUNROE, J. A. 
NALL, JAS., JR. 
NOONAN, EDW., JR. 
O'BRIEN, H. L. 
O'BRIEN, N. C. 
ORTH, CONRAD 
PAGE, HENRY B. 
PAGEL, LEWIS P. 
PALMER, FRIEND 
PALMER, THOS. W. 
PARRISH, CLARE R. 
PARSONS, J. C. 
PATTON, JNO. 
PATTERSON, E. H. 
PEIRCE, DAVID R. 
PERREN, FRANK J. 
PITTMAN, JAS. E. 
PORTER, PHIL. E. 
PRICE, JNO. B. 
RALPH, H. C. 
REEDER, THOS. E. 
RICH, CHAS. F. 
RICHMOND, C. E. 
ROBERTSON, J. H. 
ROBERTSON, W. S., JR. 
ROBINSON, GEO. J. 
ROBHM, C. M. 
RUSSELL, ALFRED 
SCHULTE, CASPER N. 
SCHULTE, F. T. 
SCHWARTZ, CHAS. 
SCRIPPS, J. E. 
SIAU, CHAS. L. 
SKINNER, H. W. 
SMITH, E. J. 
SMITH, F. G. 
SMITH, JNO. T. 
SMITH, JNO. H. 
SMITH, W. A. 
SMITH, F. L. 
SOWDEN, E. D. 



427 



ROLL OF THE 

SPEED, J. J. 
SPEED, JNO. J., JR. 
STANDART, J. G. 
STARKWEATHER, C. C, 
STARKWEATHER, C. C, 
STERLING, J. R. 
STEINER, J. W. 
SUCKERT, E. C. 
SUCKERT, J. A. 
SQUIER, WILBUR G. 
TAYLOR, CASSIUS P. 
TELFBR, EDWARD 
TERMOTE, CHAS. J. 
THATCHER, M. P. 
THAYER, GEO. W. 
THOMSON, W. H. 
THOMSON, JNO. L. 
TICHNER, J. F. 
TOBIN, FRANK P. 
TREBEIN, CARL G. 



VETERAN CORPS-(CoNTiNUED). 
TROWBRIDGE, F. C. 
TRYON, JAS. E. 
TURRILL, F. H. 
VINTON, G. J. 
, JR. VINTON, GUY W. 

VISGER, ROBERT H. 
WALDO, GEO. C. 
WALLACE, R. T. 
WALTHEW, JAS. H. 
WHELAN, HOWARD 
WHELAN, JNO. B. 
WHELAN, M. O. 
WHELAN, WM. 
WILBER, WM. B. 
WILLIAMS, C. LARNED 
WINSTANLEY, N. E. 
WORMER, C. C. 
WORMER, F. F. 
YOUNG, H. A. 
YOUNG, JNO. B. 
YOUNG, L. B. 



In bringing this account of the Veteran Corps to an 
end, the historian regrets that his pen is tethered by many 
reasons from setting down the names of the many members 
whose activity, collectively and individually, has been re- 
sponsible for the success and achievements of the Light 
Guard, yet after all, it is not necessary to advertise them 
among us of the Light Guard, for we mingle with them and 
know them by their deeds. 

The members of the Active Corps are conscious of the 
great value of the Older Corps, and it is well for the former 
to not only consider their present responsibilities, but to also 
pause and think of the obligations time will some day 
beckon them to assume in the departing foot steps of the 
present veterans, and teach them what it means to look 
upon the young soldiers and thrill over the reminiscences 
of the day when they too were young soldiers. 



This sentiment has been so beautifully and accurately 
put by one of the well known veterans, that the historian 
has declared to himself that he will grace the last pages of 
the Corps' history with the old comrade's words. 

On the evening of February 24th, 1896, the actives 
assembled with the veterans in the old armory to receive 
from Colonel Lum, a picture of Cloud's Mill painted in oil 
by himself. The affair had been skillfully arranged, and 
a realistic presentation of an army camp heightened the 
impression made by the ceremony and the speech of Com- 
rade H. Fred. Eberts. The historian has received permis- 
sion to quote from the speech and it follows with some 
abridgment : 

"Comrades : — 

"In obeying the order of my captain to speak for him, 
now that his physical disabilities make it impossible for him 
to tell you his sentiments, let me assure you that his affec- 
tion for the glorious old Light Guard is as strong to-day as 
it was in the heyday of his early manhood. The artistic 
production before you, was love's labor for him, and Oh ! 
my comrades, what a flood of recollections this faithful 
image of Cloud's Mill calls up out of the misty past, in the 
minds of the surviving few who helped take and hold that 
outpost thirty-five years ago, after another detachment had 
been driven out by rebel cavalry. In order to comprehend 
the events which led up to our occupation of this outpost, 
let me recall to you that exciting April day after the attack 
on Fort Sumpter in Charleston harbor, when the vacancies 
in the ranks of the Detroit Light Guard were filled to the 
legal limit, and by ten o'clock that morning hundreds of 
others were ready and anxious to sign the roll, justly called 
at that time, a roll of honor. 

"Our services having been accepted and being assigned 

429 



as Co. A, we were, in a day or two, ordered to take quarters 
in Fort Wayne. 

"Ten hours drill a day soon set us up in good shape, and 
on the evening of the 13th of May, we took our departure 
for the front in the steamer "May Queen." 

"And then began the forging of a chain that hound us 
together in a friendship stronger than brotherly love; a 
chain whose links were welded in the fires of battle, and 
cemented with blood; a friendship that was begotten from 
the touch of elbows in the presence of death. 

"We arrived in Washington, the first regiment from west 
of the AUeghanies, and were quartered in a building just 
oif Pennsylvania Avenue. Getting leave the following 
Sunday, I visited Ellsworth's Zouaves, and the Seventh 
Kew York, and among the ofiicers I found Kodney Ward 
and several other old Light Guard boys doing credit to their 
Alma Mater. 

"We were routed out one morning between one and two 
o'clock, marched across the long bridge, and we were the 
first company of the first regiment to invade the 'sacred' 
soil. 

"Marching down the river bank, we took Alexandria on 
the flank, while Ellsworth's Zouaves came down in a 
steamer and landed on the river front. 

"Back of and overlooking Alexandria, is Shuter's Hill, 
on the top of which, a most delightful spot, our regiment 
encamped. We spent a few days there, alternately doing 
battalion drill and throwing up breastworks, until, on the 
morning of June 15th, our company got orders to march 
out on Fairfax road five miles, and hold Cloud's Mill as an 
outpost, from which another company had been driven in 
by rebel cavalrymen the day before. We found it deserted 
and took possession; our captain thought the force too 
small, and asked for reinforcements. They sent us out a 



company of Fire Zouaves and a squad of sailors with a boat 
howitzer. The "Zoo Zoo's" mounted guard day times, and 
we put out a platoon each night, holding the other in re- 
serve, and picketing the cross roads near by. We barri- 
caded the main road with a light earth work, except a nar- 
row gate-way, and kept the howitzer concealed in the day 
time." 

Dropping into a reminiscent strain, the daily life was 
described and the manner in which the Fourth of July was 
celebrated, followed by the remark : "As became the dig- 
nity of his rank, the captain could not very well take part 
in our jollification, so that he spent a portion of the day in 
making a sketch of the mill and surroundings, from which 
the picture before you was painted. 

"The rebels were in close proximity at times; they used 
to have fun with us by dashing down the main road in 
broad day light and attacking the regular Cavalry Videttes, 
and capturing a couple gragoons on one occasion, and on 
another capturing a "Zoo-Zoo." The meanest and most con- 
temptible of all the "rebs"were the bush whackers, who used 
to prowl about the woods at night, and shoot our pickets. 
Fortunately, none of us were done up by them. One of 
these gentry who lived near the mill, and who had been 
doing that devil's work at some little distance from our 
outpost, was caught one night, and killed before he could 
use his gun." 

The address at this point described the advancement into 
action and the disastrous battle of First Bull Eun, an ac- 
count of which will be found in the general history. 

"What a harvest the grim reaper has gathered out of 
the ranks of one little company; but this is not all; let us 
call the death roll of the other departed heroes of the Light 
tjruard, who, in other organizations bared their breasts to 
the foe, shed their blood and laid down their lives that the 

431 



Nation might live, loyally headed by our first captain, the 
genial, loving Tap' Williams, the gallant commander of 
the old Twentieth Army Corps. The cheery Wilkins, 
Whittlesey, Roberts, the debonair Bob. Elliott, who would 
smile if he were shot at; Ehodes, Speed, Wendell, LeFa- 
vour, Backus, Truckey, Adamson, Barry, Pratt, Lauder- 
dale, Eagle, O'Callaghan, Marum, Chester, Tracey, and a 
host of others as brave as ever wore the blue. 

"Many of these revered comrades peacefully slumber in 
our own Elmwood and Mt. Elliott, where loving hands keep 
the grass green over them, and strew flowers on their rest- 
ing places, never omitting the stars and stripes to mark 
them. 

"But, alas, many more were buried where they fell, some 
in unmarked lonely graves, unmourned save by the sigh- 
ing wind, and unwept except by the gentle falling of the 
rain. 

"Scarcely a single great battle ground but whose soil is 
consecrated by good Light Guard blood shed in our holy 
cause. 

"These comrades are what the world calls dead; but they 
are only mustered out of active service in this world, and 
their tents are pitched on the camp-ground of Paradise, 
where they stand in line, clad in loyal blue, with Old Glory 
waving over them, ready and glad to welcome you and me 
when Chief Bugler Gabriel sounds 'Taps.' 

"Comrades : our loving cup is full to the brim, and as it 
passes from lip to lip, let us drink to the memory of our 
departed comrades. God bless them. 

"Comrade Duffield: This artistic illustration of the 
heroic old Mill, round and about which cluster so many 
recollections dear to us, the surviving Corporal's Guard of 
the gallant boys who strode at the head of ]\iichigan's pride, 
was limned by the hand of our brave Captain. His locks 

432 



may be whiter, and his step may falter, and the fires of his 
youth may have died down, but his hand is as steady as of 
yore, but no more steady than his affection for the boys, 
'his boys,' he led to the front in 1861. 

"He was proud of us : well may we be proud of him ! 

"Wounds, hard service, privation and resultant disease 
have well nigh laid him low, and have robbed him of his 
voice. 

"At his request, and in his name, through you as its 
President, I now present the Detroit Light Guard with this 
beautiful painting of Cloud's Mill, Long may it hang on 
the walls of your armory, and when the last one of us who 
sheltered under its roof shall have passed away, let the 
story I have told you to-night, be retold to our grandsons." 




433 



PART III. 



The Detroit Light Guard 
Ladies' Aid Corps. 



The Detroit Light Guard 
Ladies' Association. 




FTER the "Maine" was destroyed, Bill 
conld not be gotten to his breakfast until 
he has first read every bit of news in the 
morning paper bearing upon the general 
situation, and in the evening he came 
home with the latest intelligence of possible war, and as 
time sped, he daily assured the home circle that there 
was "sure going to be a mix up." Mother and sisters 
began to feel that the matter concerned them, for Bill 
^'belonged" to the Light Guard. 

The captain placed the paper beside his coffee cup each 
morning and as he read, paused occasionally to announce 
to his wife opposite some of the things contained, accom- 
panied by his comments. Days grew in number and the 
news in gravity and the captain began to talk of his com- 
pany a good deal more than usual, but failed to figure the 
wife in with his speculations as to service and his dreams of 
battles until almost the very day upon which the first defin- 
ite assurance of international conflict of arms spread to 
every city and to^vn; then he gave a sudden gasp and a 
long season of pondering followed as the business of striking 
a balance between the two responsibilities grew daily more 
difficult and he dreaded to recognize the question in his 
wife's eyes, the question she would not permit herself to 
put into words. 

Man's hand writes of woman in the abstract, even though 
she be a christened character in a story, for his phrases are 
the product of many impressions and come forth, just as a 
phonograph will throw from its impressionable cylinder in 

437 



pleasing combination all tlie multiplicity of sounds im- 
pressed upon it. The man, beginning with his earliest ma- 
turity, who does not carry in his heart an ideal of woman- 
hood, is capable of developing to any degree of moral turpi- 
tude. But the man who becomes more and more a soldier 
upon the approach of the eve of certain war, unconsciously 
reaches one of those psychological moments when his qual- 
ity of true manliness is indisputably advertised, and then 
the heroics cease to dazzle him and he becomes troubled of 
heart, for the element of feminity in his life suddenly 
springs before his mental gaze and he battles with the 
problem until, sorely tried, he seeks a solution from the lips 
of the ones themselves and lo ! he finds they have had their 
answer long awaiting his question, and he also finds that his 
old ideal of womanhood is not a myth — the psychological 
moment has permitted him to see the staunch nobility of 
womanhood. 

Thus upon April 26th, 1898, when the Detroit Light 
Guard started for Island Lake, William, whose father, per- 
chance, was absent from the world, threw his arms around 
the dear mother as she pressed her kisses upon his brow 
and whispered things in his ear, he meanwhile contemplat- 
ing the picture memory brought to him of the boyhood 
days when the mother's kiss was a big thing in his little life, 
and then in his man's strength he murmured back words of 
assurance, and afterwards when the sisters, who had with- 
drawn a little way, came forward, William gave his affec- 
tionate farewells to each, and for fear of showing — in his 
masculine way of thinking — too much emotion, brusquely 
charged them to "look after mother" and hastened away to 
join his company in the ranks. So also the captain bade 
the wife good-bye, but the scene is sacred from the his- 
torian's pen. 

They all marched away, officers and men, with "gallant 



step," as writers are wont to put it, and then mothers, sis- 
ters and wives, and not forgetful of the element of romance, 
sweethearts too, waited during the long days of prepara- 
tion at Island Lake, doing what thev could to cheer the lot 
of their boys until the troop trains began rolling away from 
the confines of Michigan. The boys reached their new 
camp hundreds of miles away, yet the tokens and letters 
from home followed constantly, and this individual atten- 
tion continued until it came to the "women folks" that they 
were all jointly interested in the Detroit Light Guard and 
the welfare of its members in the field, and so it came about 
that William's mother would meet the captain's wife, and 
they met others, until there finally came to life the great 
plan to gather themselves together and work for the com- 
fort of their sons and husbands. They had found their 
sphere of duty in the war and they set themselves to take it 
up. 

How well and faithfully these ladies worked, the his- 
torian will endeavor to make a matter of record in this 
volume, as the "History" could not be complete other- 
wise. 

One day a letter was received by Mrs. F. L. Abel, whose 
husband was adjutant of the regiment, and Mrs. Chas. S. 
Baxter, wife of the captain of Company L, from Major Bid- 
die, surgeon of the Thirty-first Michigan at Chickamauga, 
in which he explained how many things were lacking to add 
to the comfort of those who were compelled to be trans- 
ferred from their quarters to the hospital. During the first 
few days of the volunteer army, each regiment had its own 
hospital, and although some time later general hospitals 
were established, yet the facilities for nursing and caring 
for patients were only a slight degree better. It was at the 
time when several prominent women of wealth came for- 
ward with their means and donated ambulances and hos- 



439 



pital equipments. JSTone of these gifts, however, had come 
the way of the Thirty-first Michigan, and thus Major Bid- 
die felt it his duty to advise the people at home of the con- 
ditions, and how they could best be remedied. He advised 
that a fund be raised and forwarded with which to purchase 
supplies, as at that time the future movements of the regi- 
ment were uncertain, and transportation facilities so 
crowded that anything purchased and forwarded might 
perhaps never reach those for whom the supplies were in- 
tended. There was no need for the expression he used that 
the assistance would be sincerely appreciated, and that all 
m.oney received would be properly expended and accounted 
for, for Major Biddle bore the entire confidence of the 
Light Guard. 

Mrs. Abel and Mrs. Baxter replied to the communica- 
tions and set about to consult the ladies who were inter- 
ested in the Light Guard as mothers, sisters or wives of 
members in the service, with the result that steps were taken 
to foi-m an organization among themselves. 

The ladies applied to Mr. Cash P. Taylor for advice and 
assistance in effecting an organization among themselves, so 
that the work which had devolved upon them might be per- 
formed successfully, and accordingly, on the 2nd of June, 
1898, a large number of the ladies assembled at the armory 
and an organization was effected under the name of Detroit 
Light Guard Ladies' Aid Corps. Mrs. Chas. Baxter was 
chosen president; Mrs. Walter G. Rogers, vice-president; 
Mrs. F. L. Abel, secretary; Mrs. John S. Bersey, corre- 
sponding secretary ; Mrs. W. W. Dibble, treasurer ; and as 
a special representative of each company, Mrs. Samuel 
Brady was chosen for Company L, Miss Welz for Company 
I, Mrs. T. W. Clark for Company K, and Mrs. Kate Goward 
for Company M. These ladies, with the officers, composed 
what was called a special committee, with Mrs. Brady as 
chairman. 

440 



The first matter to receive attention was the enrollment 
fee. It was decided to not require a specific fee except be- 
tween the limits of ten and fifty cents. The first matter of 
business was taken up, and, of course, consisted of discuss- 
ing the matter of raising a fund so that the situation among 
their boys in camp might be bettered at once. It was de- 
cided to give an elaborate concert, and the work of carrying 
out the project, under the supervision of Mrs. Abel, was 
alloted to individuals and committees so that all might have 
a share in the work. 

The Veteran Corps stood ready to co-operate with the 
Ladies' Aid Corps, and the armory was always open to them 
for their use in carrying out their projects. Those in 
charge of the preparations for the concert went to work 
and made such a complete report at a meeting on June 5th 
that it was decided to set the date. June 14th was deter- 
mined upon as being very appropriate, for it was the anni- 
versary of our flag. The concert was held in the armory and 
admission placed at the very popular price of twenty-five 
cents. The character of the concert was very superior, 
because of the generosity of local musicians, singers and 
elocutionists, who freely donated their talent. The attend- 
ance was about one thousand, which was very good for 
warm weather. Members of the Veteran Corps assisted as 
ushers, and every one had the satisfaction of knowing that 
the aft'air had been a financial success as it had in other 
respects. A reception was held by the corps at the close of 
the concert, so that the members might meet all the ladies 
of the regiment in attendance who had not become affil- 
iated with the corps. 

At a meeting on June 18th the ladies found that they 
had arrived at a point where the disposal of funds on hand 
was a matter to be arranged for. A letter from Captain 
Cowley of Company M, Thirty-third Michigan was re- 

441 



ceived, in which he advised that the fund should be equally- 
divided between the captains of the four companies, and 
that each captain, with his two junior officers, should form 
a board of trustees and report the disbursement of the 
money to the Ladies' Aid Corps. This plan appealed to the 
ladies as a very good one, and so, when the first remit- 
tances of forty-five dollars were sent to each company, the 
secretary outlined to the recipients the plan which had been 
put forward by Captain Cowley and adopted by them. 

A gentleman who had no affiliation with the Light Guard, 
but knowing of the work of the ladies, sought to assist them 
in looking after the welfare of the ones they were inter- 
ested in in the volunter army. The gentleman must have had 
some knowledge of soldiering, for it would occur to very 
few men who have not spent days in a military camp that 
some kind of cholera cure was a very necessary article to 
soldiers. The supply of this kind of medicine which he 
sent to the corps was gratefully received and immediately 
forwarded to Major Harrah for distribution among the 
Light Guard boys. 

On June 23rd the corps adopted a constitution and by- 
laws, and an executive board was elected, consisting of Mrs. 
C. L, Stoddard, chairman; Mrs. F. M. Burton, representa- 
tive of Company I; Mrs. D. Busch, of Company K; Mrs. 
G. E. Angell, of Company L, and Mrs, C. A. Eich, of Com- 
pany M. 

Letters of thanks had been received from Light Guard 
officers, and were read at this meeting, and the announce- 
ment was made that Captain John M. Gutman of Com- 
pany M, of Monroe, in Major Harrah's battalion, had died. 
The sympathy of the ladies was touched, and a letter was 
sent to the family of the deceased officer, bearing expres- 
sions of condolence from the corps. A surprise was sprung 
at this meeting in the shape of a present of twenty-five dol- 

442 



lars. The amount came from the Wolverine Commandery, 
and had been secured and forwarded by Mr. and Mrs. Wil- 
bur. The ladies were very grateful indeed. 

From time to time persons came forward with offers of 
furnishing, gratis, various facilities which the corps needed 
in carrying on its work, and it is very fitting that an 
acknowledgment made at that time should find supple- 
mentary record in this printed account. The corps needed 
considerable printed matter, and Mr. Julius Suckert, D. L. 
G. Veteran Corps, graciously offered to supply the corps 
with what they needed in that line vdthout any reimbm-se- 
ment. 

Having sent quite a respectable fund to each company, 
the ladies turned their attention to the matter of preparing 
articles which they knew would be needed by the soldiers, 
and by July 20th, after much diligent work, a stock of pil- 
low cases and abdominal bandages had been made and were 
ready to send. Forwarding articles to Chickamauga by the 
regular means of transportation was very unsatisfactory, as 
such channels were overcrowded and delivery of shipments 
always very tardy, so that these supplies were sent in the 
more expensive but yet more satisfactory course in the 
mails. At that time, Company M was in Cuba, and the 
ladies were in a quandary as to what attempts they should 
make towards getting supplies to the boys there, but it was 
finally decided to risk a shipment of bandages, which, how- 
ever, reached the destination at just about the time the com- 
pany was starting with its regiment for the United States. 

The White Sewing Machine Company had very gen- 
erously placed a number of its machines in the armory for 
the use of the ladies in preparing these articles. 

In the July meeting, a letter of thanks was received 
from Captain Sink and one also read from Private Lang- 
don of Company L, describing camp life. Such communi- 

443 



cations were very much appreciated by the ladies, as it made 
them feel that their work was being appreciated and that 
the boys felt that those at home were following their move- 
ments. 

The "Daughters of 1812" donated fifty-two comfort 
bags, and these were divided among the companies, and 
were very useful articles. 

When the remittances were sent to the companies, Com- 
pany M had arrived in Cuba, and as a check could not then 
be converted into money there, and also because the mails 
were in a disorganized state, the fund for Company M was 
kept in the bank until the government established a postal 
money order system with that part of the island. Just as 
soon as the post office was in a position to issue money or- 
ders payable in Cuba, Mrs. Dibble drew Company M's fund 
from the bank and bought the first money order issued in 
Detroit, payable in Cuba. Mention of the receipt and use 
of this amount appears in the account of Company M, but 
the fact just stated indicates how closely the corps looked 
after the interest of the Light Guard members. 

By August the condition of the Light Guard companies 
was so satisfactory as to make it unnecessary to extend relief 
measures for a while, but the ladies felt that they should 
not remain idle for a moment, and turned their attention 
to the financial condition of the armory, and they signified 
to the Veteran Corps their willingness to assist them in any 
way they could. Of course, the principal means within 
reach of the ladies for procuring funds were entertain- 
ments, and professional entertainers continually appeared 
to give an entertainment under the auspices of the corps, 
and ostensibly for its benefit, but they always required a 
large percentage for their services. The ladies, however, 
were shrewd enough to keep their skirts clear of all such 
entanglements. 

444 



A new idea had been taken up, and plans were started 
to give a trolley ride, but the corps never went into an im- 
portant undertaking of any kind without consulting and 
receiving advice from the Veteran Corps, and the sanction 
of the board of directors. The Veteran Corps and board of 
directors were using their best efforts just about that time to 
get the finances of the armory into such shape that the 
building would not be lost. It was a difficult task, as pro- 
fessional beggars were performing skillful work in the com- 
munity, and thereby reducing the field for the real and 
important objects. It was for this reason that the board 
requested the ladies to defer their trolley party, but 
by the latter part of August the corps was advised that it 
might carry out its plans, provided they did not advertise, 
but by diligently selling tickets, the lack of advertising was 
overcome and the proceeds amounted to a little over one 
hundred dollars. Some of the success was due to the gen- 
erosity of Mr. Hutchins of the street railway company, and 
this was acknowledged to him by letter. 

At a meeting on August 31st Mrs. Abel resigned her 
position as recording secretary, and Mrs. Catharine Wine- 
man was elected to succeed her. A report was also read at 
this meeting of a donation of fifty cents from two young 
children who had raised the amount by making and sell- 
ing pin wheels. 

As the welcome news was confirmed that Company M 
of the Thirty-third would soon be home, it was decided to 
make some arrangements for taking part in the welcome to 
be accorded by the Veteran Corps and city. It was known 
to the corps that a public fund was in existence from which 
the expenses of welcoming Company M would be paid, 
but they were informed that the reception at the armory 
would be in the hands of the Ladies Aid and Veteran Corps, 
and although the cost of the banquet would be met out of 

445 



the public fund, yet the ladies should take charge of the 
table. 

It seems that the meeting of August 31st was not in 
accordance with the constitution and by-laws previously 
adopted, and that business transacted upon that date was 
null and void, so Mrs. Abel's resignation was re-accepted 
on September 21st, and an election was to be held on 
October 5th to fill the vacancy. 

Mrs. Dibble and Mrs. Cross had visited the camp of the 
Thirty-first at Knoxville on the 9 th, for the purpose of see- 
ing their sons and to learn what was needed to help the 
condition of the Light Guard boys. Mrs. Dibble reported 
at the meeting that the site of the camp was very good, 
and that the members of the regiment had more conveni- 
ences than had been possible before, such as fresh city water, 
ice and baths, and food which, although plain, was good 
and fresh. She reported that the hospital seemed to be in 
need of bedding and night shirts, slippers, and a few other 
articles, and that patients just out of the hospital whose 
strength and appetite needed building up, should have a 
supply of good tonic. She also related the kind attention 
being extended by the ladies of Knoxville in the matter 
of looking after the sick and making the boys feel at home 
upon their visits to the city from camp. Mrs. Dibble's sug- 
gestion about sending a supply of tonic was promptly acted 
upon, and a lot was purchased from Messrs. Farrand, Wil- 
liams and Clark, who afterwards addressed the corps in a 
letter expressing their desire to have the tonic accepted as 
a present, and returning the check which had been sent in 
payment of it. 

On the afternoon of October 5th, the corps met for the 
purpose of adjourning their old organization indefinitely, 
and proceeded to organise themselves into a new and per- 
manent organization under the name of the Detroit Light 

446 



Guard Ladies' Association. The work was to be along the 
old lines, but the purposes were somewhat broadened, as it 
was the desire to make the association as useful to the Vet- 
eran Corps as it was to the Active Corps. In the absence 
of the president and both vice-presidents of the Aid Corps, 
Mrs. W. "W. Dibble was chosen to take the chair, and Mrs. 
F. L. Abel to act as secretary. The indefinite adjournment 
of the old organization was duly accomplished, and those 
present perfected a new organization and elected officers. 
Mrs. H. M. Duffield was elected president; Mrs. W. W. 
Dibble, vice-president; Mrs. F. L. Abel, secretary, and 
Mrs. F. M. Burton, treasurer. After the business of the 
meeting had been transacted. Captain Cowley, of Com- 
pany M, presented himself upon the invitation of the ladies, 
and entertained them with an interesting account of the 
service of the company while in Cuba, and also made a re- 
port of the expenditures of the fund which had been sent 
by the ladies. It was explained that as the remittance had 
come rather late and there had not been an opportunity 
to use it extensively, there was a balance of twenty dollars 
left on hand, and the amount had been loaned to two pri- 
vates in the company. The ladies were pleased with the 
report and extended the captain a rising vote of thanks. 
It was decided to leave the matter of the balance as 
accounted for, in the hands of the trustees of the company 
for them to dispose of at their own discretion. Before 
adjourning the meeting, the officers of the new organization 
graciously gave a vote of thanks to the officers of the old 
organization. 

At a meeting on October 19th a communication was re- 
ceived from Mrs. Duffield expressing her regret at being 
unable to accept the office of president, and her resigna- 
tion was accepted. Another communication was from Cap- 
tain Henderson of Company I, reporting the expenditures 

447 



of the fund received by him, and was accepted with a vote 
of thanks. Mrs. Dibble read an interesting letter from 
her son, describing the life of the camp and the arrival of 
Mr. Gilboy and the roval reception given him. She ex- 
plained that at a special meeting of the committee, it had 
been decided to furnish transportation for Mr. Gilboy to 
Knoxville in order that he might visit the boys who were 
very much in a mood to see some one from home, and as 
Mr. Gilboy was a representative of everything Light Guard, 
it was thought that the boys would be highly satisfied at 
having him visit them. She said that with that end in view, 
the boys had been trying to raise the money among them- 
selves to pay the expenses of his trip. The ladies approved 
the matter and were very glad that it had been arranged. 

It was decided to elect Mrs. Harrah as president. She 
did not wish to accept the presidency as she was about to 
join her husband at Kjioxville, but she consented to accept 
the office upon the promise of Mrs. Dibble as vice-president, 
to preside during her absence. A new constitution and 
by-laws were adopted, and arrangements made to dispose 
of the funds of the old organization by sending a supply 
of night caps for use in the hospital of the Thirty-first regi- 
ment, as it had been found that they were very much 
needed. The balance of the fund was to be used in paying 
the old bills, and what was left, it was decided to send to 
Major Harrah for disbursement as the members did not 
wish to use any of the funds of the old organization in de- 
fraying any expenses to be incurred by the Association. An 
executive board was appointed on the lines of the old board, 
with the addition of a representative of the Veteran Corps. 
Various other committees were appointed, and the new 
organization was in good running shape. 

At a meeting on JSTovember 2nd, the ladies were made 
still further acquainted with the good they had accom- 

448 



plished. Corporal Mulligan, a nurse from the hospital of 
the regiment, had been invited to be present, and after 
thanking the ladies for money and supplies which had been 
sent, he told of the good condition of the hospital, and of 
the great amount of kindness extended to the boys by the 
ladies of Knoxville. He told them that the boys were re- 
ceiving proper care at the hands of Dr. Haze, who was very 
kind and careful of their weKare, and suggested that money 
be sent to him instead of to company commanders for the 
benefit of the Light Guard sick. The ladies were gratified 
with the account, and asked Corporal Mulligan for a list 
of articles which he thought were the most needed. 

So many reports had come to the organization about the 
kind attentions of the Knoxville ladies, that it was decided 
to write an open letter of acknowledgment and thanks, 
which was published in the Knoxville papers. 

The accounts of the Association with Richmond & 
Backus Company, H. A. Newland & Company and Mr. 
W. H. Swail were donated by those gentlemen at the meet- 
ing. 

A communication was received from Dr. Haze, in charge 
of the hospital, thanking the Association for the supplies 
sent and stating that the one dozen hot water bottles which 
he had just received from them, were very useful. 

The ladies had opened a new field of work for themselves 
in the very important matter of furnishing the various 
rooms in the armory, and the first step was taken by 
appointing a committee to confer with the Veteran Corps 
upon the subject. The association had planned to inaug- 
urate a series of pedro parties, and they were to be the means 
of bringing in a revenue. The first one was arranged for 
November 16th. After deciding upon that date, it came 
to their attention that it was the date of the forty-third 
anniversary of the Light Guard, but as there was to be no 

449 



special celebration, owing to the absence of the three com- 
panies at Knoxville, and Company M, the members of 
which had arranged to have a theatre party and banquet at 
the Cadillac on that evening, it was decided to have a party 
on that date and entertain the Veteran Corps. 

Two families whose sons were in the Thirty-first were 
reported in December as being in a needy condition, and 
the Association promptly supplied half! a ton of coal to 
each, together with a lot of groceries and provisions. 

The Association had been working and spending for the 
welfare of those in camp, so that by the last of December, 
when the ladies took stock of their treasury, they found it 
nearly empty, but it being near Christmas and IsTew Year, 
an entertainment for the purpose of raising funds would 
have to be put off until after the holiday season, so they 
turned their attention from a money making project to 
one of purely social character and held a reception in the 
armory on Monday, January 2nd, 1900, between the hours 
of three and six, to meet the veterans and all the boys of the 
Light Guard who were in the city. It was a very happy 
affair. Indeed, it now seemed that the ladies were booked 
to take care of the social features of the organization, and 
upon a suggestion from the veterans, the Association ten- 
dered an informal hop upon the evening of January 18th, 
following the installation of the newly elected officers of 
the Light Guard. 

Man has the idea a good deal that woman looks upon his 
expressions of chivalry and gallantry as a matter of fact, 
but he is frequently made to know otherwise. It would not 
do to say that the members of the Light Guard Band had 
ever entertained such an idea as mentioned, during the 
many occasions upon which they freely used their instru- 
ments and their talent to help the ladies to make a success 
of some entertainment, but they certainly appreciated the 

450 



concerted expression of gratitude coming from the Asso- 
ciation, and the offer to purchase some music for the band, 
accompanied by an invitation from Mrs. Harold Todd to 
the members to visit her husband's music library at their 
pleasure. 

The ladies of the Association completed some of their 
furnishing plans in January by beautifying the "Ladies' 
Parlor" in the armory vdth a rug and curtains and some 
new furniture, so that the appurtenances of social events 
would not be found wanting, and true to the plan of doing 
also for the veterans, they hung curtains and draperies in 
the veterans' Round Room. 

The Association and the Veteran Corps joined hands 
under the inspiration of the former, and placed Mrs. Gil- 
boy, the armorer's invalid wife, in St. Mary's Hospital for 
treatment and nursing, and another song of praise received 
its birth. 

It became necessary to raise money, for the treasury 
was empty, and that condition would curtail the potency 
of the Association, so that the pedro parties were given each 
alternate week, and a valentine party netted $42.82, and a 
later entertainment swelled the sum in the exchequer to 
$91.00 by April 1st. A separate fund known as the 
"Flower Fmid" was, upon the president's suggestion, main- 
tained by penny collections at each meeting. 

At the March meeting. Corporal King was present upon 
imitation, and his story of the good accomplished among 
the boys by the Association was pleasing to the ladies, for 
their enterprise had cost them much in effort, time and 
money, and it is very heartening, especially in a labor of 
love, to know that the toiling has been fruitful. 

In the early part of April the ladies began preparations 
for the reception of the Light Guard battalion by complet- 
ing some of the furnishing undertaken, and arranging for 
badges and committees. 

451 



Owing to the continued inability of the treasurer to dis- 
charge the duties of the office, Mrs. Harold Todd was elected 
on May 3rd to succeed. 

At the meeting on May 3rd Mrs. Dibble announced a 
welcome gift from two ladies — Mrs. Emma Pridgeon and 
Mrs. Harry Milward. The present consisted of ten dollars 
and was for the purpose of enlarging the stage in thb assem- 
bly hall. 

All along, the boys had been writing to their homes 
about the good things the ladies were doing for them and, 
of course, such expressions always found their way to the 
pleased hearing of the ladies. The officers also wrote home 
upon the same subject and sometimes addressed the Associ- 
ation direct; it may delight the members to have placed 
before them the following portion of a letter written by 
Maj. Harrah to Mr. Cash P. Taylor under date of April 
30th, 1899, from Savannah. After describing the amount 
of good accomplished by the ladies at home by sending 
money and delicacies, he wrote as follows : "Many a man 
recovering from some sickness has had cause to bless the 
ladies for some delicate food with which he has been trying 
to tempt his appetite. They have cut off the rough edges 
and sharp corners in a life that has been hard and irksome, 
and full of privation and discomfort. They have kept the 
boys in touch with home. I hope they will still feel that 
there is something for them to do after our return, for we 
are rougher than we were — to put it mildly — and I can 
see a good field for the civilizing^ and refining influence of 
the ladies." It may further please the members to see it 
recorded here that Maj. Harrah expressed the sentiment of 
the boys as accurately as he did his own. 

The boys were to come home during the month, and 
plans already made at the previous meeting were enlarged, 
and the Association was also to co-operate mth the Veteran 



Corps. One of the chief arrangements was that of sup- 
plying badges to Light Guard families so that they might 
await their own in a reserved space in the armory. 

If the ladies will turn back to the pages in the "General 
History" dwelling upon the home-coming of the battalion, 
they will find that the historian has endeavored to bring 
together in one happy mass the results of the efforts of all 
branches of membership to make the welcome and recep- 
tion the successful affair it was. There was, however, one 
incident for which the Association was solely responsible. 
Seven members of the Light Guard companies had died dur- 
ing the period of service and knowing that the proud return 
of the dead soldiers' old comrades would start afresh the 
families' grief, the Association sent cheering messages with 
flowers accompanying. 

After the crowning moment in the life of the Association 
— the return of the boys whose soldier lives had called for 
the work and solicitude of the ladies — there was no let- 
down in its activity. 

Several months before, a jeweller had been commis- 
sioned to design and manufacture a pin symbolic of the 
Light Guard, and at the meeting on June 3rd Mrs. Cash P. 
Taylor, who had charge of the matter, reported the pins as 
ready for sale to members of all branches of the Light 
Guard only. The pin is very distinctive and tasteful La 
appearance — a small tiger head of gold with eyes illumin- 
ated with red stones. You will find the pins displayed upon 
the persons of quite a number of Light Guardsmen. 

The boys had been given a great public reception, as the 
reader knows, but the ladies wished to give them a private 
reception — ^more of a family affair as it were, so the even- 
ing of June 12th found the actives and veterans assembled 
at the armory, when they were received by the ladies in 
the auditoriiun, where was displayed a profusion of dainty 

453 



decorations. The band assisted in making the affair a social 
success and the event is even yet spoken of by the boys at 
times, although numerous other similar affairs have fre- 
quently occurred since; perhaps it is because it was a treat 
to them after the long days of isolation from such pleas- 
antries that remembrance of it still lives. 

Hot weather was beginning to register with a vengeance 
and driving many of the ladies with their families to cooler 
spots away from the city, so for that reason, and because 
of the general relaxation from activity among the veterans 
and actives, it was decided to adjourn the Association for 
the summer, to meet in September. 

The first meeting held after the summer adjournment 
was on September 6th, but because of a small attendance, 
no particular activity Avas arranged for. 

The first annual meeting was held on October 5th, but 
because of the unusually exacting quorum clause in the 
by-laws, election of officers could not be proceeded with. 

The financial statement for the year beginning October, 
1898, showed the receipts to have reached the remarkable 
amount of $209.58, and with the exception of a small bal- 
ance on hand, the sum had been spent exclusively for the 
benefit of the Light Guard. 

The Association, true to the idea of assisting the veterans 
in furnishing their parlor, beautified the round room with 
curtains and draperies, and paid a large sum upon the car- 
peting; it is a good sight now to drop in of an evening and 
see the old veterans enjoying their quarters. 

The death of Colonel Lum set the ladies' fingers to work 
again, but the results will be found mentioned in the Vet- 
eran Corps' History. 

This sketch has arrived at a date when the doings of all 
branches of membership should more properly be recorded 
in the general history of the Light Guard, as that, to be 

454 



interesting, must be made up of all component parts having 
any bearing upon it so, in bringing this to a close with 
the brief account remaining of matters peculiar only to 
the Association, the reader is directed to the "General His- 
tory," where will be found an account of the achievements 
of the ladies, veterans and actives all fitted together in one 
homogeneous record. 

It was not until January 3rd, 1900, that the quorum 
clause was suspended and all ofiices declared vacant and an 
election of new officers accompKshed. President Mrs. 
Dibble had been touched by the hand of ill health which 
caused her to retire from active duties and Mrs. Abel being 
her logical successor was elected president, which was a 
well deserved recognition of her faithful and continuous 
activity from the very beginning of the ladies' organization; 
a letter of sympathy bearing expressions of esteem and 
acknowledging her past enterprise was sent to the retiring 
president. Mrs. D. Busch was elected vice-president, her 
matronly years and character having always attracted the 
admiration of her sister-members. Mrs. S. R. Eenton, in- 
heriting the qualities of her mother, Mrs. Dibble, was con- 
tinued in her active membership by having the duties of 
secretary placed in her hands. Mrs. Harold Todd's per- 
sonality and business-like manner of taking care of the 
funds operated to retain her at the post of treasurer, but 
owing to illness she resigned her task later and on May 
5th the Association selected Mrs. "Jack" Thomson to take 
up the duties — this Avas another reward for sympathetic 
geniality and untiring energy. 

In May the ladies began the fashioning of a flag for the 
Veteran Corps and the arduous task of converting a long, 
bare room into a pleasant sitting and reading room for the 
Active Coi-ps, and if the reader will turn to the closing 
pages of the General History, there will be found a full 

455 



account of tlie success of the projects and how gracefully 
the presentations were made. 

Vice-President Mrs. D. Busch placed her letter of resig- 
nation before the Association at the May 5th meeting, but 
being loth to accept it, the members deferred action until 
June 2nd, when Mrs. Catherine Wineman was elected to 
succeed. Mrs. Wineman has always been a very active 
and harmonious worker, and when that is truly said of a per- 
son, there is nothing more left to be said. In fact, it is to 
be regretted that the Association has so few offices to fill 
as an acknowledgment of faithfulness and zeal among the 
mepibership, but a company of soldiers is useless unless the 
officers have a rank and file capable of supplying the work- 
ing force, and good privates do not always remain privates — 
the writer hopes to wear shoulder straps some day. 

The Association is continually adding new members to 
itself, and its sphere of usefulness will never end. A large 
and prominent organization like the Detroit Light Guard 
needs co-operation from the feminine element. It has 
be€n stated how the ladies helped in War and later in Peace, 
and though their office may not seem to the casual thinker 
to be of much importance since the White Dove has come 
back to its cote, one should not be so ignorant of human 
nature, as exemplified by a body of young men, as to not 
know that this feminine element is needed to always have 
its restraining hand spread out, radiating a potent influence 
for refinement of act and speech. 

The writer has witnessed upon numerous occasions the 
passage of one or more ladies in the vicinity of a group of 
fellows engaged in excessive animation and liberal conver- 
sation, and has been amused at the change suddenly mani- 
fested. A dignified demeanor would instantly be assumed, 
and maybe one fellow's hand would slip up to his mouth 
as if to check some word. Hats or caps would also come 

456 



off, and then the reaction would be very slow in returning 
or, they would saunter away. 

The social life of the organization needs the Association, 
and an older member need only compare the last year with 
former ones to feel impressed with the benefits of the ladies' 
activity. 

The veterans and actives acknowledge the many obliga- 
tions the ladies have unwittingly placed them under, and 
it is this very same unconsciousness of doing anything extra- 
ordinary coloring their every undertaking that lends a charm 
to their achievements for the benefit of the Detroit Light 
Guard, and calls forth spontaneous appreciation. 

The historian since taking up this one year's task has be- 
come a trained observer, therefore, knowing all whereof 
he has written and he takes much pleasure from the final 
placing of this record in the type-setter's hands. 



457 



MEMBERSHIP ROLL OF THE DETROIT LIGHT GUARD 
LADIES' AID CORPS. 



(The Original 
ABEL, MRS. F. L. 
ANGELL, MBS. G. E. 
BARGER, MRS. ANNA. 
BATXER, MRS. CHAS. S. 
BAYER, MRS. 
BERSEY, MRS. J. S. 
BRADY, MRS. SAMUEL, 
BURTON, MRS. .P. M. 
BUSCH, MRS. D. 
CAMPBELL, MRS. WM. 
CAMPBELL, MRS. TV. A. 
CAMPBELL, MISS GERTRUDE 
CLARK, T. W. 
CROSS, MRS. L. 
DAVIS, MRS. M. J. 
DIBBLE, MRS. W. W. 
DOWNEY, MRS. M. 
DOYLE, MRS. A. G. 
FAILING, MRS. FRANK. 
PALVEY, MRS. E. G. 
GOWARD, MRS. KATE 
GOWARD, MRS. MARIA 
GUEST, MRS. M. J. 
HARRAH, MISS GRACE 
HOWES, MRS. T. I. 
KEARNEY, MRS. 
KENNEDY, Mrs. 
KERR, MISS M. 
KING, MRS. S. C. 
LAKE, MRS. GEO. 
LANGDON, MRS. W. W. 
LAURENCE, MRS. CHAS. 
LAURENCE, MISS LILLIE 
LINDSAY, MRS. A. G. 
LOVE, MISS IRENE 
MALLOY, MISS 
MALLOY, MISS MAGGIE 
MAY, MRS. JOHN 
McEWAN, MISS AGNES 
McE^WAN, MRS. W. W. 



Organization.) 

McMillan, miss 
Mcmullen, mrs. wm. 
meddaugh, mrs. m. p. 
miller, miss emily 
miller, mrs. j. j. 
miller, mrs. jas. 

MORAN, MRS. J. R. 
MORRISON, MISS LILLIAN 
PAGBL, MRS. MARTHA 
PPEIFPER, MRS. 
PURINTON, MRS. H. D. 
RATHBURN, MISS E. 
RENTON, MRS. S. R. 
RICH, MRS. 
RICH, MISS ESTELLA 
RICKLE, MRS. F. 
RICKLE, MISS PRANCES 
ROGERS, MRS. WALTER G. 
ROSS, MRS. J. J. 
RUSSEL, MRS. E. I. 
SHOULY, MRS. EDWARD 
SHOULY, MISS MINNIE 
SINK, MRS. "W. H. 
SLATER, MRS. H. M. 
STODDARD, MRS. ADA M. 
TEAL, MRS. ALICE 
THAL, MRS. C. J. 
THOMSON, MRS. J. 
TOBIN, MRS. PLOP^A 
TOBIN, MRS. K. 
WALDO, MISS 
WELDON, MRS. J. W. 
WELZ, MISS 
WHEATON, MRS. A. W. 
WHEATON, MISS R. G. 
WILBUR, MRS. E. "W. 
WINEMAN, MRS. CATHERINE 
WOOLPENDEN, MRS. E. W. 
YOUNG, MISS BESSIE 
YOUNG, MRS. WILL. 



458 



DETKOIT LIGHT GUAKD LADIES' 
ASSOCIATION. 



OFFICERS: 
MRS. F. L. ABEL, President. 

MRS. CATHERINE WINEMAN, Vice-President. 
MRS. S. R. RENTON, Secretary. 

MRS. ALBERTIE THOMSON, Treasurer. 



PRESENT MEMBERSHIP. 



ABEL, MRS. F. L. 
BARGER, MRS. ANNA 
BARTON, MRS. F. M. 
BUSCH, MRS. D. 
BUSCH, MISS FREIDA 
CAMPBELL, MISS GERTRUDE 
CAMPBELL, MRS. WM. 
CAMPBELL, MRS. WM., Jr. 
CASTLE, MRS. F. F. 
CASTLE, MRS. H. H. 
CHAMBERLAIN, MISS FANNIE 
CLARK, MISS ALICE M. 
CLARK, MISS MAY 
CLARK, MRS. T. MV. 
COOPER, MRS. WM. 
CROSS,' MRS. L. 
DEITZ, MRS. E. 
DIBBLE, MRS. JULIA L. 
DIEDRICH, MRS. 
DUPFIELD, MRS. HENRY M. 
EVANS, MRS. V. R. 
FALVEY, MRS. E. C. 
FAY, MRS. EDWARD 
FAY, MISS MABEL 
GLADDING, MRS. GRACE 
GLADDING, MRS. H. R. 
GOWARD, MISS EMMA 
GOWARD, MRS. KATE 
GOWARD, MRS. MARIA 
GUEST, MRS. M. J. 
HAMPTON, MRS. EMMA STARK 
HARRAH, MRS. CHAS. W. 
HARRIS, MRS. C. M. 
HARRIS, MISS MABEL 
HOWES, MRS. T. L 



hutchinson, mrs. d. 
jacklin, mrs. elizabeth w. 
johnston, miss anna 
jones, mrs. j. m. 
kearney, mrs. 
kiefer, mrs. fannie 
knapp, mrs. w. h. 
knox, mrs. g. m. 
lake, miss clara 
lake, mrs. geo. 
lake, miss la vina 
lake, miss olive 
langdon, mrs. mary 
laurence, mrs. chas. 
laurence, miss lillie 
learned, mrs. 
lorimer, mrs. 
love, miss irene 
malloy, miss julia 
mason, mrs. r. e. 
may, mrs. john 
Mcmullen, mrs. wm. 
Mcmullen, miss winifred 

MEDDAUGH, MRS. M. V. 
MILLER, MISS EMILY L. 
MILLER, MRS. J. J. 
MORINE, MRS. GEO. 
MUFFATT, MRS. E. 
MUFFATT, MRS. LOUIS P. 
PEASE, MRS. ANGUSTA W. 
PERREN, MRS. DELLIE 
PINKERTON, MRS. H. 
RATHBURN, MISS E. 
RENTON, MRS. S. R. 
RICH. MRS. 



459 



PRESENT MEMBERSHIP— (Continued.) 



RICH, MISS BSTELLA 
RICKLB, MRS. P. 
RICKLE, MISS FRANCES 
ROGERS, MRS. WALTER G. 
ROSS, MRS. J. J. 
RUSSELL, MRS. E. I. 
SIMONSON, MRS. 
SMITH, MISS PRAJSrCIS 
SMITH, MRS. F. L. 
SMITH, MRS. THOMAS 
STODDARD, MRS. ADA M. 
TAYLOR, MISS ALICE 
TAYLOR, MISS CASSIUS P. 
THAL, MRS. J. C. 
THOMSON, MRS. ALBERTIE 



THOMSON, MRS. ELLA G. 
TOBIN, MRS. C. 
TOBIN, MISS FLORA 
TODD, MRS. HAROLD 
TRBBBIN, MRS. E. 
WARD, MRS. C. 
WELLINGTON, MRS. PRANK 
WELZ, MISS LEILA 
WHITE, MISS L. H. 
WILBUR, MRS. LUCIA 
WINEMAN, MRS. CATHERINE 
WOODLEY, MRS. JENNIE 
WOOLPBNDEN, MRS. E. R. 
YOUNG, MISS BESSIE 
YOUNG, MRS. WM. 




460 



PART IV. 



The Armory. 



"The history of building lias three chapters, the building 
of the Pyramids, the work of the Mound-builders, and the 
building of the Detroit Light Guard KTmory."— Speech given 
by Col. Harrah at anniversary celebration, Nov. ibth, iSqy. 



JF a man has something to manufacture, he 
lays his financial plan and then builds his 
factory and installs suitable machinery, 
or, if he has something to sell, he builds 
or leases a store of sufiicient size to meet 
his needs, and with the proper furnishing, 
and so it is that, if the people desire to 
have a good military force, they must pro- 
vide a building adequate in size and facili- 
ties for housing and exercising those who 
volunteer to enter the service, in all the 
duties pertaining to the profession of arms. 
The military history of Michigan has been 
exciting enough, because it has always 
been mixed up in frontier disputes, and it 
even now forms a large part of our northern 
boundary line, yet from the time of the 
first Indian wars, her metropolis has been permitted to 
remain without a suitable armory until recent date. 

The earliest government made it incumbent upon the 
part of every citizen, between the ages of sixteen and 
sixty (and later, a reduction in the severity of the age limit), 
to provide himself with a suitable musket and bayonet and 
forty rounds of ammunition. 

"For security, the principles of defence and protection, it 
is necessary to be assembled upon certain times and certain 
places for exercise and inspecting of arms and accoutre- 
ments, and for disciplining the men in a soldierly manner; 
and where as, the assembling of the members of a command 
at fixed places conduces to health, civilization, and moral- 
ity; and such assembling without arms in a newly settled 




463 



country may be attended with danger, therefore, the corps 
shall be paraded at ten o'clock in the morning of each first 
day of the week, armed, equipped, and accoutred, in con- 
venient places next adjacent to the place or places for public 
worship." So ran the early statute. 

It is a long cry from that time until, when after various 
stages of evolution in the military organization of the state, 
companies were formed and property interests had grown 
to such an extent, men were able to become members of 
these companies and rent some hall for their armory. 

Of course, as this change took place, there was a gradual 
giving up of outdoor meetings, and they became confined 
to the armories, such as they were. 

This was a step in the right direction, but it might better 
be called but half a step, for these so-called armories af- 
forded very little room for any drill work outside of the 
manual of arms, so that while headquarters had been estab- 
lished for the usual purposes and as a depository for the 
arms, yet even an unsophisticated soldier could readily un- 
derstand that much had been lost in the general knowledge 
of military maneuvers by confining their school of the com- 
pany in limited indoor space. 

The people of Michigan have been very slow to appreciate 
this fact, for her sister states to the East, South, West and 
'JSTorth have long since provided in their principle cities ar- 
mory buildings large enough to house a full regiment, and 
with enough floor space to even maneuver a regiment in 
some of the simpler movements. 

It is true that the government of only one of these 
states has borne the expense of building armories, but the 
citizens in other states, among the holders of prominent 
property interests, have willingly provided buildings just 
as fine and large as those for which the state of New York 
has become famous. 

464 



The reason that this state, as well as all others with the 
exception noted, does not erect armories is because it has 
been declared unconstitutional to use the tax revenues for 
that purpose, so that it must be done by virtue of a state tax 
established by the legislature, or sufficient appropriation by 
the same, but this it has always been found impossible to 
accomplish, because of the opposition of the members from 
the rural districts whose constituents feel no direct need of 
military protection, and refuse to be taxed for what they 
believe is exclusively for the benefit of the cities. They do 
not seem to understand that it is necessary to maintain in 
the large centers proper headquarters for military forces, 
adequate, for instance, to keep open the avenues of general 
traffic, the closing of which by unruly assemblies inevitably 
affect rural and metropolitan communities alike, the only 
difference being that the financial losses would be greatest 
in the cities, but in proportion, the hardship would be equal. 
Thus, this stubborn element of conservatism causes the city 
man to tire of expecting co-operation from his country 
brother, and joins his fellow-citizens in supplying the means 
for erecting armories, rejoicing that there are sufficient pub- 
lic spirited young men to occupy them, and be a law uphold- 
ing force. 

At the time of the beginning of the Civil War, the annual 
appropriation for the support of the state militia was only 
$3,000, and even at this date the only moneyed allowance 
from the state is $400 per company per annum, and this 
amount, it is expected by the state, should be sufficient to 
rent some quarters to be used as armories. 

The Detroit Light Guard, by right of its direct succession, 
is the oldest military organization in the state now in active 
existence. Its illustrious record will be foimd elsewhere in 
this volume, and reference to same will lead the reader to 
understand the ambition which has moved the organization 

465 



to finally achieve the erection of the only armory building 
in the state of Michigan arranged for military purposes ex- 
clusively. 

It is not a very long story, but it is of interest to the citi- 
zens of Detroit, because it practically belongs to the citizens 
of Detroit. 

In that portion of the Inspector-General's report of the 
state encampment in 1860, setting forth high praise of the 
company, which had received the highest rating, appears 
the statement "in the opinion of the Inspector, the citizens 
of Detroit fail to study their interest, and to a great extent 
their safety, if they fail to accord to it encouragement and 
support." 

The urgent necessity for an armory for the organization 
had become more and more apparent for a fev^ years pre- 
ceding the fall of 1895. At each successive anniversary 
reunion the matter of building an armory vs^as discussed, but 
nothing came of it until, at the annual meeting of the Vet- 
eran Corps on December 18th, 1895, that body decided to 
appoint a committee, composed of Comrades Cash P. Taylor 
and J. G. Standart, for the purpose of conferring with the 
nev7 president of the active corps regarding its condition 
and future plans. The committee made a report at the meet- 
ing of the Veteran Corps on March 18th, 1896, but by that 
time a new company had combined with the active corps, 
thereby making it a battalion of three companies, so that 
the need of a regular armory was even more imperative. 
The committee reported that the condition of the Active 
Corps was good and that they had discussed the question of 
a new armory at their last meeting and had referred same 
to a committee composed of Col. H. M. Duffield, Hon. A. 
G. Boynton, Capt. Geo. L. Maltz, John B. Whelan and the 
trustees of the Veteran Corps. The committee also reported 
that it was the wish of the Active Corps that the Veteran 

466 



Coi-ps should take charge of all matters pertaining to the 
construction of a new armory. 

A general discussion followed among the veterans. 
Major Jacklin suggested the uniting of the militia com- 
panies of the city ^vith the local G. A. R posts, and thereby 
perpetuate the G. A. E. veterans after they had passed away; 
that sounded like good fellowship, but it lacked the hard ring 
of realism. It was suggested that all the local companies 
might combine and the armory could be made large enough 
to quarter a regiment, and the extreme opposite suggestion 
was that individual armories for the various companies be 
constructed. It is unnecessary to say that the latter sug- 
gestion was not worth considering, but a regimental armory 
would have been the best proposition if there had not been 
sufficient obstacles to prevent it being worked out. This 
was to be distinctly a Light Guard enterprise, and unless all 
the companies would incorporate under the name of The 
Detroit Light Guard, the pet scheme of the organization 
would be frustrated. 

Someone advocated the construction of a regimental 
armory on the site of the old postoffice for the benefit of all 
the local companies, but the enormous cost involved in car- 
rying out such a suggestion killed it before it had time to 
grow. 

During all this time there was one man whose brain was 
especially busy with the project and the attendant feature 
of ways and means. This was Capt. Harrah — now colonel 
of the 1st M. i^. G. — and believing at last he had found a 
good plan, he explained it to the Veteran Corps at its meet- 
ing in October, 1895, as the success of the plan was con- 
tingent upon the backing of the corps. Capt. Harrah had 
consulted a certain well known capitalist, with a view to 
getting that gentleman to construct a suitable building at a 
cost of about $75,000, and then lease it to the Detroit Light 

467 



Guard for a long period. The gentleman agreed to do this, 
provided the rentals were guaranteed by the Veteran Corps, 
but when this proposition was presented to the Corps, as 
just stated, its members felt that the Corps was not in condi- 
tion to assume such a responsibility at that time, and so 
Capt. Harrah took up again his pursuit of some practicable 
idea. 

Meanwhile, a A'eteran member who appreciated the cap- 
tain's efforts, proceeded to strengthen the Veteran Corps 
so that it would be in condition to render aid when called 
upon again, and to that end he had a nominating committee 
established to take care of the election of officers at the an- 
nual meeting in the following month, and that he worked 
well may be seen by the following extraordinary list of gen- 
tlemen : Captain, Geo. L. Maltz; 1st lieutenant, S. R. 
Dixon; 2nd lieutenant, John A. Dick; 1st sergeant, David 
R. Pierce; 2nd sergeant, H. H. Hodgson; 3rd sergeant, 
Alfred Eussell; 4th sergeant, John McMillan; 1st corporal, 
Charles M. Lum; 2nd corporal, Wm. A. Moore; 3rd cor- 
poral, Thos. W. Palmer; 4th corporal, Thos. Cranage; 5th 
corporal, James Nail, Jr.; 6th corporal, E. II. Butler; 7th 
corporal, James E. Pittman; 8th corporal, Jerome Croul; 
A. G. Boynton, president; E. W. Jacklin, 1st vice-president; 
H. F. Eberts, 2nd vice-president ; F. E. Farnsworth, secre- 
tary; Thos. L. Harper, treasurer, and Wm. A. Butler, M. S. 
Smith, D. M. Ferry, Jos. G. Standart and Wm. C. Maybury, 
trustees. 

The list of officers and board of directors of the civil or- 
ganization had always been headed by members of the Vet- 
eran Corps, the election of whom was entirely in the hands 
of the Active Corps. At the annual meeting of the latter on 
December 2nd, 1895, a strong slate was put through by the 
nominating committee, the principal significance of which, 
at this time, was proclaimed by the name of Col. H. M. Duf- 

468 



field appearing as president, where it has remained ever 
since. 

There is the following entry in the minutes of the Vet- 
eran Corps, March 18th, 1896 : 

"Letter was read from ,Tames E. Scripps stating that he 
hardly thought he was eligible for membership in the corps, 
as he served only a short time in the company. 

"Moved by Col. Dupont and seconded, that the Secretary 
notify Mr. Scripps that he was eligible for membership and 
that he ask him to join the corps;" the minutes of May 20th 
recorded his election. 

x^ow, here was the sound ground-work which had sud- 
denly been accomplished for the purpose of ultimately build- 
ing an armory. 

The first plan to be considered under the new regime was 
that of remodeling the auditorium, and the idea had pro- 
gressed to such an extent that plans and estimates had been 
submitted by architects. A large guarantee bond was re- 
quired to carry out this plan, but before the bond was ar- 
ranged for, a better plan was proposed. 

Captain Harrah had come across a plan being used suc- 
cessfully by a social organization which, with a few alter- 
ations and some elaboration, he felt might prove to be a 
satisfactory solution of the problem of how to build an 
armory without money, and so, after visiting the local repre- 
sentatives of some four or five insurance companies, he 
finally succeeded in interesting Messrs. Jacobson and Jen- 
nings, who represented the Provident Life Insurance Com- 
pany of Philadelphia. At about this time an armory com- 
mittee had been appointed consisting of Henry M. Duffield, 
chairman, and Messrs. K. A. Alger, M. S. Smith, Wm. C. 
Maybury, A. G. Boynton, Joseph G. Standart, D. M. Ferry, 
Wm. A. Butler, Geo. L. Maltz, C. W. Harrah, Chas. S. Bax- 
ter, Duncan Henderson and Jolm B. Whelan, and, quoting 

469 



from a report by Judge Whelan, "the first meeting of the 
committee was held at the office of the Union Trust Company 
on the 14th of July, 1896, when Capt. Harrah's plan was 
submitted in the presence of the insurance company's repre- 
sentatives. The plan was to the effect that the said insurance 
company would advance a loan to the Light Guard, sufficient 
to enable it to purchase a site, and to partially build an 
armory, said company to be secured by policies of insurance 
in their company upon the lives of a certain number of the 
members of the Light Guard, and also by a first mortgage 
upon the property when completed; the balance of the 
money to be raised by subscriptions or second mortgage 
bonds." This plan appeared so practical to the committee 
that the agents of the insurance company were authorized 
to proceed, and Messrs. Maybury and Whelan were ap- 
pointed a committee to draft a letter of address to the citizens 
of Detroit, to be used by the insurance company's repre- 
sentatives in their work. In the face of the hard times that 
the country was undergoing, the citizens of Detroit made 
liberal response, and at a meeting of the committee in the 
office of the Union Trust Co., on October 8th, 1896, the re- 
port of the insurance company's agents and the achievements 
of Capt. Harrah were so favorable that the whole plan was 
accepted, and for the first time in the history of the organ- 
ization the members began to feel that they had a home of 
their own in sight. 

At that meeting, a committee consisting of Messrs. Duf- 
field, Harrah and Whelan was appointed to investigate the 
subscriptions, and if found satisfactory, to proceed and ob- 
tain title to the land on the northwest corner of Brush and 
Larned streets, and with full power to make and execute 
contracts for the construction of an armory. The subscrip- 
tions being found satisfactory, the building committee was 
enlarged by the addition of Messrs. Geo. L. Maltz and Col. 
W. A. Butler. 

470 



Col. Butler, by virtue of his prominence and business abil- 
ity, was a very valuable member of the committee, and w&s 
made chairman. 

The Union Trust Co. was requested to act as fiscal agent 
of the organization, and also as trustee for all parties con- 
cerned, and how they performed their office will receive 
proper mention in this account. 

A month later, a committee composed of Messrs. Harrah, 
Bersey and Baxter made a trip to New York for the purpose 
of visiting the large armories in that city and in Brooklyn. 
The result of their expedition was that when the plans were 
finally drawn for the new armory they were practically a 
composition of all that was best in the several armories that 
had been visited. 

The plan that was now being put into operation was as 
follows : 

The first step was to lay the legal foundation, and to that 
end, in February, 1897, Companies A. F and M, being al- 
ready separate corporations, effected in due form and accord- 
ing to the military laws, a single corporation to be known 
as the Detroit Light Guard. The military laws provide that 
such corporations, after having duly incorporated, could 
construct an armory or edifice of any kind for their use and 
have power to let same to the public for meetings, entertain- 
ments, and other legitimate purposes. The affairs of such 
a corporation must be under the control of a Board of Di- 
rectors, and these directors must in turn elect the officers. 
The law further provides that such a corporation may hold 
real and personal estate, and have power to mortgage same, 
and to sue and be sued, and in fact, do anything with its 
property holdings that the board of directors may duly au- 
thorize, except as there may be restrictions in the articles 
of association and by-laws. 

This new corporation having been established, a new 

471 



board of directors was elected on March 25th, 189 Y, which 
in turn elected Messrs. Duffield, Taylor, Bersey and Harvey 
as, respectively, president, vice-president, secretary and 
treasurer. 

Many locations were considered for the new building, and 
there was much difference of opinion respecting same, but it 
was finally decided that the property on the northwest cor- 
ner of Larned and Brush streets would be most satisfactory. 
It has a frontage of 168 feet on Larned street and of 120 feet 
on Brush street, and the sum demanded for the property was 
$40,500. 

The Provident Life & Trust Co. of Philadelphia had 
agreed to lend $35,000 and take a first mortgage on the en- 
tire property as it would stand when completed. This sum 
was not to be handed over at once, but was to be paid as the 
building operations progressed. The principal condition 
imposed by the insurance company was that the Light Guard 
should take endowment policies upon the lives of certain of 
its members in an amount sufficient to cover the indebted- 
ness, but it seems that the leading spirits in the affair decided 
to outline a financial plan in addition to that proposed by the 
insurance company, as follows : 

The entire cost was estimated at $100,000. This left 
$59,500 for the cost of the building, and as the first mort- 
gage would bring alone only $35,000, it was decided to is- 
sue second mortgage bonds for the balance and either sell 
them all outright, or dispose of some of them as part pay- 
ment to the contractors, which was finally done. To facili- 
tate the easy selling of the second mortgage bonds, a state- 
ment was drawn up showing what would be received in the 
way of the regular appropriation from the state, the dues of 
the members, and the prospective rentals of the auditorium 
of the new building, and it was decided to not only establish 
a sinking fund as insisted upon by the insurance company 
for the retirement of their mortgage, but to take out enough 

472 



policies to cover the total bonded indebtedness, and follow- 
ing out that idea, forty-five members were selected upon 
their physical qualifications, and policies for $2,000 each 
were taken out on their lives. These policies matured vari- 
ously in ten, fifteen, and twenty years, and the premium re- 
quired for carrying them amounted to $5,600 per annum. 

Thus the organization suddenly found itself launched 
upon a large undertalcing, but the ground work previously 
mentioned began to show its value. 

The land had been bought and paid for by $23,000 in cash 
and $17,500 in second mortgage bonds. Up to this time 
things had remained on paper, and while it was all necessary 
that the project should be so elaborated before active opera- 
tions were commenced, the members had begun to feel some 
impatience, but finally arrangements were made for fitting 
ceremonies attendant upon the breaking of ground. The 
members of the Veteran and Active Corps assembled on 
the afternoon of May 31st, 1897, and with light hearts and 
to the tune of martial music, headed by the President, Col. 
H. M. Dufiield, and Vice-President C. P. Taylor, who car- 
ried a nickel-plated shovel, and K. A. Bissel, with a nickel- 
plated pickax, they marched to the site of the new armory. 

A hoUoAV square Avas first formed, and then the com- 
panies moved into line behind the Veterans. An old dirt 
wagon had been glorified by an elaborate decoration of flags 
and bunting, and the driver masqueraded in the well known 
costume that Uncle Sam is supposed to wear. Col. Lum, the 
captain of the company when it went into volunteer service 
in the Civil War, now almost too weak by his sufferings from 
old wounds, courageously took the spade, and with strength 
inspired by the occasion, lifted the first earth — which had 
been loosened by Comrade David E. Pierce — into the 
wagon. He also deposited a spadeful of the earth in a jar 
so that it might be preserved along with the nickel-plated 
tools as mementos of the occasion. 

473 



Col. Duffield, in his address, declared that this day and 
hour marked an epoch in the history of the Light Guard as 
important as any event in its career. Judge Boynton re- 
marked that he believed the citizen soldiery of our country 
would always play an important part in its history, but he 
hoped no occasion would call for a more onerous service 
than that of keeping the peace at home. Hon. Alfred Kus- 
sell made a significant statement : "If the president signs 
the belligerency resolutions passed by the Senate, you may 
be called upon to participate in a war with Spain, according 
to the statements of some men. And I am sure that if you 
are, every man of you will be found ready to do his duty." 
This brought forth cries of "we will," but it is not reasonable 
to suppose that they had any idea that a time was shortly to 
come when the sincerity of their cries would be put to the 
test. 

On July 1st, there was executed a second mortgage to the 
Union Trust Co. as trustee, to secure an issue of $60,000 
worth of bonds in the three denominations of $100, $500 
and $1,000. Col. Harrah^ — then captain — started a vigor- 
ous campaign for the purpose of selling these bonds, and his 
efforts were backed up by the influence of the gentlemen 
who composed the armory committee and others, who, by 
reason of their names being connected with the Light Guard, 
naturally influenced the consideration of the business men 
of Detroit. Bids for work on the building were advertised 
for, and contracts let by the building committee direct, and 
not through the architects. 

It was found necessary to secure more money than at first 
decided upon, and so in January, 1898, an addendum or 
supplemental agreement to the mortgage then running to 
the Union Trust Co. was added for the purpose of increasing 
the sum to $80,000, and additional bonds were issued to dis- 
pose of under the increased mortgage. 

It might be also just as well to complete a statement of 

474 



the financial end of the project at this time, and leave the 
balance of the account free of that feature. 

There were $65,100 worth of bonds subscribed for, of 
which amount $61,700 worth were eventually paid for, 
and this amount remained in the hands of the Union Trust 
Co. as trustees to be disbursed in connection with properly- 
audited accounts. It seems that the insurance company had 
carefully hedged itself from any possible contingency that 
might arise to cause a failure, and so in addition to the stipu- 
lation that policies should be carried, it also demanded a 
guarantee bond that the building would be completed. The 
Union Trust Co. did at this juncture a thing hardly to be 
expected. The armory committee approached the Trust 
Company with a proposition that it guarantee the comple- 
tion of the building so that the organization would not be 
required to spend a large amount in paying the premium 
on a guarantee bond to the insurance company. The Trust 
Co. agreed to do this and made the proposition to the insur- 
ance company that its own guarantee be accepted in lieu of 
a regular guarantee bond. This of course was entirely satis- 
factory to the insurance company. The directors of the 
Light Guard then secured the Trust Co., to some extent, by 
making the loan from the insurance company payable to 
the Trust Co. 

Now all this would have worked out to a satisfactory con- 
clusion had it not been that a neighboring nation called 
mightily upon this country in the name of humanity, and 
it became the unanimous belief of the people of this country 
that it should respond to this cry. So it came about that the 
National Guard organizations of the country were called 
upon to volunteer to go and relieve these neighbors. Of 
course, as is known, the Active Corps of the Detroit Light 
Guard left their homes upon this duty, and it happened, 
just as it always will happen when a man suddenly departs 
and leaves his business affairs abruptly, that the financial 

475 



plan that had been outlined when the times piped of peace, 
suffered a radical disarrangement, but the work of construc- 
tion was not halted, because of the assistance by the Trusrt; 
Company, which was willing to extend all the aid it could 
compatible with its business principles, and also because 
during the time the members of the Active Corps were in the 
volunteer service the work of securing funds in the way of 
subscriptions for bonds or donations of cash, was energetic- 
ally prosecuted by some of the Veteran members, with 
Mayor Maybury at the head. The mayor constantly agi- 
tated the matter, and from time to time called meetings of 
citizens at his office and appointed them as committees to 
effect the sale of more bonds. 

That the efforts of the citizens were appreciated by the 
members who were distant in the volunteer service, can best 
be shown by the following extract from a letter written by 
Maj. Harrah to the mayor in September, 1898 : ''Through 
the Detroit papers and letters from home, we are acquainted 
mth the efforts being put forth in behalf of the Detroit 
Light Guard by yourself and other prominent patriots and 
public spirited citizens of our city. 

"When we left home, April 2Gth last, our new armory 
was not yet ready for occupancy. We left it, knowing that 
some of our members would never see it completed, but 
would give their lives in the service of their country. On 
our return we hope to march into a home saved for us by our 
friends. 

"Had there been no war, our five hundred men would 
have been caring for our home, and it would not have been 
necessary to look to our friends for assistance, but the call for 
troops took us away, as it did in 18-16 and 1861. 

"While, in the nature of the case, we are unable at this 
end of the line to give much financial support, we wish to 
help what we can, and I am therefore requested on behalf 

476 



of Companies T, K and L, Thirty-first Michigan Volunteer 
Infantry, knowTi at home as Companies A, B and F, Detroit 
Light Guard, to send you the inclosed draft for $126.50 for 
use as you see fit." 

Several plans were adopted for securing small donations 
from the public, one being the sending out of envelopes with 
the request that ten-cent pieces be deposited in the same 
until $1.00 was made up, and the envelope returned to the 
mayor's office. This plan worked fairly well, and envelopes 
returned with amounts ranging from $1.00 to $25.00. The 
first day's receipts under the plan amounted to $87, but in 
the end, after the enthusiasm of the first day or two had worn 
off, the plan fell short, although about $200 had been 
secured in that way. The mayor continued to agitate the 
matter and call upon the public until finally enough suc- 
cess was attained to place the enterprise in better shape. The 
kindness of Mr. Ellwood T. Hance and Mr. G. J. 
McMechan, of the Union Trust Company, should never be 
forgotten, which, however, is hardly likely. 

Forty-eight members had been insured in the sum of $95,- 
000, and when the companies responded to the call for 
troops, it was feared that the policies might be invalidated 
because of the right of the insurance company to claim that 
an "extra hazardous risk" had been entered upon by the 
members for whom the policies had been issued, but the com- 
pany set all fears at rest by waiving the clause in the policies 
which prohibited "employment in any military or naval ser- 
vice whatsoever." 

The first premiums due on the insurance policies had been 
paid in June, 1897, when the plan was first put into opera- 
tion, but when the date for the second annual payment ar- 
rived in June, 1898, it found, as has been stated, a lack of 
funds, and it must be said that the insurance company acted 
very fairly by granting three months' extension, and 

477 



although at the end of that period the inability to pay the 
premiums still existed, yet the company endeavored to make 
the conditions easy for the organization to keep up the poli- 
cies, but further extension of course was out of the question. 
However, in October, the company called attention to the 
rule that when premiums were not paid promptly a new 
physical examination must be undergone to finally renew the 
policies, but although the company believed that some of 
the men it had issued policies for were either suffering 
from sickness or in other dangers incidental to army service, 
yet it would waive the right to re-examine these members 
and would continue the policies in force if the premiums 
were paid at once. This generous offer, however, it was 
found unable to take advantage of as it was all the Union 
Trust Company could do to carry out the completion of the 
building, and so the plan for the sinking fund was given up, 
and no steps have been taken since then to re-establish such 
a fund, owing to the lack of means. The most serious result 
of this default was that the insurance company refused to 
turn over the last $10,000 of the loan, thus making the 
total sum received from it but $25,000 instead of $35,000, 
as originally provided for, and while this was a hardship 
for the organization, yet the company can hardly be blamed, 
as it simply acted according to the provisions of the agree- 
ment. 

We go back now to September, 1897, when we find the 
organization making arrangements to hold fitting ceremonies 
attendant upon the laying of the comer stone of the new 
building. Invitations were sent to President McKinley, 
Secretary of War Alger, the senators and congressmen in 
the district. Gov. Pingree and staff, the 19th Infantry, U. S. 
A., stationed at Ft. Wayne, Gen. Lyon and staff of the state 
troops, the mayor and members of the council, and all local 
military organizations, and Detroit Commandery, ISTo. 1, 

478 




At the Laying of the Corner Stone. 



K. T., and Michigan Grand Lodge was invited to take charge 
of the laying of the stone. 

October 18th, 1897, was finally selected as the day for 
the ceremony, and Capt. Geo. L. Maltz, commanding the 
Veteran Corps^ issued an order for his command to assemble 
and take part in the parade and ceremonies. This order was 
supplemented by the follomng proclamation by Judge A. 
G. Boynton, president of the corps: ''Comrades: Your 
attention is directed to the importance of the above order, 
and you are urgently requested to comply. It will be a 
great day for the 'Old Guard,' and is the second step in the 
realization of our fondest hopes, an armory, the property of 
the Detroit Light Guard." 

The day came with just enough blustering weather to give 
snap to the affair. That it was a popular affair was attested 
by the crowds of spectators that lined the route of march - 
It was a brave turnout; there were mounted police followed 
by Gov. PingTee and full staff and Brig.-Gen. Lyon and 
staff". The right of the line was held by the 19th Infantry, 
IT. S. A., under command of Lieut.-Col. Bennett. The 
Light Infantry, Montgomery Rifles, Scott Guards and other 
local organizations came next, and also the Monroe Light 
Guards from Monroe. What monotony there was of blue 
soldiery was enlivened by the white plumes of the Knights 
Templar, who preceded the members of the Veteran Corps, 
imder command of Maj. Jacklin. Preceded by such an 
escort, the active companies of the Light Guard appeared at 
their best, and every man was filled with the pride proper to 
the occasion. Inhere were many guests in carriages, and a 
conspicuous figure was that of Col. Lum, whose face bore 
an expression of great exultation. 

The parade ended at the site of the new armory building, 
and vdth the various bodies of military and Templars lined 
up on the two sides of the building, the ceremonies by Grand 

479 



Master TVinsor were performed. A copper box had been 
made, to rest in the cornerstone, and there was deposited, 
before sealing, a history of the Detroit Light Guard from its 
organization in 1855, a copy of the Detroit daily papers, a 
manual containing the names of the city officials. United 
States money from one cent to one dollar, and a photograph 
of the sod turning ceremony for the new building on May 
31, 1897. After the box had been placed in the corner 
stone, the Masonic rites were concluded by dropping in some 
corn, the Masonic emblem of plenty; wine, the emblem of 
joy and gladness; and olive oil, the emblem of peace. There 
may not be very many members of the organization who 
were apprised of the significance of these emblems either at 
that time or since, and if any real significance should be at- 
tached to such ceremonies, it should be necessary that all 
those concerned should have an understanding of the matter. 
Such symbols are very fine, but they rather approach too 
close to the ideal. There was a good old king who declared 
that all was vanity, but it is hoped that from the reading of 
this there will arise in the minds of the members a new appre- 
ciation of what that event meant upon that gray day in the 
fall of 1897. 

There had been only one disappointment, and that was the 
absence of President Duffield, due to his having been unex- 
pectedly called from the city, and he feels to this day regret 
that he was not able to be present at this most important mo- 
ment in the life of the Light Guard — a moment for which he 
was in a large measure responsible. 

In the President's absence, the meeting had been presided 
over by Vice-President Cash P. Taylor, but after the cere- 
monies he called upon Hon. Alfred Russell to preside during 
the civil proceedings. He in turn immediately introduced 
Gov. Pingree, and the soldiers greeted their commander-in- 
chief vdih all the noise they could make, much to the gover- 

i80 



93 = 

ii 




nor's pleasure. The governor made a speech that was trite 
in every expression, and it is well to incorporate on this ac- 
count one portion of his speech which may convey an un- 
known truth to those who persist in thinking that men join 
the militia simply to have a pleasant time. The governor 
said in part : "I am free to confess that, as a private citizen, 
I failed to appreciate our state troops. I was laboring under 
the impression, once so common, that it was all hoys' play 
and a 'good time' in summer camps. My eyes have been 
opened since I have had opportunity to see what you are 
doing, and to notice the zeal and earnestness with which you 
attended the duties at the last camp. I have been a private 
soldier myself, and could easily recognize that your work 
was of a practical nature which fitted you for active service 
in case you should ever be needed. I believe that the militia 
of Michigan are constantly improving, and if anything 
which I can do will help to make you the best in the Union, 
I will most certainly do so." Mayor W. C Maybury fol- 
lowed the governor in a brief speech, and being a member of 
the organization, he was greeted with the Light Guard yell. 
Judge John B. Whelan, another member of the organiza- 
tion, ran briefly over the history of the Guard, and advised 
its members to give it some study. Gapt. Gardener, of the 
TJ, S. A., who in the following year was to lead them to 
fame, next addressed the gathering in a vein that was appli- 
cable to the M. ISr. G. Col. Harrah — then captain of Co. A 
— ^was called upon by the members to make a speech, and as 
he had performed most of the work of securing funds with 
which to erect the building, it was natural that he should 
make his remarks upon that line. He said that he had 
found it very hard at times to meet with success in visiting 
those who, by virtue of their high financial rating, should 
have made liberal response, and he was very anxious to let 
the public know the names of those gentlemen and corpora- 
tions that had responded to the calls made upon them, and 

481 



to that end read a list of their names, which also appeared 
in the papers containing an account of the affair. 

At last it was all over, and the command "fall in" given. 
It had been growing late, and the twilight had fallen upon 
them. Most of the organizations had made an early depar- 
ture, and the Light Guards now found themselves alone 
with the elders of their organization on the verge of a new 
era, and as they fell into column and marched to the old 
armory, it is hard to tell the variety of impressions carried 
away from the scene by the younger members, but certain 
it is that under such imposing and auspicious an array of 
approving sentiment, the organization could not but have 
some newer estimate of their standing in the community, 
and it is a fact that the organization has not once failed to 
live up to this new standard. 

The building committee plodded along, but not always in 
an easy way. There was a great trust imposed upon them, 
and it is even said that there was one member of that com- 
mittee who "counted every brick that went into the build- 
ing," and this leads up to the laying of the last brick. 

To lay the last brick of a building, it must necessarily be 
the very top one, and so on the afternoon of February 7th, 
with a pretty fair gale blowing, the directors and officers of 
the organization were invited to climb to the top of the big 
tower, where two bricks remained at rest to be placed in the 
A'^acancies left for them. One brick was laid by Vice-Presi- 
dent Taylor and the other by Colonel — then captain — Chas. 
W. Harrah. The cap stone was laid by Messrs. John A. 
Dick, Maj. Jacklin, Capt. Harrah and Cash P. Taylor, after 
which three American flags were run up, while the crowd 
on the ground cheered vociferously. There were many 
guests present, but prominent among them all was old Col. 
Lmn. Surely the old soldier's heart must have resounded 
with joyous peans, for here was the very top part of the 
iDuilding finished, and did that not mean that there was a 

483 



home some place beneath for the old organization which he 
had lavished his pride and love upon, and who was in turn 
loved by its members? 

The crest of the Light Guard is a tiger's head, and one 
enthusiastic veteran. Comrade John A. Dick, presented a 
fine specimen of the sculptor's work in the shape of a repro- 
duction of the crest in stone, and this was placed in the cor- 
ner on the outside wall so that it might add some beauty 
to the structure. 

It must be regretfully said that all the beauty and impos- 
ing features of the structure are to be found only in its lines, 
for there was much to be gotten out of the limited space, 
and there was always an eye to the maximum of utility, and 
so it had been found necessary by the building committee to 
make changes here and there in the matter of quality of 
materials and also in the matter of some of the interior fin- 
ishings, thus it happened that they were reduced to the ac- 
tion of giving up pressed brick for the exterior, and the 
building now exhibits a lesson in economy by its rough- 
ness; it is perhaps better so, as the coarse brick gives it a 
rugged appearance which is always more seemly in a build- 
ing of that character. 

The quality of the building committee's economy has 
been proven to be of the best, for where they made such 
reductions from the original specifications, certain other 
very important features always profited, thus the interior 
arrangement is as complete as any armory that the country 
can boast of. There is a large auditorium and gallery with- 
out a single pillar, and capable of seating 4,000 persons, a 
large assembly room, eight company rooms, a gymnasium 
with a plunge and shower baths, a bowling alley and rifle 
range, ordnance vault, a billiard room, card room, several 
parlors, officer's rooms, director's rooms, and rooms for quar- 
termaster's stores and ordnance. The sanitary system is 
extensive and complete in every detail, which is the most 
483 



important point in a building used by a large number of 
persons. The engine and boiler rooms are fitted up in the 
most modem manner, and the flume system of heating and 
ventilating is more than adequate for the needs. 

A noteworthy fact is that every traveling artist, musician, 
and lecturer, who has ever appeared in the auditorium, has 
pronounced the acoustic properties equal, if not superior, to 
those of any hall in the country. The famous bandmaster, 
Sousa, made a very emphatic statement to that effect, and 
knowledge of this quality having gone abroad, the armory 
auditorium has come to be a popular place with traveling 
entertainers. 

The plans also embraced a parlor for the Veteran Corps 
Association in the semi-basement of the corner tower, and 
this has been made the depository of the organization's 
relics, and the graceful curve of the wall is adorned with 
the portraits of some of the deceased members who were 
prominent in military and public service. 

Those citizens who were liberal enough to enable the 
organization to have this building, must surely appreciate 
the fact that every dollar was honestly spent, and the maxi- 
mum of value received in expending the amount, and that 
all expenditures were confined to the city. 

The work on the interior progressed, and in April the 
organization began to lay plans for the dedication of the 
building, and the 29 th and 30th of the month were decided 
upon. The event was to be made particularly attractive 
by the engagement of Sousa and his musicians, but before 
this date arrived more powerful influences had disposed 
otherwise, for the declaration of war had soimded across the 
country, and this was of first interest to the organization. 

When the call for troops was made by the president, it 
was but natural that the organization should lay its plans for 
entering the volunteer service, just as it had in response to 

484 



the first call in '61. It was, however, rather rough on the 
members that, after waiting and watching for the time 
when they might enter their new home, they should be 
suddenly confronted by a call of duty which would prevent 
them from entering into the enjoyment of the building for 
an indefinite period of time, and for some, that time might 
perhaps never be. However, plans were immediately 
made for an informal dedication just before the departure 
of the companies for the state rendezvous. 

At noon of April 26th, 1898, the veterans assembled at 
the old armory, and with Company M, which had not yet 
had a chance to enter the state service, escorted the three 
other companies of the active corps to the new armory which, 
however, was yet in an unfinished state. After some cere- 
mony and speeches, an account of which appears on another 
page, the line of march was taken up to the point of the 
assembly of the Fourth Eegiment, and at 1 :30 they en- 
trained for Island Lake. 

In this account of the armory no attempt will be made to 
describe the various exercises and other events which have 
since made the armory building famous; such descriptions 
will appear in the account of the organization. 

From this time on until the troops had all been moved 
into National camps, the building was the scene of much 
activity at times, for, because of its prominence, it was used 
as a recruiting station for volunteers to fill up the ranks of 
the local companies at Island Lake, and the auditorium was 
freely given over for the giving of patriotic concerts and 
entertainments for the financial benefit of the fund estab- 
lished to take care of needy members of families whose 
bread-earners had shouldered their muskets and answerd 
their country's call. 

Under the watchful eye and constant superintendence of 
Cash P. Taylor, then chairman of the Building Committee, 

485 



and Dr. Wm. M. Harvey, for many years treasurer of the 
corporation, and ex-surgeon of the old Fourth, M. IST. G., 
every detail connected with the completion of the building 
was carefully cared for. There were others of the veterans 
who gave much of their time and attention to the affairs of 
the property during the time the organization remained in 
service, and under the leadership of Maj. Jacklin, President 
of the Veteran Corps, it was only through their liberal and 
patriotic co-operation with the Union Trust Company, and 
the Mayor's committee of citizens, that the project was saved 
from a financial disaster. 

The entertainment season of 1898 and 1899 brought a 
fair income in the shape of rentals, and in the season of 1899 
and 1900 the revenues from that source increased greatly, 
and by judicious advertising and management it is expected 
that the auditorium will prove even more productive in 
the future. 

The financial side of the property must be reverted to 
again so that it may be understood that there is still occa- 
sion for much work to place the property in a sound financial 
condition. 'Now, when the citizens were solicited to buy 
second mortgage bonds, in nearly every case where a man 
responded, he looked upon the amount he paid as a practical 
expenditure, but hardly felt disposed to class the bonds with 
his first-class securities, and perhaps never thought it neces- 
sary to place them in his safe deposit box. This is borne out 
by the fact that lately several large holders of these bonds 
have voluntarily offered to present them back to the organi- 
zation again with their compliments. Of course such re- 
turns have benefited the property by reducing the obliga- 
tions just that much. One thing that has caused much 
trouble in working out the original financial plan is the fact 
that the re-organization of the state troops was rather tardy, 
and until it had been accomplished and the quartermaster's 
stores and ordnance had been issued, it was extremely difii- 

486 



cult to get the companies re-organized and recruited up to 
the proper strength, and until this was finally effected that 
part of the income dependent upon the dues from the mem- 
bers was very much in arrears. One important feature of 
the second mortgage bonds is that as long as they are held 
in the hands of prominent citizens there is a surety that 
the property can never degenerate through any possible 
unforseen catastrophe that might happen to the present 
organization. 

The auditorium is rented to various organizations for the 
purpose of holding entertainments or meetings, and the fact 
is always published by the rentors that the Light Guard 
armory is the place where same is to be held, and thus most 
people seem to be under the impression that these entertain- 
ments are given under the auspices of the organization, and 
that, therefore, it must be receiving quite an income, when 
as a matter of fact all that the organization receives is the 
rental for the occasion. 

The two exceptions to this, however, are the two occasions 
upon which the organization presented a circus entertain- 
ment. The first one was carried through by Company M, 
in March, 1899, but the absence of the members of the three 
other companies, which were still in service, handicapped 
the single company, and so about $200 was all that was 
gained. The company, however, had established a prece- 
dent, and in the winter of 1899, the whole organization 
being together again, planned to produce an entertainment 
of the same character, but on a much more elaborate scale, 
in January, 1900, but unfortunately a zero weather pre- 
vailed throughout the week of the performance, and as 
every other place of amusement suffered financially, the or- 
ganization found that they had not been able to make much 
more than what was made upon the previous occasion. 

Many notable events have taken place within the build- 
ing, in fact so many that it would require more space than 

487 



can be afforded to mention them, but the character of the 
events have reflected upon and added to the respectability of 
the property. 

Substantial men of the community recognize the fact 
that, as a rule, the arms and ammunition of the militia are 
too easily accessible to a disorderly and riotous assembly, 
but as regards the City of Detroit, the erection of the Light 
Guard Armory has, in a large measure, overcome that dan- 
ger, and it is therefore, and must be always, appreciated by 
all law-abiding citizens. 

A suitable home is all that the Light Guard has lacked to 
place it where it belongs, and that is at the head of the mili- 
tary organizations of the state, and as the house rules pro- 
vide, among other restrictions and stipulations, that the 
property is on a temperance basis, it should, in company 
with the club attractions, draw to its membership the 
"flower and chivalry" of the City of Detroit. 




Kxterior \'iew of 

Detroit Light Guard Armory. 




'•'ti^kS^^' 



Interior View of 

Detroit Light Guard Armory. 



Sketches of 

GENEKAL ALPHEUS S. WILLIAMS 
COLOIs^EL CHAKLES M. LUM 
GENERAL HENRY M. DUFFIELD 
COLONEL CHARLES W. HARRAH 
COLONEL WILLIAM G. LATIMER 

These sketches have been decided upon as an acknowledg- 
ment particularly of the military services of the subjects in 
representing the Detroit Light Guard as commanding offi- 
cers in the field in the last two wars the Nation was forced 
to engage in. 

There are many other members whom the Light Guard 
would like to present biographically in addition to what 
appears regarding them in the general history, but for fur- 
ther reason for limiting these sketches^ and portraits the 
reader is referred to the Preface and other pages. 



GEN". ALPHEUS S. WILLIAMS. 



"WILLIAMS, ALPHEUS S., Detroit. Lt. Col. 1st 
Mich. Vols., Mexican War, Oct. 18, 1847. Mustered out 
July 23, 1848. Brig. Gen. State troops, April 24, 1861. 
Brig. Gen. U. S. Vols., May 17, 1861. Bvt. Maj. Gen. U. S. 
Vols., Jan. 12th, 1865, 'for marked ability and energy 
during the war.' Mustered out Jan. 15th, 1866, and 
honorably discharged" — and mustered out of life's ser- 



"He is dead, but history will not suffer his name or his 
deeds to be forgotten," and the historian of the Detroit Light 
Guard assumes his duty with a mass of newspaper and other 
data and testimony, but with a fear that withal he may not 
be equal to briefly recounting the life of such an historic 
character. 

The Light Guard is happy in being able after the lapse of 
almost a quarter of a century since General Williams' death 
to erect a memorial in print of an enduring character, and 
thereby also add completeness to the record of the organiza- 
tion. 

After graduation from Yale College in 1831 and comple- 
tion of the law course two years later at the same institution, 
young Williams broadened his outlook upon life by a three 
years' tour of Europe and portions of South America, and 
then at the age of twenty-six elected to reside in Detroit. 
His prominence began its pronouncement four years later 
upon election as Judge of Probate of Wayne County, fol- 
lowed by his entry into the field of journalism. 

Shortly after young Williams settled in Detroit he joined 

490 



the ranks of the Brady Guard and immediately displayed 
evidence of what he was born to be, and his social standing 
and prominence at once attracted many of the city's best 
young men to the company's membership. He became 
commandant of the company a few years later, and when the 
Mexican War began he assisted in organizing the First 
Eegiment Michigan Vounteers, and particularly distin- 
guished himself as its lieutenant colonel from Vera Cruz to 
the City of Mexico. 

The official record of his warrior's career prefaces this 
sketch, but there remains a volume to fill between the sen- 
tences. 

When the Grayson Guard was disbanded and organized as 
the Detroit Light Guard, Gen. Williams' name headed the 
roll, and the members, being proud of having a man of so 
pronounced military ability among their number, requested 
him to accept the office of captain. With the junior officers 
selected, most of them comrades of Captain Williams in 
the Mexican War, and carefully appointed non-commis- 
sioned officers, the new company jumped into prominence 
and acquired a high degree of efficiency, and with the idea 
of enlarging the usefulness of the organization, Capt. Wil- 
liams had the command mustered into the State service. 

Able military men in civilian life were few in number, 
and after several years of prominence enjoyed by the Light 
Guard, Captain Williams — whose title by virtue of com- 
mission in the Mexican War was Colonel — was selected as 
commander of the State Troops, and as such conducted the 
state encampment in August, 1860, when his old command 
so signally distinguished itself. 

When the war began in 1861, Col. Williams was first 
to offer his services, just as his old company was, and Gov- 
ernor Blair, being glad to avail himseH of such a man as 
Michigan's general officer, issued a commission to him 

491 



as brigadier-general of State Troops on April 24tli, and on 
May ITth the War Department confirmed his commission 
in the volunteer army. 

To follow the general's career in the army would necessi- 
tate the writing of a history of most of the hardest cam- 
paigns. He was soon placed in command of a corps, and 
continued to alternate as corps and division commander as 
circumstances necessitated, and that statement is sufficient 
to indicate the character of his work, for so large a body of 
soldiers as a corps or division was not left idle at any time, 
and as for the quality of his activity, turn back to the record 
and read the statement accompanying the bestowal of the 
brevet of a major-general. The title he earned from his 
soldiers is one that he was even yet prouder of; they called 
him "Pap" Williams, and that name is one that invariably 
falls from the lips of the old comrades of the Veteran Corps 
whenever they speak of the good old warrior. 

After his muster-out in 1866, President Johnson dis- 
patched him to San Salvador as United States Minister to 
the Republic of Salvador, which sphere of usefulness he 
was specially fitted for by reason of his early travels through 
Central America. 

He entered Congress in 1875, and was re-elected the fol- 
lowing year, but nearing the close of his term Death 
reached out and placed its hand upon him. 

A little party of members of the general's family had been 
watching at his bedside for almost a week as he lay under the 
grasp of a stroke of apoplexy until in the early morning of 
December 21st, 1878, the last feeble breath fluttered and 
died. 

During the week that he lay upon his sick bed, informa- 
tion as to his condition was continually wired to Detroit, and 
when finally the announcement of the visitation of death 
was made, action was immediately taken, both in Washing- 



ton and at home, for the pm-pose of fittingly honoring the 
remains of the man who was so gi-eatly honored in life. 

His death was keenly felt in the city of AVashington 
where, as chairman of the District Committee, he had most 
ably administered its affairs, and what had chiefly stirred up 
admiration for him among the citizens of Washington was 
the fearless and honest manner in which he cleaned out the 
corruption which had existed to the detriment of the Dis- 
trict. Statesmen and public ofiicials accorded the remains 
the usual honors to perhaps a little greater degree than cus- 
tom called for. 

In Detroit the city and other officials met and formulated 
resolutions in memoriam, as well as other organizations \vith 
whom the general had been connected, but aside from the 
family circle and relatives, his death was perhaps more 
keenly felt by his old comrades of the Light Guard. 

The first effort to organize a Veteran Corps in the Light 
Guard was made upon the twenty-second anniversary, in 
1877, and the call was headed by the signature of General 
Williams, but, as is known, the organization was not per- 
fected until three years later. Nevertheless, he had helped 
to sow the first seed for its growth, and the fact exists as a 
testimony of the active interest he took in the organization 
of which he was its first commander. 

It was a notable gathering of the Light Guard veterans 
upon the evening of the third day after his death that met 
in the armory and prepared resolutions of a beautiful char- 
acter, and made preparations to participate in the funeral 
ceremonies upon the arrival of the remains in Detroit. In a 
newspaper comment made at the time, there appears the 
statement that "no man ever had more friends than he, and 
he was faithful and just to all, always repaying with interest 
every act of friendship of which he was the recipient. He 
was incapable of a mean act or a selfish thought. He was an 

493 



honest man in a time when honesty was the exception, a 
pure statesman in a time when time serving demagoguery 
was the rule," and from this may be gathered the reason why 
he was beloved by his old comrades as "Pap" Williams, and 
that it was one of the saddest duties the Light Guard was 
ever called upon to perform when its members, as an escort 
of honor, followed the remains to the grave and fired the 
parting salute and sounded taps. 

More regarding the deceased may be found in the early 
history as set down in the first pages, and in addition to this 
brief record of his long association with the Light Guard, 
there is a carefully kept and much cherished large oil 
portrait of him in the armory, painted at the time when 
he was captain of the old company. 



494 



COL. CHARLES MATHIEU LUM. 

The name of Col. Charles Mathien Lum is one which 
readily conjures up the memories of all the most brilliant 
achievements of the Light Guard during its earlier career. 
The veterans speak of him as "Charlie Lum," and because 
of his close association with the organization from almost 
the first day of its existence to within a year ago, there has 
been no lack of mention of his name and deeds upon these 
pages, even including the account of his death and 
interment of the remains, and in the history of the Veteran 
Corps there is a description of the portraits of him and 
mementoes of his life as preserved in the veterans' room, 
so that there is nothing left for the historian to place in 
this brief sketch but the usual stereotyped statements cus- 
tomarily made upon the death of a prominent man. 

He was born in Canandaigua, N. Y., March 1st, 1830, 
and removed to Detroit thirty years later. His vocation was 
that of an artist, but his activity was more especially con- 
fined to the creation of interior decorations. 

Shortly after taking up his residence in Detroit he en- 
tered the membership of the Detroit Light Guard, and his 
soldierly ability was so pronounced that he was rapidly pro- 
moted until when, as the history records, he was chosen to 
command the company upon its enlistment in the First 
Michigan Regiment-Three Months, and the manner in 
which he performed the duties of his office won for him the 
respect and affection of the members of the company. His 
superb gallantry while under fire for the first time, when he 
saw the members of his command dropping around him 

496 



upon the bloody battlefield of Bull Kun, and where he 
himself had his horse shot from under him while acting 
lieutenant-colonel, and received a bad wound in the knee 
while effecting his escape in the rear of the last retreating 
Union soldiers, was of such a character as to win for him 
the command of the Tenth Michigan Regiment of Volun- 
teers on ISTov. 20th, 1861, which he proceeded to recruit 
even while he was still suffering from the effects of his 
wound. The regiment was mustered into service on Feb. 
6th, 1882, and left for the front with a strength of one thou- 
sand. It was forwarded to Pittsburg Landing, Miss., and 
assigned to General Pope's division in the right of the Army 
of the Mississippi, then in front of Corinth. It was kept 
active in scouting and skirmishing with the enemy and in 
displacing the sharp shooters of the enemy. Col. Lum was 
placed in command of the Second Brigade a few days after 
arrival at the position, and from that time on continued in 
commanding positions detached from his regiijient. 

In February, 1864, Col. Lum was appointed president of 
an examining board for officers to command colored troops. 
However, when the regiment returned to Michigan on its 
veteran furlough of thirty days, arriving at Detroit, March 
11th, 1864, Col. Lum was again in command and rode at its 
head. The regiment again left for the front in the follow- 
ing month, and Col. Lum became again detached to perform 
the duties of a commander of a brigade. He resumed com- 
mand of the regiment on October 31st, and moved "svith 
General Sherman's army on the Savannah campaign, but 
the regiment was soon brigaded with two Illinois regiments, 
and Col. Lum placed in command. 

The whole period of service had found the colonel always 
in the close vicinity of the firing lines of many of the most 
fiercely fought battles of the Civil War, and fresh wounds, 
adding their stings to the old one received on the field at 



Bull Run, necessitated his release from active service, and 
he was accordingly mustered out on April 1st, 1865, with 
honorable discharge. However, his old command had no 
more work to do after his muster-out except to move to 
Washington under command of Col. Dunphy, who received 
the promotion upon the discharge of Col. Lum, and after 
marching in the review of General Sherman's army, it 
returned to its native heath. 

If the physical condition of Col. Lum had permitted a 
longer stay in the service, there is no doubt that he would 
have been mustered out with a brevet of brigadier-general, 
and the opinion of many led to the circulation of a report 
that the brevet rank had been conferred, and was even so 
stated in the newspapers at the time. An exposition of the 
sentiment prevailing among the colonel's friends about 
the matter may be gathered from the following extract 
from a letter to Col. Lum, written in April, 1865, by Mrs. 
M. Louise Thayer— "The Soldiers' Friend"— at Flint, 
Mich. : 

"Rumor says you have at last been promoted — most cer- 
tainly it should have been done long since. I congratulate 
you sincerely if it is so, but shall be no prouder of my 
brigadier friend than I have ever been of my colonel as a 
soldier and a gentleman, filling a place of trust far above 
the duties required by the title accorded him." 

Immediately upon the return of Col. Lum to Detroit, he 
entered upon a very retired existence, caused by the numer- 
ous wounds, and it was no doubt due to this condition and 
his extreme modesty that he failed to remind the authori- 
ties at "Washington of the recognition that was due him. 
The quality of his character was very similar to that of 
Gen. Alpheus S. Williams, and the writer is enabled to 
present convincing testimony as to the depth of the state- 
ment by reproducing the following letter : 

497 



Goldsboro, K. C, April 9th, 1865. 
Kespected Colonel: — 

To know that we possess the friendship of even the least 
hj whom we are surrounded is at times gratifying, and I 
ask you to accept this as an assurance that you haA'-e my sin- 
cere friendship, and that your conduct as my colonel has 
won from me a regard and esteem which I little thought I 
should ever exercise toward a military officer, and which I 
expect no other will ever possess. 

It is Vv'ith a deep and heartfelt regret that I see you go 
from our midst. 

Colonel, you have my earnest wishes for your future 
well-being. Added to your noble manliness and other 
good qualities as both an officer and a gentleman, my great- 
est Avish is that you may have a knowledge of that high and 
unfailing Christianity which shall make an eternity an in- 
crease of our present happiness. 

Most respectfully, 

ELETCHEK W. LEWIS, 
Ordnance Sergt. 10th Mich. M. V. Inf. 

Old clippings of newspapers show that the colonel was 
present at most of the annual reunions of his old regiment — 
the Tenth Michigan — and, in fact, the greatest thing of in- 
terest in his life after the war was association and com- 
munion mth his old comrades, and there will be found evi- 
dences of this in the history of the Veteran Corps as well as 
an account of his death upon September 18th, 1899. 

The writer believes that the following tribute as given 
to the newspapers by Mayor Wm. C. Maybury will best sum 
up what this sketch has attempted to present. The expres- 
sion is most appropriate as it comes from one who has been 
an active member and is now a veteran member of the 
Light Guard. 

"The death of Col. Charles M. Lum removes from our 
midst another and among the last of the old regime of the 
Detroit Light Guard, The writer remembers, although 
but a lad, the time when Col. Lum, commanding the Light 

498 



Guard, then Company A of the First Michigan Volunteer 
Infantry, marched away at the head of his company in the 
regimental parade, as they left for the field. He bore him- 
seK so gallantly — every inch a soldier. We did not have 
many ofiicers in those days who had seen actual service, and 
the citizens of Detroit felt especially favored in having as a 
leader of the Old Guard an experienced officer like Capt. 
Lum. 

"It was my privilege to see him again when war had 
ceased. Alas ! how changed in physical health ! Slowly 
convalescing, but never reaching good health again. He 
was always a man of few words, but now he became the 
silent man. Devoted to his old-time associates, his chief 
joy was attained when he visited the old armory and in 
silence shook the hands of old friends. As he entered our 
assemblages, all present, by one common impulse, arose to 
greet him and remained standing until he was seated. 

"In the quiet retirement of his humble quarters he re- 
ceived the few intimates who called upon him. With them 
the silence was broken, and with modesty and diffidence 
old scenes of war were rehearsed and the glory of battle 
credited to others, but not to himself. To the younger 
men of the Old Guard, Col. Lum was a living inspiration. 
There was more of discipline and command in his presence, 
though his step was slow and feeble, than in the spoken 
words of command uttered by another. He never knew 
what power there was in the ministry of his last enfeebled 
years. He will be long and lovingly remembered in the 
military annals of our city and state. 

"Light be the ashes above him, and may the sunshine of 
heaven beam bright on his waking morn." 



GEIT. HENKY MAETYN DUFFIELD. 

Gen. Henry Martyn Duffield was born in Detroit, Mich., 
May 14th, 1842. His education was received in the "Old 
Capitol" school, from which he graduated in 1858, and 
after one year at the University of Michigan he entered 
"Williams College, from which he graduated in 1861 — the 
year of the CivH War. 

It was but natural that military activity should appeal 
to a young man of such generous mould and strong health 
upon leaving his college life, and having a brother, William 
W. Duffield, later general but then lieutenant-colonel in 
the Fourth Michigan Inf., the younger brother made up 
his mind to follow the example and enlisted in August in 
a company of infantry scheduled as a part of a new regi- 
ment which was organized on Sept. 10th as the Mnth 
Eegt. M. Y. I. Lieut.-Col. Wm. W. Duffield was ap- 
pointed colonel of the new regiment, and the subject of 
this sketch was appointed first lieutenant and adjutant, 
although his commission, in company with all except those 
of the three field officers appointed, was not issued until 
October 12th — three days before the regiment was mus- 
tered into the service of the United States. 

The regiment was booked for active service in the 
western departments of the army, but before its departure 
a banner was presented at Fort Wayne to the regiment by 
the father of the colonel and adjutant — Eev. George Duf- 
field. The banner was handsome and bore numerous in- 
scriptions appropriate to the life which the members of the 
regiment were entering upon. 

One of the first engagements of the regiment was with 

500 




General Henry M. Duffield, 
President Detroit Light Guard. 



the force of the famous raider, General Morgan, upon 
May 5th, 1862, at Lebanon, Tenn., the action resulting in 
the complete embarrassment and retirement of General 
Morgan and his command. Just previous to this action, 
Col. W. W. Duffield had been placed in command of the 
Twenty-third Brigade, Army of the Cumberland, of which 
the Ninth Eegiment formed a part, and Adjt. -Lieut. Henry 
M. Duffield was appointed assistant adjutant-general upon 
the staff of the brigade. 

Six companies of the regiment had been detached and 
sent to another point, leaving five companies in the Twenty- 
third Brigade, and when Brig.-Gen. Thomas L. Crittenden 
— newly appointed — arrived at the headquarters of the 
brigade in company with Col. W. W. Duffield at Mur- 
freesboro, Tenn., on July 11th, 1862, the brigade was in 
rather a scattered condition, and these two officers imme- 
diately decided to close up on the position, but before the 
change was effected, General Forrest's brigade of southern 
cavalry swooped down upon the small force of infantry at 
day-break on the thirteenth, capturing, after a hard fought 
battle, all of the detachment of the Ninth, and nearly every 
officer, including General Crittenden. Colonel Duffield 
was severely wounded and was kept a prisoner until August 
27th. Lieut. Henry M. Duffield remained at the side of hia 
wounded brother on the field and shared his captivity until 
released on August 15th. 

In the campaign from Nashville to Chattanooga, in 
1863, he was attached to the headquarters of General 
George H. Thomas and given command of the mounted 
provost guard of the Fourteenth Army Corps, and in addi- 
tion took an active part in all the battles of that campaign, 
including Stone Eiver at Chickamauga, where he was 
wounded in action on Sept. 20th. During the siege of 
Chattanooga, Oct. 23rd, 1863, by the Confederate forces 
under General Braxton Bragg, he was promoted post adju- 

501 



tant. In this office, by order of Maj.-Gen. Thomas, he 
issued the orders for the establishment of a United States 
cemetery at Chattanooga, giving particular attention and 
direction to its purpose and to the plans for carrying out 
that purpose, and which had been approved and adopted by 
General Thomas. From this has grown the system of 
national cemeteries, and also the reservation known as 
Chickamauga Park, in the laying out of which General 
Duffield was responsible for much of the plans and their 
execution When Maj.-Gen. Thomas was assigned to the 
command of the department of the Cumberland, Lieut. 
Duffield was appointed on his staff as assistant provost mar- 
shall general of the Department, in which capacity he 
served for the remainder of the war, except when during 
the disability of his chief, he acted as provost marshal- 
general from Chattanooga to Marietta. 

During the memorable campaign of General Thomas 
from Chattanooga to Atlanta, General Duffield partici- 
pated in all the hard fought battles of this gallant Union 
commander until the campaign terminated at Atlanta, 
where, on Oct. 14th, 1864, General Duffield was mustered 
out by reason of expiration of service. 

Upon his return to Detroit, he took up the profession of 
law, and his career both as a lawyer and a public man has 
been as remarkable as was his military career. His mili- 
tary ability was recognized at home in 18Y4, when he was 
appointed a member of the State Military Board, upon 
which he served until 1887, having been president of the 
board during the last seven years of the period. 

He has held prominent positions upon the staffs of Gov- 
ernors Bagley, Croswell, Jerome, and Alger, and it was 
during this long term of connection with the State Military 
Organization that he received the rank and title of colonel. 

This much the writer has been able to gather from cer- 
tain old data, and it serves well as a basis for what is to f ol- 



low in connection with his services in the late war with 
Spain. When war with that country was finally declared 
and steps taken for an immediate enlargement of the mili- 
tary forces of the country, it became necessary to appoint 
many general officers. They were mostly drawn from field 
officers of high rank in the regular army, but because of the 
volunteer feature in the make-up of the forces, and be- 
cause there were many men in active civil life whose careers 
in the Civil War were responsible for many of the successes 
of the !Rorthern Armies, the government was anxious to 
avail itself of the services of some of these men, and the 
President set about to secure a limited number whose ap- 
pointments were to be based upon their Civil War record, 
condition of health, and the unanimous endorsement of the 
United States Senators from the state in which the prospec- 
tive appointees resided. In view of the two former qualifi- 
cations, it was not surprising that the latter condition was 
unanimously and voluntarily forthcoming in favor of Col- 
onel Duffield. 

While General Duffield — whose appointment as briga- 
dier-general was confirmed May 31st, 1898 — had never, up 
to that time, commanded a brigade of troops, yet his posi- 
tion upon the staff of general officers, particularly that of 
Ma j. -Gen. Thomas, in the Civil War, had given him a clear 
insight into the practical handling of immense numbers of 
soldiers, and although his several appointments in that war 
as assistant adjutant-general and provost guard connnander 
would have been simply clerical in time of peace, in the field 
it kept him at many a dangerous post, and being an excel- 
lent horseman and possessed of much executive ability, his 
actual performances were rather more similar to those of a 
comjnanding officer, so that altogether he was well fitted for 
a position of responsibility in the new war the country was 
about to enter upon. 

It is a fact that General Duffield accepted the appoint- 



ment simply because it came to him entirely in the nature 
of a call from those responsible for the welfare of the 
United States, although he perhaps may have felt that there 
were other military men to be found in Michigan to whom 
the call might have been directed, but certain it is, however, 
that the call took him away from a very large law practice, 
the character of which dealt with contentions involving 
millions in some cases. But the general said no word and 
instead set to work to prepare for the assumption of his new 
duties. 

Previous to his departure for Washington, his comrades 
of Detroit Post G. A. E-. presented him with a fine horse, 
with many warm expressions such as only veterans know 
how to make to one another. In response he said : "If you 
pray for me, pray not that I will escape a Spanish bullet, 
but rather that I will not die with the yellow fever," and 
that the prayers of his comrades must have followed him 
may be learned further from this brief sketch. 

His friends, numbering many of the prominent business 
and professional gentlemen of Detroit, gave a banquet to 
the general at the Detroit Club as a mark of respect and 
congratulation upop. his appointment. As the guest of 
honor, he had the privilege of having at his right General 
John G. Parkhurst, whom General Duffield speaks of as 
"his military father," for General Parkhurst was lieutenant- 
colonel and afterwards colonel of the Ninth Michigan, and 
held a superior position upon the staff of General Thomas 
at the same time that General Duffield was connected with 
the provost forces of the Army of the Cumberland, and he 
was also responsible in part for the plans of the N'ational 
Cemetery. It was a gathering of true friends and in the 
nature of a love feast, and after they had all sung "He's a 
Jolly Good Fellow," the general responded with some heart- 
felt expressions, stating that "it is easy when your brain 
and heart are free to express your feelings, but not when 
your heart runs away with your brain." 
504 



In the general history in this volume will be found an 
account of the campaign of Company M in the Thirty-third 
M. V. I., which General Duffield accompanied to Cuba as 
the first reenforcement to reach Shafter's army before the 
battle of July 1st, and there will be found almost a complete 
mention of General DuJffield's activity, as his course was fol- 
lowed as closely as that of Company M, for they both be- 
longed to the Light Guard, so that, what follows here will 
be in the nature of side lights. 

Shortly after assuming command of his brigade at Camp 
Alger on June 14th, 1898, which was the Third Brigade of 
the First Division of the Second Army Corps, and composed 
of the Thirty-third and Thirty-fourth Michigan, and the 
Ninth Masachusetts, he took his command on a practice 
march to the Potomac in accordance with an order issued 
by General Graham. It was about the time that the Fifth 
Army Corps had landed in Cuba, and it was the govern- 
ment's desire to reenforce General Shafter as rapidly as 
possible before fighting began, but none of the transports 
had returned yet, and so the War Department was unable 
to carry out the intention until one day Major Hopkins, 
Asst. Adjt.-Gen. Vols, learned that the two auxiliary cruis- 
ers "Harvard" and "Yale" had arrived at Newport News. 
He mentioned the matter to Secretary of War Alger, and 
suggested that the Navy Department be asked to lend the 
vessels to the War Department for the purpose of forward- 
ing reenforcements. After considerable difiiculty. Major 
Hopkins secured permission to use the vessels and it then 
became a question as to what troops should be sent. Two of 
the brigades in Camp Alger were in an almost complete 
state of equipment and readiness to move, so that the choice 
resolved itself into a test of the two brigades, and the one 
which would report first in readiness would be the one to be 
sent to Cuba. General Dufiield's brigade was one of the 
two decided upon. The information came after his com- 

506 



mand had started on the march, and it was after midnight 
when General Graham's messenger rode into the camp of 
the- brigade on the bank of the Potomac with an order for 
its immediate return. 

The fact that it came off first in the test was responsible 
for the immediate dispatch of himself and his command to 
Cuba, and it was a notable fact that General Duffield was 
the only general officer appointed from civilian life in com- 
mand of troops with the Fifth Army Corps during the 
severe fighting, with the exception of General Joseph 
Wheeler. 

In the account mentioned before, will be found with 
what difficulty General Duffield carried out his part in the 
battle on July 1st, General Duffield was placed in a posi- 
tion of having to make the demonstration on the extreme 
left at Aguadores without any means of crossing an at that 
time unfordable stream, and only assisted by the long range 
fire of two vessels of Sampson's fleet. After he had carried 
out the orders of General Shafter and returned to Siboney, 
of which post he was in command, and which was also the 
base from which General Shafter was operating, he re- 
ceived a telephone message from General Shafter ad- 
dressed to Admiral Sampson, and to whom he was in- 
structed to forward it. The message was as follows : 

July 2nd, 1898. 
To Admiral Sampson : 

Terrible fight yesterday, but my line is now thoroughly 
intrenched about three-quarters mile from town. I urge 
that you make effort immediately to force the entrance to 
avoid future losses among my men, which are already very 
heavy. You can now operate with less loss of life than I 
can. Please telephone answer. 

W. K. SHAPTER, Maj. Gen'l, 

It so happened that Admiral Sampson's flag lieutenant 
was on shore and called at General Duffield's headquarters, 

506 



when the message was handed him. He said he could not 
speak for Admiral Sampson, but expressing his own opinion 
he would say that the navy would not attempt to force an 
entrance to the harbor, and would not risk any of their ships. 
Of course the conversation was entirely courteous through- 
out, such as would naturally pass between two gentlemen, 
but in General Duffield's manner of expressing himself 
when the subject calls for strong treatment, there is a quiet 
vigor about the tone and language which makes his remarks 
very forcible, and it is related by one who overheard the 
conversation that General Duffield remarked that he "did 
not believe the ships of the navy had been constructed to be 
kept under glass cases." 

The General was very careful of the men in his command 
at Aguadores, and while not unnecessarily exposing him- 
self, yet he felt that his post could not be in a place of shel- 
ter, and it was his sense of duty that brought him as close to 
death from an exploding shell as one could possibly come 
without injury. The shell, however, killed one and wounded 
three of the men near by so badly that the leg of one and 
arm of another had to be amputated later, but when they 
fell General Duffield stopped to have them carefully re- 
moved to a place of shelter, and placed in an easy position. 

The position to which General Duffield was assigned with 
his command at the council of war held on the evening of 
the 30th of June, was one that permitted but small chance 
for active fighting or marked achievements, but his sol- 
dier's discipline tied his tongue and stiffened the muscles of 
his face as he left the council and went out into the night 
and paced slowly up and down the beach. Sam Smith, the 
old colored veteran who accompanied General Duffield as 
his valet, said afterwards that until a certain evening he 
never saw the general mad, nor had he ever heard him 
swear, but that he was very much afraid that he had wit- 
nessed and heard an exception to these conditions upon the 

507 



evening that General Duffield learned the plans of the cam- 
paign given him before leaving Camp Alger had been 
changed, and he went to walk on the beach. 

However, General Duffield took his command to Agua- 
dores and accomplished successfully, and with a loss of but 
two men killed and eight wounded, just exactly what he 
was expected to do, and which, in reality, was a most im- 
portant part in the whole scheme of the battle of July 1st. 

People in the States did not comprehend the affair any 
more than they did the general conditions of other portions 
of the Cuban country fought over that day. It was only the 
gallant dash, and the brilliance of victorious achievements 
that appealed to them, and the majority of them set to work 
to belittle the officers who had not been waving their swords 
and dashing up hills at the head of their troops, but justice 
has since been done, and after General Shafter had for- 
warded his report of the campaign and found that he had 
not sufficiently mentioned the work at Aguadores, he sent a 
telegram to the Secretary of War about the matter, and 
General Alger in turn wired a copy of it to General Duf- 
field as follows : 

Washington, D. C, Sept. 30th, 1898. 
Gen. H. M. Duffield, Detroit, Mich. : 

Following just received from Gen. Shafter: "Hon. E. 
A. Alger, Secretary of War, Washington, D. C. — Gen. 
Duffield did all that he was expected to do and in a most 
satisfactory manner. His report received yesterday, for- 
warded this morning to Washington, with an indorsement 
that will show my appreciation of his service. In looking 
over my report I see that the reference to his action at Agua- 
dores was not clearly expressed and it escaped my notice. 
There was no intention that he should do more than make 
such demonstrations as would hold the enemy's troops at 
that place. To have attacked it with a view of its capture 
with the force under Gen. Duffield would have been the 
height of folly." 

E. A. ALGEK, 

Secretary of War. 



Later, when General Shafter stopped in Detroit on his 
way to San Francisco to supervise the embarkation of troops 
for the Philippines, he said in an interview : "As for Gen- 
eral Duffield, of your city, he is a soldier, every inch of him. 
He had a thankless job at the battle of Aguadores, but he 
acquitted himself nobly," and further in a press dispatch 
from Washington, dated Dec. 2nd, 1898, commenting upon 
the Schley-Sampson controversy, the latter was spoken of as 
having lost somewhat in popularity. It further said that 
"his recent publications about the Santiago campaign, how- 
ever, have lost him many new made friends and some of his 
old ones. His gratutitous insults toward Duffield and his 
command are regarded, in the light of the records, as unfair 
and unmanly." 

After retiring with the main portion of his command to 
Siboney, Maj. Gen. Young was taken ill, and the command 
was turned over to General Duffield. From that time on 
almost every one in Siboney gradually succumbed to yel- 
low fever, and on July 8th, General Duffield was attacked 
by the fever, but remained on duty until the afternoon of 
July 10th, when he was transferred to the fever hospital, 
from which he was discharged on July 22nd as a convales- 
cent and sent north on the transport "Santiago." After 
going ashore at Tampa, Fla., he rejoined his family and 
spent several weeks on the coast of Maine for the purpose of 
regaining his health. 

When he returned to Detroit, he advised no one of his 
coming except several close friends, but he did not escape 
the greeting and handshake of Comrade Cash P. Taylor 
and other friends, nor the floral tribute which was pre- 
sented in the name of the Light Guard. 

On Oct. 18th, 1898, the Peace Jubilee celebration in 
Chicago found him one of the speakers at the popular 
meetings with General Miles and other gentlemen of na- 
tional prominence, and in December of the same year the 

509 



Interstate ISTational Guard Association in session at Chicago 
listened to General Duffield as one of its invited speakers. 

After getting well back into the traces of civil life, Gen- 
eral Duffield devoted much time to the financial affairs of 
the new armory, and took a prominent part in all the turn- 
outs of the Veteran Corps and Company M of the Light 
Guard upon the occasion of receptions to home-coming 
troops, or funeral services over a soldier dead. 

In December, 1899, it was the good fortune of the De- 
troit Light Guard to have General Duffield again accept a re- 
election as president, having been first elected in Decem- 
ber, 1895, and as long as he will choose to fill the office there 
is a guarantee that the affairs of the Light Guard will be 
successfully attended to. 

To write a sketch of the personality of General Duffield, 
one must have had an intimate acquaintanceship with the 
man, or else he may not find the range at which to sight his 
observations. I regretfully acknowledge my inability to 
execute my commission in accordance with that proposition, 
but I have the good fortune to be able to base my estimate 
of the general upon a certain period in my life — away 
from Detroit — spent in the immediate sphere of the every 
day life of a gentleman whose character, to my mind, is 
perhaps almost a duplicate of that of General Duffield. 

I was seventeen and not yet over being a hero worshipper. 
My close chum was the son of a gentleman of thorough cul- 
ture, whose direct descent was from that unique old one 
limbed governor of early !N"ew York. This gentleman, 
whose wife was of the naval family of Crowninshield, held 
the rank of lieutenant in the navy at the time of the Civil 
War, and when the "Merrimac," of Confederate .creation, 
blazed her way amongst the northern fleet in Hampton 
Roads, his ship was the Cumberland, from the wreck of 
which he barely saved his life. When our first ironclad the 
"Miantonomah" was built and commissioned, her first duty 

510 



was to carry a party of representative officers of the navy 
upon a visit to the capitals of Europe, and from this tour 
this gentleman returned laden with royal mementoes, but 
believing the navy would become a stagnant institution, he 
resigned and entered civilian life as a banker, and later es- 
tablished a commercial business. 

I lived much at Billie's house, and felt myself drawn with 
a feeling of awe to this quiet, forceful man of heroic mould. 
His culture had that silent, keen expression so seldom met 
vnth; it was an atmosphere Avhich one instantly felt en- 
veloped the man and colored every expression and action. — 
When General Alger made a speech in connection with the 
presentation of General Duffield's portrait to the Light 
Guard, on May 19th, 1900, he critically examined it and 
said, despite the service uniform displayed in the picture, 
that he did not believe the picture did the general justice, 
as a soldier, for it certainly did not show the fiery expres- 
sion which one would expect to see in the portrait of a sol- 
dier; and that was perhaps the most complimentary thing 
General Alger could have said, for the placid expression 
upon the face of the portrait, if one looked close, would 
show certain lines and contours denoting great power of the 
quiet character I have mentioned. — One of my chiefest mo- 
ments of supreme joy was when this gentleman would let 
me see the lock of ISTapoleon's hair and handle a drinking 
cup which the great French Emperor used during his clos- 
ing days on the island of Elba, and which had been pre- 
sented by the brother, Joseph Bonaparte, but what held my 
fancy most was a great sea chest which, after many plead- 
ings, he opened once, but I could not persuade the unfold- 
ing of the dazzling dress uniform. I forgot to look at his 
face when he closed the lid, but somehow I always felt after- 
wards that he made secret little pilgrimages to the old chest, 
for at that time the navy was the "new navy," and had he 
remained in the service he would have ranked both Schley 

511 



and Sampson, but there lay his ambition and the life he had 
loved, folded away with the blue cloth and gold lace — yet 
you could never have learned the tale from him. I uncon- 
sciously felt a higher standard of manhood when in his 
presence, and I knelt with Billie before him. 

In this sketch of a lofty character, I believe the friends 
of General DuiEeld will readily recognize the parallel. 

In addition to his military record, it would be difficult to 
relate all of his civilian achievements in this sketch. It 
may, however, be sufficiently stated that he was the first 
president of the State Bar Association of Michigan, and a 
member and vice-president for Michigan of the American 
Bar Association ; that the general is a very eloquent speaker, 
and is in much demand as such. J^otable among various 
affairs he has graced was the annual meeting of the Society 
of the Army of the Cumberland, of which he is a member, 
in 1887, when he was the orator at the unveiling of the 
monument of General Garfield, and in 1895 he was selected 
by Governor Kich to deliver the oration upon the dedication 
of the Michigan monument on the battlefield of Chicka- 
mauga. 

He is a member of Detroit Post G. A. R. and has served 
the organization as Department Commander of Michigan, 
and as Senior Vice-Commander-in-Chief . He has also been 
Commander of the Michigan Commandery, Military Order 
of the Loyal Legion of the United States, and is a member 
of Sons of the American Eevolution, and Historian of the 
Chattanooga, Chickamauga Park Association. He is also a 
widely known club man, being a member of the Union 
League and University Clubs of Kew York, Army and 
Navy Club of Washington, the Detroit and Country Clubs 
and several others — badges of highest respectability, popu- 
larity and culture. 

The Detroit Light Guard feels that it is additionally hon- 
ored by being able to present this sketch of General Duf- 

512 



field in the volume containing its own history, and the 
members have unconsciously accorded him the same place 
in their regard as was occupied by "Pap" (General) Wil- 
liams in the affections of those whose former active mem- 
bership have now entitled them to the rank and title of 
veterans, and while "Henry," as the latter call him, is of 
their number by virtue of that reasoning, yet the active 
members also claim him and will renew their annual re- 
quest of him that he continue to be their president. 



513 



COL. CHARLES W. HAERAH. 

Col. diaries W. Harrah was born in the second year 
of the Civil War at Davenport, Iowa, and when thirteen 
years of age the family removed to Detroit, where the 
colonel received his education and grew into manhood, 
maintaining his citizenship continuously in this city. 

At the age of twenty-four he entered the membership of 
the Light Guard, on March 8th, 1886. His marked military 
proclivities won him rapid promotion at a time when nearly 
every member was a first-class soldier. His corporal's chev- 
rons were given to him within six months after his enroll- 
ment, and gradually climbing the grades of non-commis- 
sioned officers, he was elected from first sergeant to be sec- 
ond lieutenant on June 16th, 1890, followed shortly after- 
wards by promotion to be first lieutenant on Dec. 2nd, 1890, 
and when Col. Sidney R. Dixon resigned the captaincy of 
Company A in September, 1892, Lieut. Harrah was elected 
to succeed on ISTov. 15th, 1892, and mustered Dec. 6th, 
1892. 

When the election troubles in the Fourth Michigan M. N. 
G. finally resulted in its division into two separate battalions 
in March, 1898, Capt. Harrah was appointed acting major 
and placed in command of what was called the Second Inde- 
pendent Battalion. 

As the reader may know, there are three companies in 
the Light Guard which are also in the state service, and 
there is also a fourth company which will some day be 
a part of the state troops, but these companies in their Light 
Guard character form a battalion known among themselves 
by that name, and Captain Harrah was also in command of 

514 




Major Charles W. Harrah 
at Rodrigo, Cuba. 



the Light Guard battalion. Following what has been set 
down, the reader may find in the general history an account 
of Capt. Harrah's activity immediately upon the declara- 
tion of war in April, 1898, and, in fact, it is difficult to add 
here much in addition to what is given in connection Avith his 
service in the late war. When the Stecond Battalion arrived 
at Island Lake for muster into the volunteer army, Captain 
Harrah received a commission from the governor to be 
major, and to which he was entitled by virtue of the charac- 
ter of his command. The commission was the first one to be 
issued after the mobilization, and he thus had the honor 
to receive the only commission issued to command a volun- 
teer force with the "appointment made in field in time of 
war." Immediately after the news of the appointment 
reached Detroit, a number of the Light Guard veterans 
wired a collective expression of congratulation and esteem, 
and the acknowledgment of the congratulations and state- 
ment of his consciousness of the position he had been pro- 
moted to, entailing great responsibility not only in doing 
himself justice, but first of all the record of the Light Guard, 
will be found in the general history. 

When finally the regiments were recruited and put into 
shape for muster-in. Major Harrah's command was attached 
to the First Kegt. M. N. G., and when the mustering officer 
administered the oath to the officers of the regiment and 
they received their commissions in the First Kegt. M. V. I. 
a new commission was issued to Major Harrah, and waiving 
his rights, he agreed that seniority among the battalion 
"commanders would be based upon their ISTational Guard 
record. This resulted in Major Harrah's becoming second 
ranking major, and it must be stated that it was hardly fair 
to him, and in justice to himself he should not have agreed to 
that course, for his commission issued on May 5 th should 
have entitled him to the seniority and should have simply 
been confirmed after being mustered in, just as was done in 

515 



the case of Gen. A. S. Williams when he was appointed a 
brigadier-general on April 24th, 1861, and confirmed by 
the War Department on the seventeenth of the following 
month. However, Major Harrah felt inclined to let the 
matter stand, for it did not accord with his ideas of an eflS.- 
cient military family to have a single dispute to mar its 
even tenor and perhaps cripple the efficiency of the entire 
command by setting an example of antagonism among the 
officers. 

In the armory account will be found full mention of the 
part performed by Col. Harrah — then captain — ^in the 
active work which finally culminated in the building of the 
new armory, and it was rather a disappointment to him to be 
called away before he could see the complete fruition of his 
own labors. 

Col. Harrah has a character of pleasant simplicity and 
very seldom permits himself to look behind a matter for any- 
thing belieing its surface, and for that reason he is a most 
natural man in his manners and his expressions, either by 
word of mouth or upon paper. The writer has been per- 
mitted to see many letters written to friends at home while 
with his regiment in southern camps and in Cuba, and this 
quality just mentioned has been mostly strikingly evi- 
denced. 

While the Thirty-first Michigan was yet at Island Lake, 
the boys of his battalion presented him with a saddle-horse 
and complete equipments, and in writing of the matter to 
one of the veterans he said : "The boys have been very kind 
to me to make such a present as they did. Mrs. Harrah, my 
mother and sister and little daughter were present, and the 
sight and evident esteem of the boys have had much to do 
with satisfying them with the situation. I find I have lots 
of goods friends." 

In completing this sketch the writer will make use of the 
letters which have been mentioned, in order to show the 

516 



sentiment and character of the man, which is perhaps more 
interesting than following his military career as major in 
the Thirty-first M. V. I., for the reader may become suffi- 
ciently acquainted with that in the general history. 

It will be remembered that for some time after the fight 
at Santiago, there was no proper conception had of the work 
General Duffield performed, and that as it had become the 
fashion with irresponsible people to condemn any prominent 
ofiicer who might be selected for their mark, General Duf- 
field was unjustly criticised, but it was not so with his 
friends. In a letter written at Camp Thomas Aug. 13th, 
Major Harrah stated : "From reports received direct from 
Santiago, General Duffield is generally believed to have 
shown the white feather. / do not helieve it.'''' Thus show- 
ing the staunch character of the man. 

The major's correspondent sent him some clippings and a 
statement regarding the affair at Aguadores, and he has- 
tened to declare his pleasure at hearing that "Dufiield was 
all right hefore the peopled A short time previous to this 
the major had formed some political aspirations, but in this 
same letter he stated that he could not give them any con- 
sideration as long as duty called for service. 

During the period when camp life had become but a suc- 
cession of dull days. Major Harrah inaugurated sports for 
the men to fill out their leisure time, advocating base ball 
particularly. He fostered this sport among the members 
of his battalion, even presenting them with the necessary 
accessories. 

He was one of the most popular officers in all of Michi- 
gan's contingent of troops. The men of his OAvn command 
had an especial regard and liking for him, and although his 
most positive expressions were of a mild character, yet they 
were most conscientiously attended to by those for whom 
they were intended. He is a man who makes an excep- 
tionally good soldier without the use of profanity, although 

517 



he does not entirely shun the use of a rather wholsesome sort 
of slang. His list of habits do not include the use of tobacco 
or liquor, but he appreciates the general temperament of his 
fellow men, and tolerated the temperate use of both articles 
among the boys, and, in fact, he was perhaps more of a real 
"good fellow" in his own plain way than many of those 
who think that good-fellowship springs only from convivial- 
ity. Indeed, his character impressed some of the veterans 
at home as being so entirely similar to that of old Colonel 
Lum that they came to look upon him as "the Colonel Lum 
of this war," and it was also this happy combination of dig- 
nity of office, keeping graceful company with good fellow- 
ship, that appealed so much to the boys, and when the Light 
Guard companies held their separate Christmas messes at 
Knoxville, Major Harrah received iavitations from all three 
of them, and also from nearly all the other companies in the 
regiment. 

It is not very difficult to imagine what would have been 
the result had the war been a lengthy one and the 31st M. 
V. I. had been placed in long active service. The men would 
have accomplished valorous deeds, and the officers would 
not have been found lacking in marked gallantry, for this 
regiment may be considered to have been the crack volun- 
teer regiment from Michigan, but to specialize the specula- 
tion, there is no doubt that Major Harrah, with a character 
and marked soldierly ability so much like that of Gen. Wil- 
liams and Col. Lum, would have matched also their records 
of deeds performed and rewards received, but though the 
chance to so distinguish himself did not fall \vithin his lot, 
yet among the citizen soldiers of the state of Michigan he is 
considered as one of the most promising military men in 
the state, and when the IN'ational Guard was finally re- 
organized and elections for officers of the new regiments 
were ordered in February, 1900, Major Harrah was elected 
colonel of the First Regiment, M. N. G., and the age of 

518 



thirty-eight finds him the second ranking colonel in the 
Michigan National Guard, and during the encampment of 
the state troops in August, 1900, his high ability as a field 
officer in command of a considerable force was exhibited 
upon his successful defense of the camp and capture of the 
attacking forces in the battle exercises. 

Much of the success of a military commander is due to 
the mood of the men forming the command, and history 
from ancient days shows that the greatest military leaders 
and conquerors have had the quality of endearing them- 
selves to their soldiers, and the sentiment of regard has called 
for some nick-name of their commanders to use among 
themselves. ISTapoleon was called "The Little Corporal." 
Generals in the Eevolutionary and Civil Wars have their 
nick-names recorded in history, and England's greatest liv- 
ing general now in active service has had his lengthy title 
and rank unceremoniously abbreviated into "Bobs," and 
coming closer to the subject, the boys of the Light Guard 
battalion always spoke of their major as "The Major," be- 
cause their sentiment for him crystalized into a combination 
of affection and respect, and that a depth of sentiment 
existed in his heart for the boys, may be displayed by one 
sentence in a letter written by him several weeks before the 
regiment was mustered out in Savannah. His baby daugh- 
ter was suffering from some of the ills of babyhood and he 
was in great fear that her condition would not improve be- 
fore the battalion was freed of volunteer service, as, of 
course, he would remain with his family. Having so stated 
the situation, he finished by saying: "My heart will be 
broken if I cannot come home with these boys." and the 
same sentiment still exists, and the boys, even though he is 
now a colonel, still speak of him in a moment of forgetful- 
ness born of a reminiscent mood, as "The Major." 

If the storm clouds of war continue to spread, and the 
citizen soldier is called again to enter the field in the Na- 

519 



tion's service, the historian of the next generation may write 
of Colonel Harrah as being the General Williams of a later 
war. 

More would be difficult to write of a man of vigor and 
sterling character, with so large a balance of life's prime to 
his credit that his achievements are not history as yet, but 
rather fresh born memories — memories, that passing, leave 
a trail of pleasant reminiscences, but of such a character 
that one naturally falls to prophesying greater things about 
the colonel, for in civil life he is also a man of large affairs, 
and has twice made lengthy journeys to the island which he 
first visited as a soldier, for the purpose of syndicating 
Cuban mahogany timber lands. 

Once before, the Light Guard armory sheltered a regi- 
mental headquarters — when Col, Wm. G. Latimer com- 
manded the Fourth, M. IST. G., and now Colonel Harrah has 
brought a return of the gratifying situation, for soldiers ars 
very proud of any military distinction that comes their way, 
and his military successes having been responsible for the 
present distinction, forms another reason why the boys so 
respect and esteen "The Major." 




MaJ. Wm. G. Latimer, 

Thirty-fourth M. V. I., in his Headquarters at Seviila, Cuba, 

July 14th, 1S9S, in Command of Six Hundred 

Men from the Regiment Engaged in Road Building 

and Keeping it Open Between the Army in Front 

of Santiago, and the Base at Siboney. 



COL. WILLIAM G. LATIMER. 

Col. William G. Latimer was born February 23rd, 
1866, four years later than the birth of Colonel Charles 
W. Harrah, and a singular fact is that Colonel Latimer, 
although four years younger than Colonel Harrah, entered 
the Light Guard four years earlier. The record reads that 
''^Private William G. Latimer, Company A, First Battalion, 
Detroit Light Guard, enlisted on the 7th day of July, 1882, 
at Detroit, Michigan," and from this record it may be seen 
that Colonel Latimer had very early military aspirations. 
After graduating from the Michigan Military Academy 
in 1883 as cadet captain, at the age of seventeen, he became 
enrolled as a member of Company A (D. L. G.), 4th Eegt., 
M. S. T., on July 8th, 1883. In December of the follow- 
ing year, he was promoted to be captain, from which post 
and rank he was promoted to be major in the same regiment 
in August 18th, 1886, remaining as such until honorably 
discharged January Tth, 1889. 

Colonel Latimer remained out of military activity until 
on September 18th, 1892, he was elected captain of Com- 
pany F (D. L. G.), 4th Infantry, Michigan National Guard. 
Company F had been Detroit City Greys until its amalaga- 
mation with the Light Guard in 1890. From this rank and 
position, he received his present title by election and pro- 
motion to the command of the regiment on May 31st, 1894, 
remaining as such until honorably discharged March 28th, 
1898, S. O. E"o. 22 A. G. O. 

Just previous to the issue of his discharge as colonel there 
had occurred the fight over the election of colonel, which 
culminated in the disruption of the regiment, but if the 



reader will refer to pages 85 to 89 in the general history, 
a full knowledge of that affair can be had, as well as a con- 
ception as to Colonel Latimer's characteristic way of fighting 
to the last ditch when he knows that his position is unim- 
peachable. 

The colonel is a man of large build, but of the kind that 
belongs to a strong athlete, and the agility of his movements 
further bear out that impression, and which is also a correct 
impression. 

When the war broke out with Spain, Colonel Latimer 
regretted very deeply his separation from the Michigan 
!N'ational Guard, but his pride restrained him from making 
application for a command, as he knew that the governor, 
as well as the president, was being overrun with applications 
for commissions. It was while he was trying to determine 
whether to enlist in the ranks and work for promotion that 
the governor and his military advisers remembered the 
fighting colonel of the old Fourth Regiment, and he was 
instantly called to accept the command of a battalion, so 
that he became second major in the 34th M. V. I., succeed- 
ing Major Winslow of Ironwood on the 25th of May, 1898. 
Immediately after the appointment, his fellow members of 
Moslem Temple of the Mystic Shrine presented him with a 
handsome horse christened Moslem, together mth a full 
equipment. 

It was on the eighth of the following month that the 
Thirty-fourth arrived at Camp Alger and camped along- 
side of the Thirty-third Michigan, having been brigaded 
with it under the command of General Duffield, For a few 
days previous to the departure of his regiment for Santiago, 
the major — ^I will have to call him major until he is mus- 
tered out — enjoyed his wife's company at Washington until, 
as the major calls it, "the saddest moment in my life" came, 
when he had to bid his wife goodbye. 

The Thirty-third Michigan embarked upon the "Yale,'^ 



and the Thirty-fourth upon the "Harvard." Immediately 
after boarding the "Harvard," the major acted as F. O. D., 
and to him fell the immense work of having the ordnance 
properly stowed and arranging for the disposition of the 
men during the voyage. The "Harvard" had been one of 
the crack Trans- Atlantic Liners, and not designed for the 
carrying of troops, so that it required considerable ingenuity 
and enterprise to make a comfortable arrangement of quar- 
ters. The major is a man of practical ideas, and delights 
to work out difficult problems, so that he brought to his 
task a great amount of enthusiasm which enabled him to 
complete his duty in such a manner as to win the 
unqualified approval of every one, from the highest officer 
to the poorest private. 

The major kept a diary which the writer has been per- 
mitted to read at his pleasure, and what is the most striking 
feature of the diary is the manner in which the major re- 
corded scenic situations. He seemed to find much enjoy- 
ment in remaining upon the bridge of the ship at night, 
especially when nearing the coast of Cuba, where many 
incidents of an interesting character occurred. His descrip- 
tions, especially of the scenic features, might almost be 
styled as classical in the phrasing, and the easy flow of 
expression, written rapidly, as the chirography shows, causes 
the writer to wonder what might be the character of a studi- 
ously written account. 

After the regiment landed at Siboney, it was sent on to 
join the forces at the front, arriving at a point close to the 
fighting line by the morning of Sunday, July 3rd. The 
major devoted some time to going over the surrounding 
ground which had been captured by the American soldiers, 
and informed himself thoroughly, but he was soon made 
to know by the miraculous escape of Colonel Bennett from 
being shot by a bullet which, after glancing across his cross 
plate, went through the jaw and tongue of a private, that 



although the position had been captured, yet it was still a 
rather hazardous one, and, in fact, the sharpshooters in their 
invisible positions began to keep their rifles trained inces- 
santly upon the position, but the fearlessness of the man 
is plain to understand when, in the face of these dangers, he 
goes on to state in his diary that a flag of truce was sent to 
the city with a request for its surrender, but that the request 
was denied and "we will have to bombard it, possibly charge 
their pits" — ^very loconically put in the face of what evi- 
dences he had'seen and accounts heard of the fierce charges 
of the first day's fighting. 

Major Latimer was tireless in his hunt for information 
regarding the equipment of the United States troops, and 
his diary contains the gist of numerous conversations had 
with ofiicers and privates both in the matter of equipment, 
condition and the fighting they had done. Once while 
standing in conversation with an ofiicer, a bullet whistled 
closely past him on both sides, and remarking that he had 
several objections against being used as a target, they both 
calmly strolled off with a trail of bullets swarming after. 

On the 4th the major was ordered to take six hundred 
men and proceed to a position slightly to the rear of the left 
wing to act as a flanking guard and to improve and keep 
open the road to Siboney, which was the army's base. It 
was rough, wild country, and road building was a hard task, 
but Major Latimer was very careful of his men, doing what 
he could to cheer them in the absence of sufficient rations 
and making frequent reconnaissances to learn whether the 
camp was in danger of shell fire, or to observe any changes 
at the front that might mean something to his command. 
He guarded against the men being overworked, and upon 
the second day when the officer of the United States En- 
gineer Corps ordered the major to shorten the resting time 
of the reliefs at work' "stating that they should be worked 
until they dropped if they couldn't stand it," the major 

524 



promptly refused in "uncomplimentary" language to allow 
the change, and then when the officer became abusive with 
Captain Bates of Major Latimer's command, the latter 
immediately notified the engineer that he would prefer 
charges against him, but not long after, the officer evidently 
having gotten over his surprise and come to understand 
that a volunteer officer was very much like those in the regu- 
lar army, especially as exemplified in Major Latimer, called 
upon the latter and grudgingly acknowledged his error. 
The character of the "explanation" did not appeal to the 
wholesome nature of the major, but he decided to drop the 
matter. 

On the afternoon of the 6th, Lieutenant Hobson and his 
gallant crew passed the camp, and the major let his men 
cheer and also paid his own respects, and on the next day 
the camp was passed by the major-general in command. 
General Shafter stopped his horse upon learning that the 
command was from Michigan, and Major Latimer after- 
wards wrote in his diary some of the things learned during 
the pleasant little chat with the general. 

On the 8th Major Latimer moved his command five miles 
further to the rear for the same duties that took them to the 
first position, and reference to pages 168 and 169 will 
inspire the reader with the importance of this station. 

The Major went to Siboney to get a change of clothing, 
but found his baggage missing, entailing a loss of uniforms 
and equipments valued at about three hundred dollars, and 
leaving behind the unpleasant prospect of having to cam- 
paign and return home (if good fortune would follow him) 
in a disreputable looking condition. 

Fighting began again on Sunday, the 10th, and Major 
Latimer climbed a high hill to make out what the distance 
would permit — he wanted to know and see everything 
since he had come so far and at the expense of things not to 
be valued in money. 



News finally came to the Major on the 15th that Santiago 
had surrendered, accompanied with an order to move his 
command to an advanced position in the trenches in front 
of the city, which was accomplished after a perilous night's 
march. 

From the new position of Major Latimer's command, 
which remained independent after being detached from the 
regiment on the 4th, he was able to watch the surrender 
ceremony on the 17th, taking views with his camera, but in 
the midst of the general exultation, he paused a minute to 
write in his diary, "It was almost pathetic to hear the Spanish 
bugles sounding the calls, all of a slow, sad sound, evidently 
^retreat,' ^taps,' etc." — a chivalrous sentiment that would 
have done credit to a warrior in the days when knighthood 
was in flower. 

Two days later he became sick, and after several days in 
quarters, was removed from camp and placed aboard the 
"Comal" in a dangerous condition. The"Comal" was but a 
sorry ship for well men to travel in, but for sick, the con- 
ditions were fearful. There was no fresh food, no medi- 
cines nor physicians aboard, and the water had not been 
replenished since the previous May. It was an aAvful trip 
with eight days of waiting at the end, lying in quarantine 
at Egmont Keyes, Fla., and it was not until the sick were 
transferred to the "Seguranca" — General Shafter's flag- 
ship — that the first medical attention and nursing was re- 
ceived. However, the major's clean, strong constitution 
quickly responded to the favorable conditions, and he was 
able to walk ashore at 'New York. He headed at once for 
the hotel he always stopped at when in that city, with the 
joy in his heart of the welcome and greeting he would 
receive from the hotel people, and filled with the happy 
thought that he would get a check cashed and get some much 
needed clothes. He walked up to the desk with a broaden- 
ing grin, and putting out his hand, shouted a greeting to the 



clerk, but the clerk only stared at the jaded face and evil 
looking uniform; for sickness had reduced his girth, pinched 
the fullness from his tanned cheeks, and somehow changed 
his voice, just as the rain, dust, mud and underbrush had 
stained and torn the uniform that hung in folds upon him. 
Final recognition and hearty hospitality helped to make 
amends, but the major has confided that that unrecognizing 
stare of the clerk almost broke his heart — he had been so 
sure of an anticipated joy; th& joy of one coming from a far 
off field of heroic industry to be proudly welcomed by even 
a single countryman on stepping upon the beloved soil again. 
Major Latimer retired from military life as quietly as he 
entered it upon the tolling of the War's tocsin a few months 
before, and though the blood courses faster when he views 
a column of troops on parade, especially his "old boys," 
yet the demands of a busy, strictly civil life enchains his 
natural inclination — ^but he is young, and history is peren- 
nial. 



527 



A LIST OF THE COMMISSIONED OFFICEIIS OF 
THE DETROIT LIGHT GUARD. 

From its organization to the present time. 



BATTALION ORGANIZATION, 1859-1860. 

Alpheus S. Williams, Major. 

Jas. E. Pittman, Capt. Co. A. Henry L. Chipman, Capt. Co. B. 



Company Organizations, 1855-1900. 



ALPHEUS S. WILLIAMS 
HENRY L. CHIPMAN 
JAS. E. PITTMAN 
CHARLES M. LUM 
JEROME CROUL 
ENOS R. MATHEWS 
CHARLES M. LUM 
FREDERICK W. SWIFT 
GEORGE L. MALTZ 
DAVID F. FOX 
ROBT. A. LIGGETT 
CHARLES DUPONT 
LEWIS CASS TWOMBLEY 
MAX HOCHGRAEF 
A. P. T. BENITEAU 



CAPTAINS. 

SAML. J. MURPHY 
SIDNEY R. DIXON 
FRED L. ABEL 
SIDNEY R. DIXON 
W. G. LATIMER 
C. L. ROEHM 
C. W. HARRAH 
M. G. BORGMAN 
CHAS. S. BAXTER 
WM. H. SINK 
DUNCAN HENDERSON 
GEO. C. WALDO 
JOHN S. BERSEY 
WALTER S. ROGERS 
HENRY W. BUSCH 



FIRST 
WM. D. WILKINS 
JAS. E. PITTMAN 
JOHN ROBERTSON 
H. M. WHITTELSEY 
JEROME CROUL 
CHAS. M. LUM 
ENOS R. MATHEWS 
EUGENE ROBINSON 
ROBERT S. MASON 
GEO. L. MALTZ 
J. 0. BELLAIR 
DAVID F. FOX 



LIEUTENANTS. 

C. C. WORMER 

J. I. HAIGHT 

S. J. MURPHY 

FRED E. FARNSWORTH 

J. K. WEBSTER 

S. R. DIXON 

F. L. ABEL 

A. O. GRAY 

O'BRIEN ATKINSON 

J. L. THOMSON 

C. W. HARRAH 

DUNCAN HENDERSON 



529 



FIRST LIEUTENANTS— (Continued.) 



JOHN HARDY 
E. MARUM 

JULIAN E. BUCKBEE 
R. A. LIGGETT 
CHARLES DUPONT 
W. A. BUTLER, JR. 
L. CASS TWOMBLEY 
MAX HOCHGRAEF 



CASSIUS C. FISK 
JOHN S. BERSEY 
F. W. COWLEY 
GEO. C. WALDO 
WM. J. LAURENCE 
EMIL A. LAURENCE 
V. M. DUMAS 
E. T. CLARK 



SECOND LIEUTENANTS. 



JAS. E. PITTMAN 
JOHN ROBERTSON 
HORACE S. ROBERTS 
JEROME CROUL 
CHAS. H. SOUTHWICK 
E. R. MATHEWS 
EUGENE ROBINSON 
S. W. JOHNSON 
ROBERT S. MASON 
CHARLES DUPONT 
JACOB HULL 

E. MARUM 

F. T. SIBLEY 
S. R. DIXON 
F. L. ABEL 
A. O. GRAY 
C. G. PEASE 

J. L. THOMSON 
C. W. HARRAH 
WALTER G. ROGERS 
O'BRIEN ATKINSON 
VAL. R. EVANS 



JOHN HARDY 

ALEX. HOSIE 

JNO. C. PIERCE 

N. A. STODDARD 

MAX HOCHGRAEF 

W. A. BUTLER, JR. 

L. C. TWOMBLEY 

C. C. WORMER 

HARRY MILV/ARD 

A. P. T. BENITEAU 

FRED E. FARNSWORTH 

S. J. MURPHY 

A. G. DOYLE 

GEO. C. WALDO 

V. M. DUMAS 

EMIL A. LAURENCE 

WM. J. LAURENCE 

JOHN G. MILLER 

DAN W. SMITH 

HENRY W. BUSCH 

GEORGE BARGER 

HENRY R. LORD 



*SECOND, SECOND LIEUTENANTS. 
JOHN ROBERTSON HEBER LE FAVOUR 

E. TROWBRIDGE ' MARTIN S. SMITH 

J. D. FAIRBANKS MELZAR F. MERICK 

*THIRD LIEUTENANTS. 
J. D. FAIRBANKS E. TROWBRIDGE 

H. M. WHITTELSEY WM. W. DUFFIELD 

B. HOWE 



WM. 



*These are since deceased, having been officers in the earliest days 
of the old company, when such ranks were in vogue. 



CIYIL OFFICERS 

OF THE 

DETEOIT LIGHT GUARD. 



GEN. HENRY M. DUFFIELD, President. 

COL. CHARLES W. HARRAH, Vice-President. 
CAPT. HENRY W. BUSCH, Treasurer. 

WALTER F. CLOWES, Secretary. 



BOARD OP DIRECTORS. 
GEN. HENRY M. DUFFIELD COL. CHARLES W. HARRAH 
MAJ. RUFUS W. JACKLIN HON. JOHN B. WHELAN 

CASSIUS P. TAYLOR CAPT. HENRY W. BUSCH 

CAPT. JOHN S. BERSEY LIEUT. WM. J. LAURENCE 

WALTER F. CLOWES 



531 



EEMAEKS AND EXPLANATION OF 
ABBEEVIATIONS. 



These records have been compiled from "retained copies" of 
muster-out rolls of the Thirty-first Regiment, M. V. I. 

The Light Guard Companies were enrolled April 26th; mus- 
tered into U. S. service May 9th, 1898, and mustered out at 
Savannah, Ga., May 17th, 1899. 

Enrollment of recruits, and discharges issued prior to muster- 
out of the regiment, will be found indicated. 

The middle column shows the sick record, and the right hand 
column; promotions, special duties, etc., and re-enlistments after 
muster-out. 

Summary court findings, reductions, desertions, dishonorable 
discharges, and sickness for a period of less than five days, are 
not shown. 



Abbreviations — except those in 


. general 


use 




Acpt. Accept 


En. 




Enrolled 


Apt. Appoint 


Fur. 




Furlough 


Aptd. Appointed 


G. H. 




General Hospital 


Com. Commission 


Mus. 




Musician 


Comsy. Commissary 


Mus. 




Mustered 


Det. Detachment 


Pro. 




Provost 


Detd. Detached 


Qtrs. 




Quarters 


Detd. Detailed 


R. H. 




Regimental Hospital 


Dis. Discharge 


Spl. 




Special 


D. H. Division Hospital 


Ser. 




Service 


E. & M. Enrolled and Mustered 








— placed between dates indicates 


that the 


record includes the inter- 


vening period. 









RECORDS OF DETROIT LIGHT GUARD MEMBERS AS SHOWN 

ON THE MUSTER-OUT ROLLS OF THE 

THIRTY-FIRST M. V. I. 



(see explanation on opposite page.) 



CHARLES W. HARRAH.., 
Major Comndg. 2nd Bat. 



ANDREW P. BIDDLE, Maj. Surg. 



FREDERICK D. ABEL 
1st Lieut, and Adjt. 



WALTER G. ROGERS... 
1st Lieut, and R. Q. M. 



ALLAN D. McLBAN 

1st Lieut, and Asst. Surg. 



HENRY STANTON, Hosp. Steward. 



No sick record. 



No siclc record. 



No sick record. 



No sick record. 



No sick record. 



No sick record. 



Joined for duty and enrolled 
Apr. 26, '98. Mustered May 
11, '98. Assumed command 
of Ind. Bat. Apr. 2C, '98. 
Coni'd by the Gov. of Mich. 
May 5. '98. Aptd. Sum. Court. 
31st M. V. I. Aug. 18.; re- 
lieved Sept. 18. On leave July 
18-27, and Nov. 14-18, '98. 
Aptd. on Gen. Court Martial 
Cienf uegos, Cuba, Mar. 18, '99. 

Originally Capt. and Asst. 
Surg. 2nd Ind. Bat. M. N. 
G. Com'd Maj. Surg. Slst 
M. V. I. May 5. Detd. ser. 
.with Med. Dpt. 1st A.C. June 
7. Sick leave Aug. 15— Sept. 
15. Resig. acptd. and honora- 
bly dis. from U. S. ser. Sept. 
15, '98. 

Joined for duty and enrolled 
Apr. 28. Mustered May 11. 
Originally 1st. Lieut, and 
A.djt. 2nd Ind. Bat. M. N, Q. 
Com'd 1st Lieut, and Adjt, 
31st M. V. I May 8. Resig. 
acptd. and honorably dis. 
charged from U. S. service 
June 30, '98. 

Originally 1st Lieut. Co. I, 
nst M. V. I. Acting R. Q. 
M Julv 1-15. Aptd. R. Q. M. 
July 16. Com'd 1st Lieut, 
and R. Q. M. July 1; mus- 
tered as such Aug. 28 to date 
Aug. 1. On leave Aug. 8-14, 
38; extended 10 days. 

Originally Hosp. Stwd. Ind. 
Bat. M. N. G. Honorably 
dis. to acpt. com. Sept. 7. 
Com'd Capt. and Asst Surg. 
31st M. V. I. November 15. 
Mustered 1st Lieut, and 
.A.sst. Surg, with rank of 
Capt. Nov. 28, Knoxville; 
rank to date Nov. 22, '98. 

Enlisted at Detroit as Priv, 
Co. K, Slst M. V. I., June 
20. Aptd. Hosp. Stwjd. 
Nov. 16 to rank Nov. 1. 98. 
Detd. ser. Sagrua la Grande, 
Cuba as Hosp. Stwd. Mar. 
12— Apr. 12, '99. 



COMPANY I, THIKTY-FIRST M. V. I. 
(Co. A, D. L. G.) 



DUNCAN HENDERSON, Capt... 

WALTER G. ROGERS, 1st Lieut 
WM. A. CAMPBELL, 1st Lieut... 



VICTOR M. DUMAS, 2nd Lieut 

GEO. BARGER, Lst Sergt 

STEPHEN R. RENTON, Q.M. Sergt. 

LOUIS THAL, Sergt 

GEO. R. WOOLFENDEN, Sergt 

LOUIS McMULLEN, Sergt 

HERBERT F. DAVIS, Sergt 

EDWARD W. BRUCKNER, Corp 

ELIAS W. CROSS, Corp 

EDWARD DAVISON, Corp 

CHAS. L. DIBBLE, Corp 

JOHN D. FURNISS, Corp 

HARRY M. GILLETTE, Corp 



Qtrs. Sept. 23— Oct. 10, 
'98; Feb. 22-27, '99. 



Qtrs. Dec. 29, '98— Jan. 



Qtrs. Oct. 7-14, '£ 



R. H. Sept. 17— Oct. 1; 
qtrs. Oct. 2-15, '98. 



R. H. May 23; qtrs. 
May 25-26, '98, and Apr. 
22-27, '99. 



R. H. Sept. 16-22; qtrs. 
Sept. 23— Oct. 9, '98. 



R. H. Nor. 27-Dec. 3; 
Qtrs. Dec. 4— Dec. 20, 
'98. 



Qtrs. Nov. 8-15, '9 



On leave Nov. 24— Dec. 1, '98. 
Absent on detd. ser. at Cai- 
barian, Cuba, in command 
of station from Mar. 23— 
Apr. 12, '99.— Capt. in 42nd 
Inf., U. S. V. 

M. O. July 16, '98. Aptd. 1st 
Lieut, and R. Q. M. (See 
Field and Staff.) 

Mus. as 2nd Lieut. ; aptd. 1st 
Lieut. July 28. Absent spl. 
recruiting ser. at Detroit, 
Mich., June 13— July 1, '98. 
Absent on detd. ser. in com- 
mand of detachment at Cai- 
barien, Feb 13— Mar. 22, '99. 

Mus. as Sergt. Aptd. 2nd 
Lieut. July 28, and mus. Aug. 
1, '98. Absent on detd. ser. 
at Caibarien Mar. 23— Apr. 



Absent on spl. recruiting 
ser. at Detroit, Mich. June 
13— July 3, '98. With detach- 
ment at Caibarien. 



Qtrs. Dec. 
20, '99. 


15, '98-Jan. 


Mus. as Corp; apptd. Sergt. 
Nov. 16, '98. With det. at 
Caibarien. 


Qtrs. Dec. 
4, '99. 


29, '98-Jan. 


With det. at Caibarien. 


Qtrs. Oct. 


7-15, '98. 


Aptd. Corp. Aug. 5. Dis. 
Nov. 8, '98. 



Absent on detd. ser. at Cien- 
fuegos, Cuba, as clerk in 
com'sy depot Feb. 2— Apr. 
12, '99. 



En. May 
Feb. 1, '9£ 



Aptd. Corp. 



Aptd. Corp. Nov. 16, '£ 
det. at Caibarien. 



534 



CO. A, D. L. G.— (Coutinued.) 



RICHARD A. HOUGHTON, Corp.... 
WALTER S. KING, Corp 

CHARLES A. LEARNED, Corp 

ROY LOGAN, Corp 

WILLIAM L. LOVE, Corp 

JAMES W. McEWAN, Corp 

DANIEL J. MINIHAN, Corp 

JOSEPH D. ROURK, Corp 

THEODORE L. SMITH, Corp 

GEO. P. WELZ, Corp 

COLUMBUS L. WARD, Cook 

EARL J. HOWES, Mus 

WM. T. SMITH, Mus 

HERMAN HILDINGER, Artificer., 
FREDERICK G. SMITH, Wagoner 



ANDERSON, CHARLES Pri. 



Sick fur. Sept. 16— Oct. 
15; extended to Nov. 
14, '9S. 



R. H. Nov. 4— Dec. 4; 
qtrs. Dec. 5, '98— Jan. 
7; D. H. Jan. 8-12, '39. 
Dis. Jan. 12, '99, for 
disability. 



R. H. July 1, 



R. H. Oct. 1-19; D. H. 
and furloughed 30 days 
from there. Qtrs. Dec. 
26-30, '98; Jan. 1-S, '99. 

R. H. Oct. 5-22; qtrs. 
Oct. 23-30, '98. 



ANDREWS, GEO. W. Pri. 



Qtrs. Sept. 17-29; sick 
fur. Sept. 30— Nov. 8, 
'98. Qtrs. Jan. 25— Feb. 
3; Mar. 18-23, '99. 



D. H. Aug. 2-19; sick 
fur. Aug. 20— Sept. 18; 
extended to Oct. 18; to 
Nov. 7. Qtrs. Nov. 12, 
■9S— Jan. 25, '99; Apr. 
20-25; Apr. 30— May 3, 



R. H. Oct. 7-9; qtrs. 
Oct. 10-14; R. H. Oct. 
15, '98: qtrs. Feb. 27— 
Mar. 8, '99. 



Qtrs. Oct. 22-27, 



Aptd. Corp. Nov. 21, '98. Ab- 
sent on detd. ser. at Rodrlgo, 
Cuba, as tele, operator Feb. 
15— Apr. 12, '99. 

Spl. duty as clerk May 10-30 
in R. Adjt'.s office. Spl. duty 
as clerk at Brig. Hdqtrs 
May 31-Nov. 3, '98. 



Aptd. Corp. Nov. 16, '98. 

Aptd. Corp. Feb. 1, '99. 

Aptd. Corp. July 25, '98. 

E. & M. May 8. Aptd. Corp. 
July 25. Dis. Oct. 7, '98. 

Aptd. Corp. Dec. 27, '98. With 
det. at Caibarien. 

Aptd. Corp. July 25, '98. 



Aptd. Corp. July 25, '98. Dis. 
Jan. 24, '99. 

Aptd. Corp. July 25, '98. With 
det. at Caibarien. 

Mus. as Pri. Spl. duty as 
asst. Co. cook June 13— Sept. 
1. Spl. duty as cook at R. 
Hdqtrs. Sept. 6, '98— Feb. 12, 
'99. Aptd. Co. cook Feb. 13, 



Apld. Mus. May 



Aptd. Artificer Oct. 1, '98. 

En. June 24. Aptd. Wagoner 
July 2, '98. Re-enlisted in 
30th Inf. U. S. V. 



En. May 8. Spl. duty at Q. 
M. Depot as clerk May 21— 
June 8, '98. With det. at Cai- 
barien. 



58- 



CO. 

ANDREWS, HARRY E. Pri 

ASPINWALL, WILLIAM, Pri 

ATKINSON, CHAS. O. Pri 

BAILER, ALOTSIUS, Pri 

BAILEY, GEO. D. Pri 

BAKER, MARK H. Pri 

BELLINGER, FORD, Pri 

BENNETT, ROBERT, Pri 

BONHART, ARTHUR L. Pri 

BOURKE, WM. T. Pri 

BRYANS, JOS. H. Pri 

BURNS, WM. C. Pri 

BURTON, BURR, Pri 

CARSE, FREDERICK A. Pri 

CORBBTT, W"M. J. Pri 

CRAIGIE, HARRY W. Pri 

CUTTING, WM. R. Pri 

DANFORTH, ROBERT, Pri 

DERINDINGER, BERT, Pri 

DIBBLE, BVERETTB A. Pri 

DIEDRICH, PRANK S. Pri 



D. L. G.— CCostinued.) 



R. H. June 7-12, '98. 



Qtrs. Sept. 15-18; sick 
fur. Sept. 18— Oct. 30, 



Qtrs. Sept. 16; R. H. 
Sept. 17-24; qtrs. Sept. 
2L*-Oct. 3; sick fur. 
Oct. 4-22, ^98; qtrs. Feb. 
25— Mar. 7, '99. 



Qtrs. Mar. 22-28, '99. 

R. H. July 21; qtrs. 
July 27— Aug-. 2 and 
Aug-. 6-20, '98. 

R. H. May 17; qtrs. 
May 20-28; June 6— 
Sept. 4; sick fur. Sept. 
15— Nov. 7, '98. 



Sick fur. Sept. 8— Oct. 
7: extended to Nov. 6, 



Qtrs. Oct. 15— Nov. 3; 
Nov. 24, '98— Jan. 8; 
D. H. Jan. 8— Feb. 27, 
'99. Dis. for disability 



Qtrs. July 19— Aug. 16, 
■98. Dis. Aug. 16, '98, for 
disability. 

Qtrs. Sept. 25; R. H. 
Sept. 26— Oct. 8; qtrs. 
Oct. 9-17, '98. 



M. June 20. Dis. Oct. 



E. & M. Jan. 24, '9 



Dis. May 19, '98, to accept 
com. 



Spl. duty as hostler Mar. 
29, '99. 



En. May 8, 
Caibarien. 



With det. at 



E. & M. June 24, 



E. & M. Jan. 19, 
E. & M. Jan. 19, 



En. May 8. Aptd. Co. clerk 
May 20, '98. Discharged. 



En. May 8. Dis. Nov, 8, 



En. May 8, 



E. & M. as Mus. Retd. to 
ranks May 20, '98. 



En. Mav 8. Spl. duty as asst. 
cook May 18-30, '98. With det. 
at Caibarien. 

E. & M. Jan. 19, '99. 

E. & M. June 18, "98. 



& M. June 20, '98. 

Trans, to Co. A 



En. May 
June 17, 



Dis. Nov. 
En. May 



E. & M. June 18, 



536 



CO. A, D. L. G.-(Continued.) 



>OHANY, CHAS. E. Pri. 



DUNBAR, LOUIS L. Pri. 



]DDINGTON, GORDON, M. Pri. 



3GAN, WM. J. Pri 

:GE, AMBROSE, A. Pri. 



3LLIOTT, FRANK, Pri 

YIELDING, HARRY W. Pri. 



GAPSKI, MARTIN, Pri 



GRAY, EDWARD C. Pri. 



HAMILTON, ALBERT E. Pri. 



HARRIS, FREDERICK J. Pri.. 
HENDERSON, ALBERT B. Pri. 



HOULE, HENRY E. Pri... 
HOUSNER, WILLIS, Pri. 



HUNDREISER, REINHART, Pri. 
JONES, EDGAR E. Pri 



KANE, CLAUDE D. Pri. 

KAY, WM. M. Pri 

KERWIN, JOHN T. Pri 



KNOX, ARTHUR J. Pri 

LANGLEY, GRIFFITH W. Pri. 
LAWRENCE, GEO. K. Pri 



R. H. July 29-Aug. 3; 
qtrs. Aug. 4-7, Aug. 17- 
26 and Oct. 5-10, '98. 

Qtrs. Oct. 28— Nov. 4, 



R. H. Sept. 27-Oct. 4; 
2ncl D. H. Oct. 5— Nov. 
7; sick fur. Nov. 8— 
Dec. 7, '98. 

R. H. Oct. 9-15; D. H. 
Oct. 16— Nov. 3, '98. 

R. H. Aug. 27-Sept. 
14; sick fur. Sept. 15— 
Nov. 6, '98. 



Qtrs. Sept. 28— Oct. 



R. H. Sept. 4-8; qtrs. 
Sept. 9-30; sick fur. 
Oct. 2— Nov. 10, '98. 

R. H. May 8-9; July 12, 
and Sept. 20-23; D. H. 
Sept. 24— Oct. 5; sick 
fur. Oct. 6— Dec. 8, '98. 

D. H. Sept. 9— Oct. 8; 
sick fur. Oct. 9— Nov. 



R. H. Sept. 4-15; sick 
fur. Sept. 15— Oct. 13, 98 



Qtrs. Jan. 17-25, 



R. H. Sept. 10-14, '98. 

Qtrs. Aug. 3-19; sick 
fur. Aug. 20— Oct. 4, '98. 



En. Apr. 30. Dis. Nov. 7, '98. 



E. & M. June 20, '9 



Spl. duty a.sst. cook July 2. 
Aptd. chief cook Aug. 1, '98. 



& M. June 27. Dis. Nov. 



Trans, to 2nd Div. in Hosp. 
Camp June 23, '98. 



E. & M. June 20. Dis. Nov. 



E. & M. June 24, 



En. May 8, '98. Detd. ser. as 
clerk at Coms'y Depot at 
Cienfuegos Feb. 4. Apr. 
12, '99. Discharged. 



M. June 20. Dis. Nov. 



En. May 



Discharged. 



Trans, to 2nd Div. Amb. Co. 
June 13. Trans, back Nov. 4. 
Dis. Nov. 4, '98. 

E. & M. June 20, '98. 

En. May 8. '98. With det. 
at Caibarien. Re-enlisted 
Sergt. 42nd Inf. U. S. V. 



B. & M. Jan. 15, 
det. at Caibarien. 



Spl. duty as asst. cook May 
18-30, '98. With det. at Cai- 
barien. 

E. & M. June 24, '98. 

E. & M. June 24, '98. 

Dis. Oct. 5, '98. 



537 



CO. A, D. L. G.— (Continued.) 



LORIMER, WM. T. Pri 

McCLOY, JOHN, Pri 

McGINNBS, HENRY, Pri 

McKENNA, JOHN, Pri 

McLaren, JOHN W. Pri 

MARTIN, JOHN W. Pri 

MAY, RODERICK J. Pri 

MAY, WM. J. Pri 

MERO, GEO. P. Pri 

MERRILL, FRANK E. Pri 

MILLER, HUGH, Pri 

MONBARG, WILLIAM, Pri 

MUNGER, FREDERICK A. Pri 

O'DAY, GORDON, Pri 

PADDOCK, GEO. Pri 

PALMERLEE, GEO. H. JR. Pri 

PARKER, GEO. W. Pri..., 

PECK, HARRY R. Pri 

PESCHKE, RUDOLPH, Pri 



Qtrs. Sept. 26-30; sick 
fur. Oct. 1— Dec. 25, '98 



Qtrs. Sept. 21— Oct. 



Died May 24, '98; pneu- 
monia; R. H. Chicka- 
mauga, Ga. 

Qtrs. Oct. 24-26; R. H. 
Oct. 27; D. H. Oct. 28 
—Nov. 21; sick fur. 
Nov. 22— Dec. 20; qtrs. 
Dec. 21-27, '98; qtrs. 
Jan. 20-25. '99. 



R. H. Apr. 14-16; qtrs. 
Apr. 11 -/.i; R. H. Apr. 
22-23; qtrs. Apr. 24— 
May 2, '99. 



R. H. Oct. 23; D. H. 
Oct. 24— Nov. 21; sick 
fur. Nov. 24— Dec. 23, 
'98; extended to Jan. 
IS, '99. Qtrs. Feb. S-17. 
R. H. Mar. 7-14; qtrs. 
Mar. 15-23, '99. 

R. H. Aug-. 2-8; qtrs. 
Aug. 9-14, '98; Jan. 19 
—Feb. 2, and Mar. 10- 



R. H. Sept. 13-19; qtrs. 
Sept. 20— Oct. 5, and 
Nov. 3-9, '98. 



E. & M. June 29. Dis. Dec. 
26, '98. 

En. May 8. Aptd. cook Sept. 
1, -98— Feb. 12, '99. With det. 
at Caibarien. 



En. May 8, '98. Re-enlisted 
in 30th Inf. U. S. V. 



Trans, to 2nd Div. Amb. Co. 
June 13. Ordered back to Co. 
Aug. 23, '98. 



E. & M. Jan. 19, 



Spl. duty at Q. M. Depot as 
hostler Oct. 2, '98— Mar. 21, '99. 



Spl. duty as teamster Sept. 
1— Nov. 9. Spl. duty Atlanta, 
Ga., Nov. 11-19, '98. With det. 
at Caibarien. 

E. & M. June 18, '98. 



En. May 



E. & M. June 24. Aptd. wag- 
oner Aug. 2— Nov. 25, '98. 



E. & M. June 
Dis. Nov. 5, '9S 



En. May 8, 
Caibarien. 



Trans, to Reg 
19, '98. 



With det. at 



Band May 



En. May 8. Trans, to 2nd Div. 
Amb. Co. Aug. 6, '98. 



E. & M. June 24, '98. 
E. & M. June 20, '98. 



538 



CO. A 

PINNELL, CHAS. F. Pri 

PONTIUS, CHAS. F. Pri 

POTTER. FRANK Jr. Pri 

PRESTON, ELLERY D. Pri 

RANSFORD, MARSHALL, Pri 

ROBINSON, EDGAR, Pri 

ROGERS, JOHN H. Pri 

ROLISON, LOUIS B. Pri 

SAUNDERS, EARL G. Pri 

SHAUNESSY, GEO. H. Pri 

SINCLAIR, WM. S. Pri 

SLOAN, CHAS. L. Pri 

SNYDER, FREDERICK, Pri 

STANYER, CHAS. G Pri 

STEPHENS, WM. H. Pri 

ISTEVENS, CHAS. H. Pri 

THERRIEN, WILBROD, Pri 

VERMETTE, JOS. E. Pri 

WALKER, EDWARD H. Pri 

WALL, GEO. A. Pri 

WHITE, MICHAEL F. Pri 



D. L. G.-(Continuecl.) 



Qtrs. Dec. 20-25, 'S 
and Jan. 17-24, '99. 



Qtrs. Jan. 8-13, and 
Apr. 26— May 2, '99. 



R. H. Mar. 12-22, '99. 
Qtrs. Jan. 14-25, '09. 



R. H. Oct. 14-19; D. H. 
Oct. 20— Nov. 4; sick 
fur. Nov. 5 — Dec. 4; 
qtrs. Dec. 2, '98— Jan. 



R. H. Nov. 27— Dec. 9, 



R. H. Aug. 27— Sept. 
14; siclc fur. Sept. 15— 
Oct. 14; extended to 
Nov. 3, '98. 

Qtrs. Oct. 15, '98— Jan. 
8. '99; D. H. Jan. 9-18, 



Qtrs. Dec. 19-25, ' 
Apr. 20-25, and Apr. 
—May 3, '99. 



Qtrs. Feb. 25— Mar. 2; 
R. H. Mar. 3-11, '99. 



Trans, to 2nd Div. Amb. Co. 
Aug. 16, '98. 

En. May 8, '98. 

Aptd. cook May 18— July 2, 
'98. Spl. duty as cook R. 
Hdqtrs. 

Aptd. Corp. July 25. Retd. to 
ranks at own request Aug. 
5, '98. 

E. & M. June 20, '98. 

E. & M. June 21. '98. 

E. & M. Dec. 1, '98. With 
det. at Caibarien. 

En. May 8. Dls. Dec. 8, '98. 

E. & M. June 20. Dis. Aug. 



En. May 8. Dis. May 31, 
to accept com. 



E. & M. June 20, '98. 



En. May 8, '98. 



E. & M. June 20, '98. With 
det at Caibarien. 



En. May 8, '98. 



E. & M. June 20. Dis. Nov. 
7, 98. 



E. & M. May 8, '98. With 
det. at Caibarien. 



E. & M. June 20, "98. 



En. as Artificer. Dls. Oct. 

E. & M. Jan. 18. "99. With 
det. at Caibarien. 



E. & M. Jan. 20. 



CO, 
WHITNEY, EDWARD H. Pri 

WILLIAMS, ARTHUR, Pri 

WILLOWS, MAURICE, Pri , 

WILSON, JOS. W. P. Pri 

WOLEBEN, EDWARD P. Pri 

WOLF, WM. M. Pri 

TODER, COMMODORE V. Pri 

YOUNG, CHAS. F. Pri 

YOUNG, WM. L. Pri 



D. L. G.- (Continued.) 



R. H. May 30— June 3. 
R. H. Oct. 14; D. H. 
Oct. 15-30; sick fur. 
Nov. 1-30; extended to 
Dec. 30, '98. Qtrs. Mar. 
2&— Apr. 2, '99. 



Qtrs. Jan. 1-8, 



R. H. July 17-26; qtrs. 
July 27— Augr. 5. D. H. 
Nov. 22, '98-Peb. 25, 



R. H. June 7-19; qtrs. 
June 20— Aug. 29, '98. 
Dis. Aug. 29, '98 for 
disability. 



Qtrs. Apr. 14- 



R. H. Oct. 1- 



En. May 8, 



E. & M. June 24, 



Trans, from Co. M June 1, 
'98. Spl. duty Mar. 23— Apr. 
12, '99. 



En. May 8, 



Dis. Feb. 25 



En. May 8, '98. Re-enlisted 
in 30th Inf. U. S. V. 



En. May 8, '98. 

E. & M. Dec. 4, '98. 

En. May 8. Trans, to 2nd 
Div. Amb. Co. Aug. 16, '98. 
Re-enlisted in Hosp. Ser. U. 
S. A. 



COMPANY K, THIKTY-FIEST M. V. I. 
(Co. B, D. L. G.) 



WM. H. SINK, Capt Qtrs. Feb. 11- 



CASSIUS C. FISK, 1st Lieut. 



ADDIS G. DOYLE, 2nd Lieut. 
JOHN G. MILLER, 2nd Lieut. 



HENRY W. BUSCH, 1st Sergt. 



EDWARD T. CLARK, 1st Sergt. 



Qtrs. Feb. 24— Mar. 19; 
Mar. 29— Apr. 2, '99. 



R. H. Aug. 9-14; qtrs. 
Aug. 15-18, '98; qtrs. 
Jan. 2; R. H. Jan. 3-7; 
qtrs. Jan. 8 and Feb. 
28— Mar. 10, '99. 



Detd. as bat. adjt. May 22, 
'98. Detd. ser. Cienfuegos as 
officer of guard over prison- 
ers Mar. 24-27, '99. 

Resig. acptd. July 13, to date 
July 12, '98. 

Must, as 1st Sergt. Dis. Aug. 
27 to acpt. com. Mus. as 2nd 
Lieut. Aug. 28, '98. 



Mus. as Sergt. Aptd. 1st 
Sergt. Sept. 28 to rank from 
Sept. 1. On leave Oct. 27— 
Nov. 5. Dis. Nov. 2, '98. 

E. and M. as pri. Spl. Duty 
in charge of wagons July 11 
—Nov. 11, '98. Aptd. Sergt. 
May 23. Aptd. 1st Sergt. 
Nov. 20. 



540 



CO. B, D. L. G.— (Continued.) 



LOUIS P. MUFFAT, Q. M. Sergt. 



GEO. W. MOORE, Sergt 

ANDREW J. M ALLOY, Sergt. 



FRANK GLEESON, Sergt. 
PAUL A. KRAFT, Sergt., 



WM. M. WATSON, Sergt... 
HARRY H. CASTLE, Corp. 

GEORGE W. CLARK, Corp. 



CHAS. M. DUGGAN, Corp. 
WM. H. FORSTER, Corp.. 



WM. J. JONES, Corp. 



WM. P. KINNEY, Corp. 



BERT L. KRESS, Corp. 



ERNEST A. McLEAN, Corp. 



ARTHUR J. MILLS, Corp 

OWEN MULLIGAN, Corp 



CHARLES O'LEARY, Corp 

ARTHUR G. RATHBONE, Corp. 



Sick in qtrs. and hosp. 
most of the time after 
Sept. 1, '98, in line of 
duty. D. H. Jan. 8—12, 
'99, and dis. for dis- 
ability. 



Qtrs. Jan. 14-16; R. H. 
Jan. 17-22; qtrs. Jan. 23- 
29, Feb. 16-28, and May 
10, '99. 



Sick fur. Sept. 14— Oct. 
13. Retd. Dec. 25, "98. 
D. H. Jan. 7, '99. Dis. 
from hosp. for disabil- 
ity. 



Qtrs. from Dec. 
Jan. 2, '99. 



Qtrs. Apr. 1-2; R. H. 
Apr. 3-8; qtrs. Apr. 9- 
20, '99. 

Qtrs. Dec. 4-10, '98. 



Detd. ser. asst. to recruiting 
officer June 9, '98. 



Trans, from Co. B, 31st M. V. 
I. June 3. Aptd. Sergt. Sept. 



Mus. as Corp.; Aptd. Sergt. 
Nov. 21, '9S. Re-enlisted In 
30th Inf. U. S. V. 

En. May 9. Aptd. Corp. July 
20. Aptd. Sergt. Nov. 21, '98. 
Detd. ser. as guard over 
prisoners. 



Dis Oct. 14, 'S 



Aptd. Corp. 
Sept. 12, '98. 



May 23. Dis. 



Aptd. Corp. 



En. Apr. 

July 20. On leave Oct. 15^ 

Nov. 4, '9: 



Dis. Oct. 23, '98. 

En. May 9. Aptd. Corp. Sept 



En. as Corp.; mus. as Sergt. 
Reduced from Sergt. to Corp. 
at own request May 23, '98. 

Reduced from Corp. to pri. 
at own request May 23. Aptd. 
Corp. July 20, '98. 



Spl. duty as Co. Clerk May 
18. Aptd. Corp. Nov. 21, '98. 



Aptd. Corp. July 20, 



En. May 9. Aptd. Corp. July 
20. Spl. duty In charge of R. 
H. nurses from Sept. 5. '98— 
Jan. 23, '99. Re-enlisted in 
31st Inf. U. S. V. 

Aptd. Corp. Nov. 21, '98. 



En. May 4. Aptd. Corp. Nov. 
21. '98. 



541 



CO. 



D. L. G.— (Continued.) 



JOHN R. SCARLETT, Corp 

NICHOLAS WALSH, Corp 

EDWARD BRAAMSE, Mus 

PRANK B. BRODERICK, Mus... 

DAVID COHEN, Mus 

JOHN H. DUELO, Mus 

JOS. MATHIEW, Artificer 

EUGENE VAN SICKLE, Artificer 

EDWIN J. WUEST, Wagoner 

JOHN RADCLIFFE, Cook 

ANDRICH, LOUIS A. Pri 

AXT, FRED E. Pri 

BANFILL, FRANK, Pri 

BEDDOW, CHAS. E. Pri 

BELL, WILLIAM. Pri 

BENCE. D. LeROY, Pri 

BENCE, FREDERICK P. Pri 

BOUCHER, HENRY, Pri 

BREITENBACH, RICHARD, Pri.. 



R. H. Jan. 18-23; qtrs. 
Jan. 24— Feb. 1, '99. 

R. H. Sept. 7-19; qtrs. 
Sept. 20-27; R. H. Sept. 
28— Oct. 27; D. H. Oct. 
28. Trans, to U. S. G. 
H., Ft. Meyer. 



Aptd. Corp. July 20, '98. Detd. 
ser. at pro. lidqtrs. Savannah 
Jan. 13-27, '99. 

Aptd. Corp. Nov. 21, '98. 



B. and M. June 27, 
Jan. 11, '99. 



R. H. July 25— Aug-. 30; 
qtrs. Aug. 31— Sept. 14; 
sick fur. Sept. 14— Oct. 
13; extended 30 days, 
'98. Qtrs. Apr. 5-8; R. 
H. Apr. 9-11; qtrs. Apr. 
12-25, '99. 

Qtrs. Feb. 28— Mar. 4; 
R. H. Mar. 5-11; qtrs. 
Mar. 12-14; R. H. Mar. 
15— Apr. 4; qtrs. Apr. 5- 
12; R. H. Apr. 13-20; 
qtrs. Apr. 21-25; R. H. 
Apr. 26— May 9, '99. 

Qtrs. Mar. 8-13, Apr. 6- 
10, and Apr. 21-26, '99. 



R. H. Jan. 20-24; qtrs. 
Jan. 25-29, '99. 

R. H. Oct. 8-14; 2d D. 
H. Oct. 15-24; qtrs. 
Oct. 25— Nov. 2, '98. 



Absent sick at 3rd Ga. 
Hosp. from Jan. 26— 
Apr. 27, '99. 



En. May 
Mar. 1, '9£ 



Aptd. Mus. 



Qtrs. Dec. 
Apr. 11-16, • 



Trans, to Co. M, 31st M. V. 
I. June 1, '98. 



Trans, to Go. M, 31st M. V. 
I. June 1, '98. 



B. & M. June 24. Aptd. Arti- 
ficer Sept. 20, '98. 



En. May 



En. May 4. Aptd. cook to 
rank from Dec. 1, '98. 



Trans, from Co. M, 31st M. 
V. I., June 1, '98. 

En. and M. June 20, '98. 

En. May 9, '98. 

E. & M. June 24, '98. 



En. May 
En. May 



En. May 9, 



Dis. Jan. 24, '99. 
'98. 



E. & M. at Knoxville Jan. 1, 
'99. Spl. duty regtl. baker 
Jan. 15 to Apr. 24, '99. 



542 



CO. 



D. L. Ct. — (Continued.) 



BROOKS, GEO. W. Pri 

CAMPAU, EDWARD J. Pri 

CLARK, CHAS. B. Pri 

CLARK, JAMES H. Pri 

CODY, EDWARD J. Pri 

COLE, ROBERT L. Pri 

COUTTS, ROBERT L Pri 

DEANE, CLAYTON, Pri 

DEE. WM. A.Pri 

DITTMER, ADOLF, Pri 

DUNN, JOHN, Pri 

PREDE, FREDERICK W. Pri 
FREER, NELSON E. Pri 

FOX, RAYMOND C. Pri 

GAULT, WM. J. Pri 

GILL, GEO. Pri 

GILLESPIE, CHAS. H. Pri 

GILLESPIE, WM. C. Pri 

GRABOWSKY, JOSEPH, Pri... 



R. H. Sept. 26— Oct. 6; 
qtrs. Oct. 7-12; Dec. 20- 
25, '98. U. S. G. H., Ft. 
McPherson Jan. 26— 
Feb. 8, '99. 



Qtrs. Mar. 26— Apr. 20, 



Qtrs. Jan. 14-20, 



R. H. Aug. 7-lS; qtrs. 
Aug. 19— Sept. 14; sick 
fur. Sept. 14— Oct. 13; 
extended 30 days. 

Qtrs. Dec. 30, '98— Jan. 
3, '99; Mar. 13-30. 



Dis. on surgeon's cer- 
tificate Aug. IS, '98. 

U. S. G. H., Ft. Mc- 
pherson Jan. 26, '99. 
Dis. from U. S. G. H. 
Feb. 26 for disability. 



Died Sept. 5, 



Qtrs. Feb. 26— Mar. 2, 



Qtrs. Apr. 10-20, '99. 

Qtrs. Sept. 10-27-30. and 
Oct. 17— Nov. 1; 2nd D. 
H. Nov. 2-18; sick fur. 
Nov. 18— Dec. 17, '98; 
extended 30 days. 



En. May 9. Spl. duty as cook 
June 1— Aug. 23. Dis. Nov. 

En. May 4, '98. Dis. Feb. 15, 



Mus. as Corp.; reduced to 
pri. at own request May 23. 
Dis. Nov. 4, '98. 



En. Apr. 9, 



Re-enlisted in U. S. A. 

E. & M. Jan. 12, '99 Savan- 
nah. Trans, from Co. H 31st 
M. V. I. Joined for duty at 
Amaro, Cuba, Feb. 28, '99. 

En. May 9. Trans, from Co. 
M 31st M. V. I. June 1. 

E. & M. June 20. Dis. Jan. 
11, '99. Re-enllsted in 30th 
Inf. U. S. V. 

Detd. ser. as guard over 
prisoners Mar. 1, '99. Re-en- 
listed in 30th Inf. U. S. V. 



En. May 



E. & M. June 24, '98. 

E. & M. June 20, '98. 
Trans, to Co. July 10, '9 



En. May 9, 



Spl. dutv Regtl. canteen July 
15— Sept." 18. On leave Oct. 26 
—Nov. 24, '98. Dis. on fur. 



E. & M. June 24, 



543 



CO. B, D. L. G.— (Continued.) 



GRAY, CHAS. B. Pri 

HAMMOND, ALFRED, Pri. 



HITCHCOCK, CHAS. B. Pri. 
HOLMES, BYRON, Pri 



HOOPER, JOHN T. Pri. 



HOSTER, EARL, Pri 

HOUGH, HARRY P. Pri. 



HURD, CLINTON P. Pri. 



HUTCHINSON, ADELBERT, Pri. 



JABUSCH, MAX H. Pri. 



KOLB, AUGUST, Pri. 



KOSACK, ALEX. A. Pri. 
KUHN, EMIL, Pri 



LARKINS, LEONARD B. Pri. 
LIVINGSTONE, JAMES, Pri.. 



LONGWORTH, WM. L. Pri. 



MACK, JOHN J. Pri 

McBETH, THOMAS W. Pri. 

McDOUGAL, JAMES L. Pri. 



McBVOY, FRANK, Pri. 



McKELLAR, WM. H. Pri. 



Qtrs. from Apr. 8- 



R. H. Nov. 23-Dec. 3, 



Qtrs. Nov. 15-21; R. H. 
Nov. 22— Dec. 9; qtrs. 
Dec. 10-26; R. H., Dec. 
27, '9S— Jan. 7, '99; 2nd. 
D. H. Jan. 8-18; qtrs. 
Jan. 19— Feb. 1, '99. 



Qtrs. Feb. 22— Mar. 3; 
Mar. 11-16, '99. 

D. H. Jan. 7, '99. Dis. 
from hosp. for disabil- 
ity. 

R. H. Nov. 10-16; D. H. 
Nov. 17-23; sick fur. 
Nov. 23— Dec. 22, '98; 
extended to Jan. 21, '99. 



Qtrs. Feb. 27— Mar. 12, 



Qtrs. Feb. 28— Mar. 24, 



Died Apr. 17, 



Trans, to band May 19, '98. 

B. & M. June 20, '98. Spl. duty 
as Regtl. balier Jan. 14 — Apr. 



E. & M. June 22. Trans, from 
32nd M. V. I. Nov. 8, '98. Re- 
enlisted in U. S. A. 



En. May 



En. May 9 
in U. S. V. 



E. & M. June 24. Trans, to 
band July 10. Retd. to Co. 
Oct. 14, '98. 



B. & M. June 20. Spl. duty 
in Q. M. Depot Aug. 21— Nov. 
16, '98. 

En. May 9, '98. Re-enlisted 
in 30th Inf. U. S. V. 



M. June 24, '98. Dis. Jan. 



En. May 9, '98. 

Re-enlisted in 30th Inf. U. 
S. V. 



Dis. Nov. 22, 



E. & M. June 20, '98. Re-en-.! 
listed in U. S. A. 



En. May 9, '98. | 

Spl. duty in Q. M. Depot! 
July 30— Nov. 10, '98. J 

Spl. duty at Regtl. canteen' 
May 20— July 15. Spl. duty at 
officers' canteen July 21— 
Sept. 5, '98. 

En. May 4. Spl. duty as 
nurse at R. H. Sept. 9. Dis. 
Nov. 4, '98. 

En. May 9, '98. Dis. Jan. 14, '99. 



544 



CO 

Mcmullen, edwin p. ph 

MEIERS, CHAS. Pri 

MIELKE, LEO L. Pri 

MILLER, STANLEY O. Pri 

MONAHAN, HENRY, Pri 

MOUAT, ROBERT, Pri 

MULDARY, THOMAS, J. Pri 

PENNEFATHER, ANGUS E. Pri... 

PERRY, MILLARD A. Pri 

PETERS, JOHN E. Pri 

PHELPS, ARTHUR S. Pri 

PRICE, CLIVE, Pri 

REMEY, ALVA E. Pri 

ROBERTS, ALEX. M. Pri 

ROBINSON, ED. J. Pri 

ROSIN, JOHN H. Pri 

ROSS, GEO. Pri 

RUSSELL, JESS W. Pri 

SCARLETT, CHAS. W. Pri 

SCHAFER, JOHN W. Pri 



. D. L. Q.— (Continued.) 



R. H. Dec. 1-7; qtrs. 
Dec. 8-28, '98. D. H. 
Jan. 7. Dis. from D. H. 
Feb. 6, '99, for disabil- 
ity. 

D. H. Jan. 8, "99. Dis. 
from hosp. for disabil- 
ity. 

Qtrs. Jan. 14-19, '99. 



Sick fur. Sept. 14— Oct. 
13; extended to Nov. 
12; re-extended to Dec. 
12; rejoined for duty 
Dec. 8, '98. 



D. H. Jan. 7, dis. from 
hosp. for disability. 



Qtrs. Dec. 28. '98— Jan. 
7, '99; Jan. 12-20, '99. 



Qtrs. Dec. 5-7. R. H. 
Dec. 8-9; qtrs. Dec. 10- 
11, '98. 

R. H. Sept. 28— Oct. 9; 
qtrs. Oct. 10-19, '98. 



Qtrs. Oct. 26— Nov. 4, 



Qtrs. Jan. 17-19; R. H. 
Jan. 20-24; qtrs. Jan. 25- 
29: Feb. 20-22; R. H. 
Feb. 2S— Mar. 10; qtrs. 
Mar. 11-21, '99. 



E. & M. June 24, 



E. & M. June 

as nurse at D. H. Sept 



Spl. duty 
. 12. '98. 



En. May 9, '98. Spl. duty as 
guard at Rodrigro, Cuba, Mar. 
31— Apr. 11, '99. 

Trans, from 32nd M. V. I. 
Nov. 8, '98. 

E. & M. June 20, '98. 



Trans, to Co. B 31st 
June 1, '98. 



E. & M. June 20. Dis. Nov. 
22, '98. 



En. May 9, '98. Dis. Apr. 



En. Apr. 30. On leave Sept. 
9— Oct. 8, '98; extended 30 days. 



En. Apr. 30. '£ 
E. & M. June 



En. May 9. Dis. Sept. 12, '98. 
E. & M. June 20, '98. 



Spl. duty in Comsy. Depot. 
June 2, 98. Dis. Feb. 3, "99. 
Cienfuegos. 

E. & M. June 20, '98. 



Dis. Sept. 1, '9J 

E. & M. Dec. 
ville. 



En. May 9. On leave Sept. 
27— Oct. 16; extended to Nov. 
15. '98. Spl. duty in R. H. 
Jan. 7— Mar. 10, '99. 



545 



CO. B, D. L. G.— (Continued.) 



SCHLITZ, EDWARD, Pri 

SHANLEY, WII.LIAM, Pri 

SHEEHT, EDWARD, Pri 

SHRIVER, TODD C. Pri 

STANTON, HENRY, Pri 

SULLIVAN, JOS L. Pri 

TEWS, EMIL C. Pri 

TOMES, HENRY J. Pri 

VAN SICKLE, ISAAC. Pri 

VETH, WILLIAM. Pri 

WALES, JOHN C. Pri 

WHAN, CHAS. H. Pri 

WICKHAM, FREDERICK R. Pri 

WYNKOOP, DAVID H. Pri 

ZERBE, ARTHUR H. Pri 



R. H. Mar. 7-17; qtrs. 
Mar. 18-24, '99. 



Qtrs. Dec. 9-11; D. H. 
Dec. 12, '98— Jan. 9, '99. 



Qtrs. Sept. 3-14; sick 
fur. Sept. 14— Oct. 13; 
extended to Nov. 12— 
Dec. 12, '98. 

Qtrs. Mar. 15— Apr. 6, 
R. H. Oct. 2-28, '98. 



Qtrs. Sept. 17; R. H. 
Sept. 19-24; qtrs. Sept. 
25— Oct. 3; sick fur. 
Oct. 4-23, '98. 



Qtrs. Feb. 22— Mar. 9: 
R. H. Mar. 10-14; qtrs. 
Mar. 15-21; R. H. Mar. 
22-29; qtrs. Mar. 30— 
Apr. 10, '99. 



E. & M. June 20. Aptd. cook 
to rank from Sept. 1— Dec. 
1, '98. 

S*pl. duty with band July 28, 



En. May 4, 



En. May 9. Spl. duty as cook 
at hosp. Nov. 15, '98— Jan. 23, 



E. & M. June 20. Trans, to 
regtl. non-com. staff Nov. 16 
to rank from Nov. 1, '98. Re- 
enlisted in 30th Inf. U. S. V. 

En. as pri. ; mus. as corp. Re- 
duced to pri. at own request, 
May 23, '98. 



Spl. duty in Q. M. Depot July 
15-25, '98.— Re-enlisted in 22nd 
Inf. U. S. A. 

E. & M. June 24, '98. 



Spl. duty as orderly to comdg. 
officer Apr. 29, '99. 

E. & M. June 24. Spl. duty 
as clerk regtl. hdqtrs. Sept. 
12— Dec. 31, '98. Detd. ser. 
clerk at hdqtrs. U. S. forces 
Savannah. Jan. 12-27, '99. 

Spl. duty in Q. M. Depot July 
3-19. Dis. Nov. 4, '98. 

En. May 9, '98.— Re-enlisted 
in U. S. A. 



E. & M. June 20 
in R. H. Aug. 20, 



Spl. duty 



546 



COMPANY L, THIRTY-FIRST M. V. I. 
(Co. F, D. L. G.) 



IHARLES S. BAXTER. Capt. 
OHN S. BERSEY, 1st Lieut. 



VALENTINE R. EVANS, 1st Lieut. 
SMIL A. LAURENCE, 2ncl Lieut 



RBDERICK J. PBRREN, 1st Sergt 

rOHN A. FALVET, Sergt 

A.LMA LAKE, Sergt 

lOHN C. EVANS, Sergt 

HARRY C. MOWER, Sergt 

FREDERICK M. SLATER, Sergt... 

WILLIAM H. THOMPSON, Sergt.... 
WILLIAM T. BENNER, Corp 

HUGH BRADY, Corp 

WM. B. CHESTER, Corp 

WM. R. DOWNEY, Corp 



Qtrs. Nov. 27, '98. 



Sick fur. Sept. 15-24; 
extended to Oct. 24; eg- 
tended to Nov. 13, '98. 



R. H. Sept. 28-Oct. 3, 



Qtrs. Aug. 28— Sept. 
R. H. Sept. 4-14, '9! 



Qtrs. Mar. 11-16, 



Qtrs. Mar. 5-11, '99. 



R. H. July 30-Aug. 7; 
qtrs. Aug. 8-20; sick 
fur. Aug. 19— Sept. 18; 
extended to Oct. 18, '98. 

Qtrs. Sept. 4-14; sick 
fur. Sept. 14— Oct. 14; 
extended to Nov. 13, 



Spl. duty as Regtl. exchange 
officer. 

Resigned May 17, '98. Re- 
mustered July 26, '98. Spl. 
duty at Pro. hdqtrs. Sa- 
vannah, Ga. Spl. duty as 
asst. to Depot Q. M. Cien- 
fuegos. Aptd. on Gen. Court 
Martial Cienfuegos, Cuba. 
Mar. 18, '99. 

En. as 2nd Lieut. Promoted 
1st Lieut. June 26. Resigned 
July IS, '98. 

E. & M. as 1st. Sergt. Dls. 
to accept Com. as 2nd Lieut, 
vice Evans. 

E. & M. as Sergt. Aptd. l3t 
Sergt. June 27, '98. 



Spl. duty at Pro. hdqtrs. Sa- 
vannah, Ga. Detd. ser. at 
Atlanta, Ga. 

Detd. ser. taking prisoners 
to Sagua la Grande. 

E. & M. as Pri. Detd. ser. 
taking prisoners to Ft. Sher- 
idan, 111. Aptd. Sergt. July 

18, '95. 

E. & M. as Pri. Aptd. Corp. 
July 18. Aptd. Sergt. Nov. 
21, '98. 

Dis. Oct. 18, '98. 

Aptd. Corp. Nov. 21. Dis. 
Dec. 24, '98. 



E. & M. as Pri. Detd. ser. 
recruiting June 13-30. Aptd. 
Corp. July 18. Dis. Nov. 2, 



En. as Pri. Spl. duty as Co. 
clerk. Aptd. Corp. Nov. 21, 



En. as Pri. Spl. duty clerk 
Adjt. office. Spl. duty clerk 
Judge Adv. Aptd. Corp Apr. 
1, '90. Re-enlisted in 30th 
Inf. U. S. V. as Sergt. Maj.; 
promoted 2nd Lieut. 



5i7 



CO. L, D. L. G.— (Continued.) 



SHIRLEY N. FISK, Corp 

KENNETH I. GUEST, Corp. 
JOS. M. HUGHES, Corp 



RICHARD S. JOHNSON, Corp. 



FRANK M. LANGDON, Corp. 
JAMES E. LEE. Corp 



JAMES H. LINDSAY, Corp. 



FREDERICK H. LYND, Corp. 

WALTER MURRAY, Corp 

CONRAD ORTH, Corp 

JACOB SHIRES, Corp 

STARR A. VOGHT, Corp 



WM. B. WILBUR, Corp... 
HANS R. HANSEINr, Cook. 



ULRIC J. LONGPREY, Cook. 



HENRY D. SAUNDERS. Cook. 



JOS. E. CHASTAINE, Mus. 



SAMUEL J. DAVIS, Mus. 

CARL Mcmullen, mus. 



WEBSTER, CLYDE M. Mus. 



Qtrs. Sept. 9-13, 
Mar. 16-23, '99. 



Qtrs. Jan 2-16; R. H. 
Jan. 17-23, '99. 



D. H. Jan. 8-16; qtrs. 
Mar. 2-12, '99. 



R. H. July 18-22. Died 
at Camp Thomas, 
Chickamauga Park, 
July 22, '98. 



R. H. Dec. 26, '98— Jan. 
6, '99; D. H. Jan. 7 till 
furloughed Feb. 14, '99. 



Dis. Nov. 5, '9 



En. as Pri. Spl. duty as 
clerk. Aptd. Corp. Nov. 21, 



En. May 10, '98, as Pri. Spl. 
duty charge regtl. stock. 
Spl. duty Q. M. Depot. Aptd. 
Corp. July 18, '98. Re-enlisted 
in 30th Inf. U. S. V. 

Aptd. Corp. July 18, '98. 



Aptd. Corp. July 18, '98. 
Detd. ser. escort to paymas- 
ter. 

En. as Pri. Spl. duty as Co. 
clerk. Aptd. Corp. Nov. 
21, '98. 

Aptd. Corp. July 18, '98. 

Aptd. Corp. Nov. 21, '98. 

Dis. Aug. 4, '98. 



Dis. Sept. 24, 



Trans, from Co. 
V. I. 



En. May 8, '98. Spl. duty Co. 
cook. Dis. Apr. 12, '99. 



E. & M. Dec. 14, '98. Aptd. 

Mus. Jan. 7, '99. Served in 

Co. C. 1st. Ga. V. I. May 2— 
Sept. 11, '98. 



to Co. H, 31st, June 



Trans. 
16, '98. 

E. & M. June 20. Aptd. Mus. 
July 30, '98. Dis. May 2, '99 
to date from Mar. 29, '99. 

Spl. duty in charge field 
musicians, N. C. S. Dis. Nov. 
24, '98. 



548 



CO. L, D. L. G.— (Continued.) 



WM. A. YEARTY, Mus. 



ALANSON P. BRUSH, Artificer.. 
JOHN G. LORANGBR, Artificer. 
ROBERT J. WIDRIG, Wagoner. . 



BABCOCK, BRUCE M. Pri. 
BARNES, ROBERT J. Pri.. 



BAUMGART, GUSTAV A. Pri. 



BERRY, CHARLES. Pri. 
BIRD, WM. H. Pri 



R. H. June 3- 
June 9-19, '98. 



Qtrs. Aug. 



BLANKENSHIP, CLIFFORD, D. Pri. 



BOHN, STEPHEN, Pri. 
BONHAM, WM. B. Pri.. 



BRADLEY, WM. H. Pri... 
BRAMBLE, HARRY J. Pri. 



BROWN, CHAS. P. Pri. 



BUTZELL, MAURICE M. Pri. 
CARSON, ARTHUR W. Pri.... 
CASE, JOSIAH M. Pri 



CLARK, HENRY, Pri 

COLLIAN, HARRY J. Pri. 



G. H. May 6. 



D. H. July 17-22: qtrs. 
July 23-28. R. H. Oct. 
19-25, '98. R. H. Feb. 
24— Mar. 15; qtrs. Mar. 
16-19, '99. 



E. & M. Jan. 24, '99. Served 
in Co. B, 1st Ga. V. I., May 
9— Nov. 18, '9S. Aptd. Mus. 
May 2, '99. 

E. & M. June 20, '98. Aptd. 
Artificer Nov. 21, '98. 

Trans, to U. S. Si& Corps. 
Nov. 19, '98. 

Spl. duty as teamster. Aptd 
wagoner July 30, '98. 

En. May 5, '98. 

E. & M. Jan. 17, "99. Served 
in Co. C 1st Ga, V. I. May 
6— Nov. IS, '98. Dis. Apr. 



E. & M. June 24. Dis. Nov. 
10, '98. 



E. & M. June 20. Dis. Nov. 
S, •98. 

E. & M. Jan. 25, '99. Spl. 
duty Q. M. D. Mar. 23, '99. 
Served in Co. B 1st Ga. V. I. 
May 9— Nov. 18, "98. 

E. & M. June 29, '98. 

E. & M. Jan. 25, '99. Spl. 
duty as clerk Q.M.D. Served 
in Co. B 1st Ga. V. I. May 
9— Nov. 18, '98. 

En. May 8. Dis. Nov. 29, '98. 

E. & M. as wagoner. Re- 
duced July 23, '98 to perform 
spl. duty as teamster. Re- 
enlisted in 42nd Inf. U. S. V.; 
promoted 1st Sergt. 

E. & M. June 25, '98. 



Qtrs. Dec. 



Dis. Oct. 10, 



En. May S. Trans, to 2nd. 
Div. H. Corps June 25, '98. 

En. May 5. Aptd. Co. cook 
July 25, "98. 

Spl. duty as clerk Brig. 
Subs. Dept. Dis. Nov. 24, '98. 



549 



CO. L, D. L. G.— (.Continued.) 



CROSS, ARTHUR J. Pri. 



CROW, FREDERICK W. Pri. 
DAGG, PERCY P. Pri 



DEAN, JOHN W. Pri. 



DUCLO, WALTER D. Pri. 
DWORINEK, JOHN, Pri... 
FAILING, WM. W. Pri 



FALL, PRANK A. Pri. 
FALVET, CHAS. P. Pri.. 



FIELD, LEGRAND V. Pri. 



FLOYD, FRANK E. Pri 

FOLLIARD, THOMAS P. Pri. 



FRECK, JOHN H. "ri 

FREEMAN, JAMES, Pri. 



GEHRKE, PETER, Pri.. 
GKRBERT, CHAS. J. Fr 
GOULD, HARRY B. Pri. 



GRACE, JAMES, Pri 

GULLIFER, THOMAS A. Pri 



GUTCHESS, HARRY L. Pri. 



Qtrs. Sept. 12-15; R. H. 
Sept. 16-20; qtrs. Sept. 
21-Oct. 1, 98. 



Qtrs. Sept. 4-23, '98. 

Qtrs. Sept. 8— Oct. 1,'98 

R. H. July 12-19; qtrs. 
July 20-23. R. H. Sept. 
30-Oct. 13; D. H. Oct. 
14; sick fur. Oct. 24— 
Nov. 23; extended to 
Dec. 23. '98. 



Qtrs. Oct. 11-16, '98: 
qtrs. Jan. 14-20, '99. 

R. H. Aug. 5-19; qtrs. 
Aug. 21— Sept. 5, '98; 
Feb. 22-27; Mar. 22-26, 



R. H. Mar. 1— Apr. 25: 
G. H. Apr. 26, '99. 



Qtrs. Feb. 28— Mar. 6; 
Mar. 10-14; Mar. 26-29; 
R. H. Mar. 30— Apr. 11; 
qtrs. Apr. 12— May 1; 
G. H. May 2- '99. 



Qtrs. Aug 25— Sept. 1, 



Trans, to Co. M June 1, '£ 

Trans, to U. S. V. Sig. CoriK 
Nov. 14, '98. 

E. & M. June 24, '98. Spl. 
duty as blacksmith Q. M. De- 
pot. Killed in Philippines 
while an employe of Q. M. 
D., U. S. A. 



Spl. duty Regtl. Bakery. 
Dis. Nov. 29, '98. 



En. May 8. Dis. Sept. 8, '98. 



Died 
ward 
Tenn. 



en route home- 
at Harriman, 
Sept. 2, '98. 



G. H. May 3- 



Qtrs. Oct. 27-30, 



. 98. 6th 
Ohio Hosp. Cienfuegos 
Feb. 4-22, '99. 



E. & M. June 24, 



E. & M. Dec. 24, '98. Served 

in Co. L 1st Ga. V. I. May 
2— Nov. 18, '98. 

E. & M. Jan. 19, '99. Served 

in Co. M 2nd Ga. V. L 



E. & M. June 20, 
Dis. Nov. 2, '98. 



E. & M. June 29, '98. 

B. & M. June 20. Dis. Aug. 

29, -98. 



Spl. duty as clerk in Adjt's 
ofBce. 

E. & M. June 20, '98. 



550 



CO. L, D. L. Cx.— (Continued.) 



HAGGERTY, MAURICE T. Pn 








E. & M. June 24. Dis. Oct. 
]0, '98. 


HALLENBECK, BYRON E. Pri 








Trans, to 2nd D. H. Aug. 

7, '98. 


HARRINGTON, HAWSE T J. Pri 








Dis. Sept. 28, '98. 


HERDMAN, JOHN H. Pri 








E. & M. June 20, '98. Detd. 
ser. at Cienfuegos as orderly. 


HOOPER, VERNOR J. Pri 








E. & M. June 20. Spl. duty 
as nurse in R. H. Dis. Sept. 
27, '98, to acpt. rank and du- 
ties of Actg. Asst. Surg. U. 
S. A. 


JEFFERSON, EMORY R. Pri 








E. & M. Jan. 1, "99. Served 
in Co. B 1st Ga. V. I. May 
10— Nov. 18, '98. On detd. ser. 
as escort to paymaster. 


JENKINS. BENJAMIN, Pri 


R. H 
Aug. 
Feb. 
20-28. 


July 

1-5, 
12-19; 
■99. 


26-31; qtrs. 

'98. R. H. 

qtrs. Feb. 


E. & M. June 20, "98. 


KERSHNER, WALTER J. Pri 








Detd. ser. at Cienfuegos as 
orderly. 


KIELER, WM. R. Pri 


Qtrs. 


Sept. 


10-24, '98. 


En. May 8. Dis. Nov. 29, '98. 


KRAMER, FREDERICK, Pri 








En. May 8. Trans, to Co. E 
31st June 27, '98. 


LANE, GEORGE, Pri 








E. & M. June 20, '98 . 


LAWRENCE, NELSON A. Pri 


Qtrs. July 29— Aug. 8; 
Aug. 11-21, and Sept. 
12-17. '9S. D. H. Jan. 8- 
18, '99. 


Spl. duty as clerk at can- 
teen. Dis. Mar. 7. '99. 


LOYD, WALTER C. Pri 


Mar. 


Feb. 
. Mar 
15-18, 


24— Mar. 7; 
. 9-14; qtrs. 
'99. 


E. & M. Jan. 25, '99. Served 
in Co. B 1st Ga. V. I. June 
20— Nov. 18, '98. 


MacMILLAN, JAMES J. Pri 








E. & M. Jan. 12, '99. Served 
in Co. A, 1st Ga. V. I May 
f>-Nov. 18, '98. 


MAJORS, LEO H. Pri 


Qtrs. 


Dec. 


22-28, '98. 


E. & M. Dec. 14, '98. Served 




in Co. C 1st Ga. V. I: May 
14_Nov. 19, '98. 


MAT ONEY WILLI \M Pri 


Qtrs. 


Jan. 


13-20, '99. 


E. & M. Dec. 6, '98. Served 




in Co. F 2nd Penn. V. I. June 
11— Oct. S, '98. Re-enlisted 
in 19th Inf. U. S. A. Died In 
Philippines; rank of Cor- 
poral. 










Dis. Jan. 23, '99. 


■M'nTTTT'.'R'M TT.'n'TO' A RT) T, Pri 








En. May 8. Dis. Oct. 22. '98 


McINTYRE, JR., SAMUEL, Pri 


Qtrs. 


Oct. 


13-19, '98. 


E. & M. June 24. '98. 



CO. L, D. L. G.— (Continued.) 



Mcmullen, lee, Pri... 

MEYERS, PHILIP A. Pri. 



OLIVER, HOPE REGINALD, Pri. 
O'NEIL, GEO. W., Pri 



PETHERICK, WALTER J., Pri.... 
PINCKNET. COTESWORTH, Pri. 



POWELL, JOHN, Pri 

ROBERTS, HARVEY E. Pri. 



ROOD, EDWIN, Pri. 



RYAN, JR., JOHN, Pri. 



RYFF, FREDERICK P. Pri. 



SEAMAN, HERBERT W. Pri. 
SHERFF, CARL G. Pri 



SCHROEDER, ARTHUR P. Pri. 



SCOTT, EUGENE W. Pri 

SHACKELFORD, WM. A. Pri. 



SHAW, NORMAN A. Pri. 



Qtrs. Mar. 16-22, and 
Apr. 1-6, '99. 



R. H. Oct. 13-17, '£ 



R. H. Feb. 11, 



R. H. Sept. 16-18; qtrs. 
Sept. 19-20; absent sick 
from Sept. 21 to date 
of dis. 

Qtrs. Sept. 15-24, '98. 



Qtrs. Feb. 14-17, and 
Feb. 19-26, '99. 

* 



Qtrs. Apr. 3-11, '99. 

Qtrs. Sept. 8-11. R. H. 
Sept. 12-17; qtrs. Sept. 
18— Oct. 13; D. H. Oct. 
14-24; sick fur. Oct. 24 
—Nov. 23; extended to 
Dec. 23, '98. 



Qtrs. Aug-. 29— Sept. 3; 
R. H. Sept. 4-14; sick 
fur. Sept. 14— Oct. 14; 
extended to Nov. 13; 
to Dec. 13; to Jan. 12, 
and to Mar. 13, '99. 

Qtrs. Sept. 20-25 and 
Dec. 14-19, '98. 



En. May 8, '98. 

E. & M. Jan. 17, '99. Served 
in Co. L 1st Ga. V. I May 20 
—Nov. 18, '98. 

E. & M. June 20, '98. 

E. & M. Jan. 1, '99. Served 
in Co. E 1st Ala, V. I. June 
29— Oct. 31, '98. 

Spl. duty as clerk at can- 
teen. Spl. duty as clerk at R. 
Hdqtrs. 

E. & M. Dec. 20, '98. Served 
in 1st Ga. V. I. May 7— Nov. 
18, '98. Spl. duty Q. M. De- 
pot. Spl. duty R. Q. M. of- 
fice. 

En. May 17, '98. Trans from 
Co. E, 34th M. V. I. 

Co. cook, cook hdqtrs. Spl. 
duty as nurse D. H. at 
Knoxville. Trans. 2nd D. H. 
Corps. Dec. 28, '98. Later 
trans, to Hosp. Corps. U. 
S. A. 

Dis. Oct. 6, '98. 



E. & M. June 29. Trans to 
U. S. Sig. Corps. Nov. 25, '98. 

E. & M. June 20, '98. Detd. 
ser. taking prisoners to 
Sagua la Grande. 



Dis. Sept. 28, 
En. May 8, '9 



En. May 8. Dis. Oct. 25, 



E. & M. June 24, 
Mar. 28, '99. 



En. May 
ord^ly. 



552 



CO. L, D. L. G.-(Continued.) 



SHEMILD, WM. E. Pri... 
STELZER, JOHN E. Pri. 



STEWART, WM. O. Pri 

STILES, CHANNING H. Pri. 



STODDARD. EVERETT J. Pri. 
SULLIVAN, EDWARD, Pri 



SWAIN, GEO. L. Pri. 



VIZARD, EDMUND E. Pri.... 

WALKER. CHAS. W. Pri 

WAYLETT, ERNEST E. Pri. 



WEISS, JULIUS, Pri 

WELDON. NORMAN B. Pri. 



WHEATON, JR., CHARLES, Pri. 



WHELAN, MARTIN K. Pri. 

WILKENSON, GRANT, Pri. 
WILTON, ALBERT H. Pri.. 



WOBBROCK, WM. R. Pri 

WOOLFENDBN, EDWARD P. Pri. 
WOODS. JOHN, Pri 



Qtrs. Oct. 14-19, and 
Nov. 4-23, '98. 



R. H. Mar. 21— Apr. 11; 
qtrs. Apr. 12-20, '99. 



Qtrs. Sept. 9-23; Oct. 
22-27, 98, and Mar. 9-16, 



Qtrs. Dec. 19-26, '98; 
Jan. 16-23; Mar. 16-31; 
R. H. Apr. 1-11; qtrs. 
Apr. 12-20, '99. 



R. H. Jan. 5-6; D. H. 
Jan. 8, '99. 

Qtrs. Sept. 7-11. R. H. 
Sept. 17-24; D. H. Sept. 
25. Died at 2nd D. H. 
Knoxville, Oct. 4, '98. 



Qtrs. Sept. 18-20; R. H. 
Sept. 21— Oct. 3; absent 
sick from Oct. 4. Died 
at Knoxville Oct. 6, '98. 

R. H. Sept. 9-16; qtrs. 
Sept. Sept. 17— Oct. 8, 
•98; R. H. Jan. 14-25. '99. 
Post H. Jan. 26— Apr. 
26, '99. 

Qtrs. Mar. 30— Apr. 9; 
G. H. May 3— "99. 



.Qtrs. Feb. S-25. '9 



R. H. Oct. 16-19; qtrs. 
Oct. 20-23; Dec. 25. '98 
-Jan. 5, '99, and Jan. 
16-20 R. H. Jan. 25; 
Post H. Jan. 26-Feb. 
•« '99. 



E. & M. June 

26, '98. 



En. May 



E. <& M. June 20, '98. Spl. 
duty 2nd Dlv. Amb. Co. 



Trans, to Co. H 31st M. V. 
I. June 16, '98. 



E. & M. June 29, '9 



E. & M. June 18, 
cook. 



Aptd. 



En. May 8. Trans, to 2nd 
Div. H. Corps June 25. '98. 

E. & M. June 20. '98. Dis. at 
D. H. Feb. 6. '99. 



Spl. duty clerk at canteen. 



En- May 8. '98. 

Trans, to Hosp. Corps June 
13. '98. 

E. & M. June 20. '98. 



E. & M. June 20. '98. 



553 



CO. L, D. L. G. — (Continued.) 



WYNNE, HEZEKIAH B. Pri. 

YOUNG, HARRY A. Pri....... 

ZAVITZ, ANDREW W. Pri... 
ZAVITZ, MALON J. Pri 



R. H. Feb. 19-Mar. 5, 



R. H. Nov. 1-3; D. H. 
Nov. 3, '98. 

R. H. Oct. 11-13; D. H. 
Oct. 14; sick fur. Nov. 
5— Dec. 5. Qtrs. Dec. 
21-25; R. H. Dec. 26, 
'98— Jan. 6, '99. 



E. & M. Dec. 20, '98. Spl. 
duty as clerk Adjt's office. 
Dis. Apr. 11, '99. Served in 
Co. B 1st Ga. V. I. May 9- 
Nov. 8, '98. 

Spl. duty as clerk at Brig. 
Hdqtrs. Dis. Nov. 5, '98. 

B. & M. June 24, '98. Dis. 
Jan. 23, '99. 



B. & M. June 18, 
cook Dec. 1, '98. 



'98. Aptd. 



COMPANY M, THIKTY-THIRD M. V. I. 

(Co. M, D. L. G.) 

NOTE— This company was enrolled May 16th, mustered May 20th, furloughed 
home with the regiment sisty days, Sept. 4th and mustered out of service Nov. 16th, 

Portions of previous explanations and table of abbreviations are applicable to this 
record, with the following additional: 

Those who were "left at Camp Alger 6/22" were mostly recruits who arrived from 
Detroit a few days previous to embarkation for Cuba, and were not taken along 
because of a lack of equipments. They were sent to Camp Meade in Pennsylvania 
where they remained until returned to Detroit, Sept. 5th, 1898. 

The absence of complete records in some cases is due to the fact that all the com- 
pany's books and files were lost on the lighter which sank in the harbor at Santiago 
at the time of embarkation upon the "Harvard" to return to the United States. 

^^G. H." means the general hospital at Siboney, Cuba. 

"In hosp., Mon. Pt." and "sent to Mon. Pt." means that the patient was sent north 
to the hospital in the detention camp at Montauk Point, L. I., N. Y., and except where 
otherwise noted, the patient was brought on board the hospital ship "Catania." 

Explanation of additional abbreviations: 

Ag. Aguadores, Cuba. Sub. rec. Subsequent Record. 

M. F. Malarial Fever. T. F. Typhoid Fever, 

bard. Sardinaris, Cuba. Y. F. Yellow Fever 

Sib. Siboney, Cuba 



FREDERIC W. COWLEY, Capt. 
GEORGE C. WALDO, 1st Lieut. 



Qtrs. July 24; G. H. 
Aug-. 3-12. 

Injured in intrench- 
ments July 7; confined 
to qtrs five days. 



Absent at Detroit on recruit- 
ing- ser. June 8— July 1. 

In com. of Co. June 8-18. A, 
D. C. to Gen. Duffield June 
IS. Retd. to Co. June 27. In 
com. of Co. July 30— Aug. 12. 



554 



CO. M, D. L. G.- (Continued.) 



ROBERT M. KERR, 2nd Lieut 

WM. J. LAURENCE, 1st Sergt 

DANIEL W. SMITH, Q. M. Sergt.. 

WM. N. DRENNAN, Sergt 

BYRON E. DAVIS, Sergt 

CLARENCE A. DAVIS, Sergt 

CLARENCE R. CUMMINGS, Sergt 
RITPUS HATCH, Corp 

CHAS. B. MERRICK, Corp 

CLAIR R. PARRISH, Corp 

CHAS. F. RICH, Corp 

WM. J. ROWE, Corp 

WM. R. WHITTINGHAM, Corp.... 

FRANK F. FAILING, Mus 

FLOYD H. LOCKWOOD, Mus 

THEO. F. BORNMAN, Artif 

HERMAN SCHMIDT, Wagoner.... 
AGNEW, HARVEY W. Pri 

AVERY, FRANCIS, Pri 



Absent sick per certif- 
icate of Dr. Daniel 
Kerr, Detroit. 



Qtrs. Sard. Aug. 20-28— 
m. f. 

M. f., Sard. July 29; G. 
H. to Aug. 5; sent to 
Hon. Pt. Aug. 15. In 
Harper Hosp. Detroit 
till m. o. 

Qtrs. Sard. Aug. 1-20— 
m. f. 



G. H. July 27— Aug. 15— 
y. f. Sent to Mon. Pt. 
Aug. 15. In hosp. there 
till Sept. 5. 

G. H. July 27-t. m. f. 
Sent to Mon. Pt. Aug. 
15. In hosp. there to 
Sept. 5. In hosp. De- 
troit during fur. 

G. H. July 3-14— vac- 
cine poisoning. Qtrs. 
Sard. m. f. (no record 
of date). 

Qtrs. Sard Aug. 10-25— 
m. f. 



G. H. July 25— m. f. 
Sent to Mon. Pt. Aug. 
15. Sick during fur. 

Hosp. Mon. Pt. Aug. 
26-28. Fur. from hosp. 

G. H. Aug. 6— fever; 
sub. rec. missing. 

Qtrs. Sard. July 20— 
Aug. 20— m. f. 

Qtrs. Sib. in July and 
Aug. (record of dates 
missing)— m. f. ; retd. 
to duty Sept. 4. 
In hosp. Detroit during 
fur.— t. f. 



In com. of Co. June 18- 



En. May. 19. 



Re-enlisted in U. S. ser. in 
Philippines. 



E. & M. June 16. 
Sergt. July 18. 



Aptd. Corp. July 18. 

E. & M. June 22; left at 
Camp Alger June 22. 

En. May 18. 



555 



CO. M 


D. L. G. -(Continued.) 








BATTERSBY, WM. J. Pri 


G. H. Aug. 5-15; sent 
to Mon. Pt. Aug-. 15; 
fur. from hasp, tliere. 

G. H. Aug-. 5-14— y. f.; 
sent to Mon. Pt. Aug. 
15. On sick report at 
m. o. 

G. H. Aug. 4-6. 

Qtrs. Sard.; dates and 
sub. rec. missing. 

G. H. Aug. 10— fever; 
sent to Mon. Pt. Aug. 
15; in hosp. Detroit 
during fur. 

G. H. July 25-Aug. 3. 
Retd. to G. H. Aug. 4; 
sent to Mon. Pt. Aug. 
15; sub. rec. unlino-wm. 

Sick in line of duty in 
Aug.; sub: rec. missing 

Qtrs. July 20-Aug. 1; 
G. H. Aug. 2— t. f . ; sent 
to Mon. Pt. Aug. 15; in 
hosp. Detroit during 
fur. 

Qtrs. Sard, in Aug.— m. 
f.; sub. rec. unkno-wn. 


E. & M. June 16; left 
Camp Alger June 22. 

E. & M. June 16; left 
Camp Alger June 22. 

E. & M. June 16. 

En. May 19. 

E. & M. June 16; left 
Camp Alger June 22. 

E. & M. June 16. 
E. & M. June 16. 

E. & M. June 16. 

B. & M. June 16; left 
Camp Alger June 22. 

En. May 19. 

Left at Camp Alger June 
Re-enlisted in U. S. A.; si 
and killed in Philippines. 





BAUER, FREDERICK W. Pri 




BAYER, JAMES R. Pri 




BECK, PETER H. Pri 


at 
at 


BELL, RALPH E. Pri 


BEYER, F. C. H. Pri 


BLEIL, GEO. E. Pri 




BLOETSCHER, ANDREW, Pri 

BOOTH, GEO. H. Pri 




BRADY, FRANCIS J. Pri . . 


al 


BRISCOE, JOHN J. Pri 




CAROLIN, WALTER G. Pri 

CHAPMAN, THEO. L. Pri 

COLMAN, JERE J. Pri 




CRAWFORD, DAVID A. Pri 

CULLEN, FRANCIS A. Pri... 




DURYEA, HARRY A. Pri 

EHRENFRIED, AUGUST Pri 




FAY, CHAS. H. Pri 




FOSTER, LEON Z Pri 


at 

99 


GABOURIE, FREDERICK, Pri 

GOLDMAN, DAVID, Pri 




lot 



556 



CO. M, D. L. G— (Continued^ 



GOLDSTONE, FRED D. Pri. 



GOWARD, GEO. O. Pri. 



GREEN, WM. J. Pri. 



GROTH, JR., CHAS. H. Pri.. 
HAMMOND, FRANK H. Pri. 
HAMILTON, CHAS. A. Pri... 

HAVENS, JAMES A. Pri 

HAVENS, JOHN, Pri 



HATES, GEO. L. Pri 

HENNING, FREDERICK W. Pri. 



HILLMAN. LOIUS, Pri. 



HIXSON, ARTHUR, Pri. 



HOOPER, BEN J. C. Pri 

HOPKINS, WILLARD M. Pri. 



KEENAN, FRANK B. Pri. 
KENNEDY, CHAS. H. Pri. 



Qtrs. June 15-22. "Sick 
Aug. 22 in line of 
duty." In hosp. Mon. 
Pt. Aug. 25; sub. rec. 
unknown. 

Qtrs. Sard.— t. f. Fur. 
from hosp.; exact rec. 
unknown. 

G. H. Aug. 9-15-y. f.; 
sent to Mon. Pt. Aug. 
15; reptd. for duty Aug. 
28; sick at home during 
fur. 

Qtrs. Sard, in Aug.— 
exact rec. unknown. 



"Sick from June 15 to 
19 in line of duty." 

"Sick June .15 to 19 in 
line of duty;" G. H.— 
y. f. Julv 25— Aug. 15; 
Sent Mon. Pt. Aug. 15; 
in hosp. Detroit at m.o. 



Poisoned at Ag. July 
2; retd. to duty July 
10. Poisoned at Sard. 
Aug. 20. In hosp. De- 
troit during fur. 

Sick on U. S. S. "Yale" 
June 24— measles, retd. 
to duty July 12. 



E. & M. June 16. Re-enlist- 
ed in 5th Cav. U. S. A. 



En. as Sergt.; reduced at 
own request— R. O. July 18. 



B. & M. June 16; left at 
Camp Alger June 22. 



HOWLAND, ARTHUR B. Pri 

KEARNEY, GEO. F. Pri I 

KEATING, JOHN H. Pri 



E. & M. June 16; left at 
Camp Alger June 22. 



Re-enlisted in U. 
Philippines. 



ser. In 



E & M June 16; left at Camp 
A-lger June 22. Re-enlisted in 
U. S. ser. in Philippines. 



Sick on U. S. S. "Har- E. & M. June 16. 
vard." Hosp. Mon. Pt. 
Aug. 25— Sept. 2— m. f. 

"Sick June 2-22 in line 
of duty;" left at Camp 
Alger June 22. 



CO. M 

KING, ALBERT, Pri 

LATHROP. MARSHAL B. Pri 

LEACH, ALLEN H. Pri 

LINDSAY, ROBERT L. Pri 

LOWE, ARTHUR, Pri 

LTND, THOMAS A. Pri 

LYND, WM. J. Pri 

MACOIT, CHARLES, Pri 

MAIR, ALEXANDER T. Pri... 

MARQUARDT, FREDERICK E. Pri.. 

McCAHILL, ARTHUR J. Pri 

McWILLIAMS, ROYAL A. Pri 

MICHEL, HENRY C. Pri 

MILBRANDT, ADOLPH J. Pri 

MITCHELL, JAMES E. Pri 

MUNDT, EDWARD L. Pri 

MORRISON, THOMAS W. Pri 

NOONAN, EDWARD J. Pri 

PAGEL, LEWIS P. Pri 



D. L. G.— (Continued.) 



Sick en route to Ag. 
July 1 — measles; retd. 
to duty July 18. 

G. H. July 17— t. f.; 
sent to U. S. on hosp. 
ship "Santiago;" fur. 
from Governor's Island 
Aug. 13. 

G. H. Aug. 4; sent to 
U. S. and fur. from 
hosp. 



Qtrs. Sard. Aug. 10-17 
— t. m. f. 



Injured at Sib. June 28; 
in G. H.; sent to U. S. 
on hosp. ship "Berk- 
shire;" fur. from hosp. 

In hosp. Ft. Meyer, 
Va. Aug. 16— badly in- 
jured and fractured 
rib; fur. from hosp. 



Qtrs. Sard, dates un- 
known. 



Injured June 10, Camp 
Alger; retd. to duty in 
Cuba July 1. Sick on 
"Harvard" — m. f. ; in 
hosp. Detroit at m. o. 

Sick at Sard. Aug. 15 
— m. f. 

Qtrs. Sard. Aug. 16-19 
— m. f. 

Qtrs. Sard. Aug. 14-25— 
m. f. 



E. & M. June 16; left at Camp 
Alger June 22. 



Re-enlisted in U. S. ser. la 
Philippines. 



E. & M. June 16; left at Camp 
Alger June 22. 



En. May IS. Re-enlisted In 
7th Inf. U. S. A. 



E. & M. June 16. 



B. & M. June 16; left at Camp 
Alger June 22. 



E. & M. June 16; left at Camp 
Alger June 22. Re-enlisted in 
U. S. ser. in Philippines. 

E. & M. June 16; left at Camp 
Alger June 22. Re-enlisted in 
U. S. ser. in Philippines. 

En. May 18. Re-enlisted In 
U. S. ser. in Philippines. 



Re-enlisted in U. S. ser. in 
Philippines. 



E. & M. June 16. 



E;. & M. June 16; left at Camp 
Alger June 22. 



558 



CO. M, D. L. G.-(Coutinued.) 



PASSMORE, FLOYD W. Pri. 



PAULINE, JOHN G. Pri. 



PEARSON, HARRY J. Pri. 



PPEIFFER, HENRY, Pri... 

RABIDOUX, JEDDIE E. Pri 
RAYMOND, ARTHUR. Pri. 

REARDON, JOHN H. Pri... 



ROBINSON. ALEXANDER, Pri. 
ROCKEY, BERTRAM C, Pri 



SCHMIDT, WM. A. Pri.. 
SHARPE, GEO. W. Pri. 
SIMPSON, H. J. W. Pri 



SMITH, JOHN H. Pri. 



SPICKETT, CLARENCE R. Pri. 
SPEIER, JACOB A. Pri 



Qtrs. Sard. Aug. 15-25— 
m. f.; sick on "Har- 
card" to Mon. Pt. Aug. 
26; fur. from hosp. 

Qtrs. July 22-28— scald- 
ed hand. Qtrs. Sard. 
Aug. 1-10 — sunstroke 
and m. f. 

G. H. Aug. G; sent to 
Mon. Pt. Aug. 15; fur. 
from hosp. In hosp. 
Detroit during fur.— t.f. 

Qtrs. Sard.— m. f. (no 
rec. of date). 



Dis. on surg's certif. 
of disability July 27. 

G. H. Aug. 4— fever and 
throat trouble; sent to 
U. S. and fur. from 
hosp. "Protest on ne- 
glect of Pri. Reardon 
in G. H. at Sib." 

Qtrs. Sard.— m. f. (no 
rec .of dates). 

Dis. on surg's certif. 
of disability— date un- 
known. Died in De- 
troit 1S9S. 



Hosp. Island Lake. 
May 24-26 — poisoned 
hand; qtrs. June 8-12— 
same illness. Qtrs. Sib. 
July 16-20— poisoned by 
oak. Sent to Mon. Pt. 
Aug. 31 — pneumonia; in 
hosp. Detroit during 
fur. 

G. H. July 9-31— vac- 
cine poisoning. Qtrs. 
Sard. Aug. 6— m. f. ; in 
hosp. Detroit during 
fur. 



G. H. July 12— fever 
and strained back; sent 
to Mon. Pt. Aug. 15; in 
hosp. Detroit during 
fur. 



En. May 17. 



En. May 19. 



En. May 18. Trans to hosp. 
corps June 17. 



Re-enlisted in U. S. Navy. 



E. & M. June 16; left at Camp 
.\lger June 22. 



CO. M 
SUTHERLAND, EGBERT D. PrI 

SWART, EDWARD D. Pri 

TOBIN. FRANK P. Pri 

TREBEIN, CARL G. Pri 

VAN VLIET, JACOB, Pri 

VENARD, STEPHEN M. Pri 

VETH, GEO. J. Pri 

WHALEN, WILLL^M, Pri 

WILSON, JOHN P. Pri 

WINSTANLEY, N. E. Pri 

YODER, COMMODORE V. Pri 

YOKOM, ORMAN J. Pri 



D. L. G.— (Continued.) 



G. H.— m. f. (date un- 
known). 

Hosp. Island Lake May 
25 — June 9; sub. rec. un- 
known. Reptd. Nov. 4. 



Qtrs. Sard. — m. f. and 
scorpion bite (date un- 
known). 



Qtrs. Sard. Aug. 10— m. 
f. ; sub. rec. unknown. 



Qtrs. Sard. July 19; 
sub. rec. unknown. 



E. & M. June 16. Detd. as 
3urg. on Santiago trail July 
L8, acting as such till fur. 
Sept. 5. 



E. & M. June 16. 



560 



FIELD AND STAFF, 
FIRST REGT. INF. M. N. G. 



Headquarters, Detroit Light Guard Armory. 



Col. Charles W. Harrah Detroit 

Lieut. Col. John P. Kirk Ypsilanti 

Maj. Thomas H. Reynolds Detroit 

Maj. William H. Sink Detroit 

Maj. Ross Granger Ann Arbor 

Maj. Martin L. Belser, Surgeon Ann Arbor 

Capt. Allan D. McLean, Asst. Surgeon Detroit 

Capt. Elbridge W. White, Chaplain Jackson 

Capt. Frederick L. Abel, Adjutant Detroit 

Capt. George A. Dick, R. Q. M Detroit 

First Lieut. Julius F. Henkel, Asst. Surgeon Detroit 

First Lieut. Isaac C. Godfrey, Commissary Monroe 

First Lieut. Frank J. Cook, Adjt. 1st Battalion. . Detroit 
First Lieut. Paul E. Muff at, Adjt. 2nd Battalion. Detroit 
First Lieut. Harry U. Kies, Adjt. 3rd Battalion. Tecumseh 

NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. 

Sergt. Maj. Sanford Hunt Jackson 

Q. M. Sergt. John A. Falvey Detroit 

Com. Sergt. Harry T. Colliau Detroit 

Sergt. Maj., 1st Battalion, Conrad Dietle Detroit 

Sergt. Maj. 2nd Battalion, John C. Evans Detroit 

Sergt. Maj. 3rd Battalion, Duncan H. Bradbeer. Port Huron 

Hospital Steward, John Neuman Detroit 

Hospital Steward, Henry M. Lamb. Detroit 

Hospital Steward, F. J. McDaniels Port Huron 



661 



Feb. 23, 


1900 


Feb. 23, 


1900 


June 28, 


1895 


Feb. 23, 


1900 


Feb. 23, 


1900 


May 23, 


1900 


May 23, 


1900 


May 9, 


1898 


May 23, 


1900 


May 23, 


1900 


May 23. 


1900 


May 23, 


1900 


May 23, 


1900 


May 23. 


1900 


May 23, 


1900 


Oct. 9, 


1894 


May 25, 


1900 


June 8, 


1900 


May 25, 


1900 


May 25, 


1900 


May 25. 


1900 


June 8, 


1900 


June 8. 


1900 


June 8, 


1900 



DETKOIT LIGHT GUARD BAND. 

Mustered in the First Regt. Inf., M. N. G., June 12th, 1900. 



H. LIBBERMAN, President. 

C. E. CHENE, Vice-President. 

H. W. SCHMEMANN, Treasurer. 

CLAUDE H. LONG, Secretary. 



WM. P. HAYSTEAD, Librarian. 



W. C. SMITH, Director. 



HARRY A. ALGER 

F. W. DETTY 

O. H. EBERHARDT 

W. H. EBERHARDT 

EDWIN J. GOLDBURG 

ROGER GREEN 

C. W. HATT 

L. R. HEAVNER 

F. H. HEBERT 

A. L. KLEIN 



GEO. F. KLEIN 
J. F. KOLTZ 
HARRY LAWSON 
H. L. LITTLEFIELD 
JOHN McCURDY 
GEO. H. PALMERLEE 
MAX. SMITH 
W. C. SUTTON 
B. S. TOMLINSON 
W. P. WARREN 
J. B. WARTON 



562 



COMPANY A, D. L. G. 
COMPANY A, FIRST REGT. INF., M. N. G. 



Captain WALTER G. ROGERS 

First Lieut VICTOR M. DUMAS 

Second Lieut GEORGE BARGER 

SERGEANTS. 
First Sergt., GEO. R. WOOLFENDEN. 

Quartermaster Sergt STEPHEN R. RENTON 

Commissary Sergt EARL J. HOWES 

CHAS. L. DIBBLE THEO. L. SMITH 

H. M. GILLETTE 



CORPORAI^S. 



RICHARD A. HOUGHTON 
ELLERY D. PRESTON 
JAY J. DELBRIDGE 
GEO. W. PARKER 
WM. J. EGAN 



Musician 



GORDON M. EDDINGTON 
ROY LOGAN 
CHAS. E. DOHANY 
WALTER F. CLOWES 

WM. T. SMITH 
, BDSON M. STEWARD 



PRIVATES. 



ABRAHAM, WM H. 
ALDRICH, FRANK M. 
BAKER, ROY A. 
BARTELS, WILLIAM 
BRIGGS, CHAS. G. 
BROWN, GEO. W. 
BRUCE, JAMES H. 
BURNS, F. 
CARROLL, JAMES M. 
CONWAY, JOSEPH W. 
CUTTING, WM. R. 
DICKINSON. P. C. 
DIEDRICH, FRANK S. 
DORLAND, JOHN A. 
DRUMMOND, CHAS. A. 
DUTTON, J. R. 
GRAY, EDWARD C. 
HAMPTON, ARTHUR S. 
HILDINGER, HERMAN 
IRONSIDE, G. W. 
KEENAN, E. L. 
MADAY, ALBERT 



MILLER, HUGH 
MINIHAN, DANIEL J. 
MURPHY, WILLIAM 
NICOL, GRANT C. 
OLK, JOHN 
PAYE, GEO. C. 
PHALEN, JOHN F. 
POTTER, FRANK 
ROSMER, FRANK A. 
ROUTHIER, A. P. 
SAUNDERS, JOSEPH 
SHAUNE3SY. GEO. H. 
SMITH. HERBERT P. 
SMITH, WALTER R. 
SPILLANE, JOHN H. 
TAYLOR. HOWARD H. 
UNDERWOOD. D. F. 
VERMETTE, JOSEPH E. 
WAGNER, ALBERT 
WELZ, GEO. P. 
WILLOWS, MAURICE 
YOUNG, WM. L. 



563 



COMPANY B, D. L. G. 
COMPANY B, PIRST REGT. INF., M. N. G. 



Captain HENRY W. BUSCH 

First Lieut EDWARD T. CLARK 

Second Lieut H. RALPH LORD 

SERGEANTS. 
First Sergt., ANDREW J. MALLOY. 

Commissary Sergt LOUIS P. MUFF AT 

Quartermaster Sergt EUGENE VAN SICKLE 

WM. M. WATSON . BERT L. KRESS 

CHAS. B. HITCHCOCK CHAS. M. DUGGAN 

CORPORALS. 
WILLIAM JONES CHARLES GILLESPIE 

ISAAC VAN SICKLE ERNEST A. McLEAN 

FRED E. AXT E. J. ROBINSON 

ROBERT MOUAT FRANK McEVOY 

PRIVATES. 

ANDRICH, LOUIS KING, JOHN W. 

ARMITAGE, JAMES H. McDOUGALL, JAMES 

AYERS, LOUIS M. McMANUS, JOHN H. 

BARNESKY, EMIL McQUEEN, ARTHUR 

BELL, WILLIAM MERRILL, CLAUDE V. 

BRIDEL, JOHN MILLER, STANLEY 

BREWER, FREDERICK MOORE, GEORGE 

BRIGHT, LOUIS NAGORSEN, HERMAN 

BROW, HENRY J. NEWMAN, THEODORE 

CAMPBELL, CHARLES NOLDE, ANTHONY R. 

CASEY, FRANK O'BRIEN, EDWARD 

COGSWELL, BERT M. O'HARA, GEO. R. 

CONLIFFE, GEO. H. PATTERSON, IRWIN 

DILLOWAY, WM. T. RADCLIFFE, JOHN 

DINGEMAN, HENRY REAMEY, ALVAH 

DONNELLY, JAMES J. REED, GEORGE 

ELDERT WILLIAM RICHARDS, EDWARD 

FINLAY, ROBERT ROBERTS. ALEXANDER B. 

FOGERTY, EDWARD ROCHFORD, EUGENE 

GAINBY, GEORGE J. SCARFF, DUDLEY C. 

GOULD, C. J. SINK, CHAS A. 

GOWARD, NELSON STEELE, FRED W. 

GOWARD, WILLIAM SULLIVAN, ERNEST T. 

HAMILTON, ROBERT J. TUGGEY, FRANK H. 

HARTNESS, WALTER VISGER BYRON 

KATOR, WEBSTER VOLLBRECHT, FREDK. A. 

KERNS, HARLEY R. WYNKOOP, DAVID H. 

564 



COMPANY H, D. L. 0. 
COMPANY H, FIRST REGT. INF., M. N. G. 



Captain JOHN S. BERSEY 

First Lieut EMIL A. LAURENCE 

Second Lieut VALENTINE R. EVANS 

SERGEANTS. 
First Sergt., ALMA LAKE. 

Quartermaster Sergt STARR A. VOGHT 

Commissary Sergt JAMES GILBOY 

WM. H. THOMSON WM. B. WILBUR 

JOSEPH M. HUGHES EDWARD P. WOOLFENDEN 

CORPORALS. 
WALTER MURRAY HUGH BRADY 

MARTIN K. WHELAN ARTHUR P. SCHROEDER 

HERBERT W. SEAMAN WM. A. SHACKELFORD 

PERCY P. DAGG 

Musician HERMANN BONKE 

CLYDE M. WEBSTER 

PRIVATES. 

ABBOTT, DUDLEY W. LANG, WM. E. H. 

BIRD, WM. H. MANLEY, EDWARD A. 

BLANDON, CLARENCE G. McCANN, JAMES J. 

BRADSTREET, ROY C. McKENNEY, HAROLD B. 

CARSON, ARTHUR W. McMANN, ARCHIE G. 

CLARK, HARRY O. PETHERICK, WALTER J. 

COATES, JOHN W. RENTSCHLER, ANDREW 

COURTNEY, GEO. H. RINSHED, FRED W. F. 

DAKIN, FRANK W. SCHMADEBECK, JOHN C. 

EDWARDS, FRED R. SHAFER, HARTLEY 

GALL, ARTHUR K. SHEMILD. WM. E. 

GUTCHESS, HARRY L. TAYLOR, GEO. A. 

GUTH, FREDERICK W. THURSTON, ELMER S. 

HILDEBRAND, GEO. L. TURRILL, ELMER H. 

HINKLEY, BARTLETT TURRILL, FRED W. 

HOGG, WM. S. TOWN. ALBERT A. 

HOPE, WALTER VINCENT, BERT R. 
JASNOWSKI, JR.. PHILLIP WIDRIG. ROBERT J. 

KENNEDY, VERSEY S. WHEATON. JR., CHARLES 

KRAUSMANN, AUGUST P. WOODS, JOHN 

LAKE, CLARENCE WENZEL, PAUL 



565 



COMPAI^Y M, D. L. G. 

(Independent.) 



Captain GEORGE C. WALDO 

First Lieut WM. J. LAURENCE 

Second Lieut DANIEL W. SMITH 

SERGEANTS. 
First Sergt., CLARENCE R. CUMMINGS. 

Quartermaster Sergt FRED H. REISBNER 

FRANCIS J. BRADY WM. L. DWYER 

GEO. E. BLEIL N. E. WINSTANLEY 

CORPORALS. 
JAMES A. HAVENS FRANCIS AVERY 

CHAS. F. RICH GEO. F. PULFORD 

Musician CHARLES PULFORD 

PRIVATES. 

ARNDT, O. McKINNEY, DAVID 

BECK, R. McLEOD, JOHN 

BEHNKE, EDWARD MILLIGAN, JOHN J. 

BERMAN, JULIUS MOYLAN, FRANK E. 

BOHN, C. E. MOYLAN, WILLIAM 

BOURKE, RICHARD PATTERSON, CHAS. B. 

DAVISON, HAROLD REED, W. H. 

EPSTEIN, GEORGE ROBINSON, W. C. 
FANNING, WILLOUGHBY SCHULER, WILLIAM 

FARRIS, WILLIAM 3H0RK, JOHN B. 

FAY, CHAS. H. SHUERT, WILLIAM 

FOSTER, LEON Z. SMITH, M. H. 

FRIEND, WM. H. SOBER, GEO. A. 

HARMER, JOHN STANTON, CLAUDE 

HOFFMAN, ALVIN STERLING, JAY 

HUNTER, WM. J. TAYLOR, JOSEPH 

KEBNAN, EDWARD TOBIN, FRANK P. 

LANGER, FRANK WETHEY, J. H. 

LAREAU, H. WOOLLEY, GEO. D. 

LAVIGNE, FRANK YODER, COMMODORE V. 

LYON, DUNCAN YOUNG, WM. D. 

McBREARTY, WALTER J. ZART, JOHN 

McCABB, JOHN P. ZINK, SYLVESTER 



566